Military Review

By the 435 anniversary of the beginning (1581) of the Siberian campaign of Ermak

31
Ermak Timofeevich - is perhaps one of the mysterious personalities in stories. His biographical data are not known for certain, as are the circumstances of the campaign he led to Siberia. They serve as material for many mutually exclusive hypotheses, but there are also generally accepted facts about Ermak’s biography, and such moments of the Siberian campaign as the majority of researchers do not have any fundamental differences. The history of the Siberian campaign of Yermak was occupied by the major pre-revolutionary scientists N.M. Karamzin, S.M. Soloviev, N.I. Kostomarov, S.F. Platonov. The main source on the history of the conquest of Siberia by Yermak is the Siberian chronicles (Stroganov, Esipovskaya, Pogodinskaya, Kungurskaya and some others), carefully studied in the works of G.F. Miller, PI Nebolsina, A.V. Oxenova, P.M. Golovacheva S.V. Bakhrushin, A.A. Vvedensky and other prominent scientists.


The question of the origin of Ermak is controversial. Some researchers deduce Yermak from the Perm fiefdoms of the Stroganov salt-miners, others from Totemsky district. G.E. Katanaev assumed that at the beginning of the 80's. XVI century at the same time acted three Ermak. However, these versions look unreliable. At the same time, the patronymic Yermak - Timofeevich is known for sure, “Yermak” can be a nickname, a contraction, or a distortion of such Christian names as Yermolai, Yermil, Yermey, etc., or maybe an independent pagan name.

There is very little evidence on the life of Yermak before the Siberian campaign. Yermak was also credited with participation in the Livonian War, robbery and robbery of the royal and merchant ships passing along the Volga, but reliable evidence of this was also not preserved.

The beginning of the campaign of Yermak to Siberia is also the subject of numerous disputes of historians, which is conducted mainly around two dates - September 1 of 1581 and 1582. Supporters of the campaign began in 1581 were S.V. Bakhrushin, A.I. Andreev, A.A. Vvedensky, in 1582 - N.I. Kostomarov, N.V. Shlyakov, G.E. Katanaev. The most reasonable date is considered to be 1 September 1581.


The scheme of the Siberian campaign Ermak. 1581 - 1585

A completely different point of view was expressed by V.I. Sergeyev, according to whom, Yermak set out on an expedition already in September of 1578. At first, he descended on Struga down the river. Kame, climbed its tributary r. Sylve, then returned and wintered near the mouth of the river. Chusovoy. Swimming on the river. Sylve and wintering on the river. Chusovoy were a kind of training, which gave the ataman the opportunity to rally and test the squad, to accustom her to actions in new, difficult conditions for the Cossacks.

Russian people tried to conquer Siberia long before Ermak. So in 1483 and 1499. Ivan III sent military expeditions there, but the harsh land remained unexplored. The territory of Siberia of the XVI century was extensive, but at the same time it was little populated. The main occupations of the population were cattle breeding, hunting, and fishing. Somewhere along the banks of the rivers, the first centers of agriculture appeared. The state with the center in Isker (Kashlyk — in different sources is called differently) united several indigenous peoples of Siberia: the Samoyeds, the Ostyaks, the Voguls, and all of them were ruled by the “fragments” of the Golden Horde. Khan Kuchum from the Sheibanids clan, who ascended to Genghis Khan himself, seized the Siberian throne in 1563 and headed for ousting the Russians from the Urals.

In 60-70-ies. In the 16th century, the Stroganov merchants, industrialists and landowners received from Tsar Ivan Vasilyevich the Terrible possession in the Urals, and they were also given the right to hire military people in order to prevent Kuchumites from attacking. The Stroganovs invited a detachment of free Cossacks led by Ermak Timofeevich. At the end of 70-x - the beginning of 80-x. In the 16th century, the Cossacks went up the Volga to the Kama, where they were met by the Stroganovs in Kredin (Oryol-Gorodok). The number of squad Ermak, arrived at the Stroganovs, was 540 people.

By the 435 anniversary of the beginning (1581) of the Siberian campaign of Ermak

Hike Ermak. Artist K. Lebedev. 1907

Before the campaign, the Stroganovs supplied Yermak and his warriors with everything they needed, starting with gunpowder and ending with flour. Stroganov shops were the basis of the material base squad Ermak. By the march to the Cossack ataman, the Stroganovs were dressed up. The squad was divided into five regiments, headed by the elected captain. The regiment was divided into hundreds, those, in turn, into fifty and dozens. The brigade had regimental clerks, trumpeters, surnachy, tubers and drummers. There were also three priests and a runaway monk who sent liturgical rites.

In the army Ermak reigned the strictest discipline. He ordered that no one, “through fornication, or other sinful deeds, incurred the wrath of God,” who violated this rule, was put in prison for three days “in iron.” In the squad of Ermak, following the example of the Don Cossacks, severe punishments were laid for disobedience to the heads and escape.

Having gone hiking, the Cossacks on pp. Chusovoy and Serebryanka crossed the path to the Ural Mountains, further from r. Serebryanka to r. Tagil walked through the mountains. The passage of Yermak through the Ural range was not easy. Each plow could lift up a man with a load to 20. Struga greater carrying capacity on small mountain rivers could not be used.

Next Ermak swam on p. Barancha, and then moved down the river. Tagil, after - on r. Tour The Cossacks successfully repelled the attacks of Kuchum and captured a number of Siberian cities.

The onset of Ermak on the river. The tour forced Kuchum to gather his strength as much as possible. The chronicles do not give an exact answer to the question about the number of troops, they only report on the "great multitude of the enemy." A.A. Vvedensky wrote that the total number of subjects of the Siberian khan was approximately 30 700 people. Mobilizing all men capable of wearing weapon, Kuchum could expose more than 10-15 thousand soldiers. Thus, he had multiple numerical superiority.

Simultaneously with the collection of troops Kuchum ordered to strengthen the capital of the Siberian Khanate Isker. The main forces of the Kuchumov cavalry under the command of his nephew Tsarevich Mametkul were advanced to meet Yermak, flotilla which by August 1582, and according to some researchers, no later than in the summer of 1581, reached the confluence of the river. Tours in the river Tobol. An attempt to detain the Cossacks near the mouth of the river. Tours failed. Cossack plows entered the river. Tobol and began to descend along its course. Several times Yermak had to land and attack the Kuchumlans. Then there was a major bloody battle near the Babasanovsky Yurts.


Promotion of Ermak on the Siberian rivers. Drawing and text to the "History of Siberian" S. Remezov. 1689

Fights on the river. Tobol showed the advantages of Ermak’s tactics over the enemy’s tactics. The basis of this tactic was fire attack and combat on foot. The salvos of Cossack pischals inflicted considerable damage on the enemy. However, do not exaggerate the value of firearms. From the food of the end of the XVI century, one shot could be made in 2-3 minutes. Kuchumlyane mostly were not armed with firearms, but they were familiar. However, the fight on foot was Kuchum's weak side. Entering into a clash with the crowd, in the absence of any military arrangements, Kuchum residents suffered defeat after defeat, despite considerable superiority in manpower. Thus, the successes of Ermak were achieved by combining the fire of squeals and hand-to-hand combat with the use of cold weapons.

After Ermak left p. Tobol and began to climb up the river. Tavda, which, according to some researchers, was done with the aim of separation from the enemy, respite, and search for allies before the decisive battle for Isker. Climbing up the river. Tavda approximately 150-200 versts, Ermak made a stop and returned to r. Tobol. On the way to Isker, he was taken. Karachin and Atik. Having established itself in Karachin, Yermak found itself on the immediate approaches to the capital of the Siberian Khanate.

Before the storming of the capital, Yermak, according to the chronicle sources, gathered a circle where the likely outcome of the upcoming battle was discussed. Supporters of the retreat pointed to the many Kuchumlian and small number of Russians, but the opinion of Ermak was the need to take Isker. In his decision, he was firm and supported by many of his associates. In October, 1582, the city of Ermak, launched an assault on the fortifications of the Siberian capital. The first assault was crowned with failure; about October 23 Yermak struck again, but the Kuchumlians beat off the assault and made a sally, which turned out to be disastrous for them. The battle under the walls of Isker once again showed the advantages of the Russians in hand-to-hand combat. Khan's army was defeated, Kuchum fled from the capital. October 26 1582 Yermak and his team entered the city. The capture of Isker was the pinnacle of Yermak's success. Indigenous Siberian peoples expressed readiness for an alliance with the Russians.


Conquest of Siberia by Yermak. Artist V. Surikov. 1895

After the capture of the capital of the Siberian Khanate, the main opponent of Ermak remained Tsarevich Mametkul, who, having quite good cavalry, made raids on small Cossack groups, which constantly disturbed Ermak's team. In November-December 1582, the prince destroyed the Cossack detachment, who went fishing. Yermak was struck back, Mametkul ran, but after three months he reappeared in the vicinity of Isker. In February, 1583, Mr. Yermaku, was informed that the prince’s camp was divided into r. Wag in 100 versts from the capital. Ataman immediately sent there the Cossacks who attacked the army and captured the prince.

In the spring of 1583, the Cossacks made several trips along the Irtysh and its tributaries. The most distant was a trip to the mouth of the river. The Cossacks on Strug reached the city of Nazym - a fortified town on the river. Ob, and took it. The battle near Nazim was one of the bloodiest.

Losses in battles forced Yermak to send messengers for reinforcements. As evidence of the fruitfulness of his actions during the Siberian campaign, Yermak sent Ivan IV a captive prince and furs.

Winter and summer 1584 passed without major battles. Kuchum was not active, as he was restless inside the horde. Ermak coast of his army and was waiting for reinforcements. The reinforcements arrived in the fall of 1584. They were 500 warriors sent from Moscow under the command of voivode S. Bolkhovsky, not supplied with any ammunition or food. Ermak was put in a difficult position, because hardly prepared the necessary supplies for his people. Hunger began in Isker. People died, S. Bolkhovsky himself died. The situation was somewhat improved by the local residents, who supplied the Cossacks with food from their stocks.

The chronicles do not give the exact number of casualties to the troops of Yermak, however, according to some data, by the time of the death of the chieftain, his squad remained 150 people. The position of Ermak was complicated by the fact that in the spring of 1585, the city of Isker was surrounded by enemy cavalry. However, the blockade was lifted thanks to Yermak’s decisive blow to the enemy’s rate. The liquidation of Isker's entourage was the last combat feat of the Cossack chieftain. Ermak Timofeevich died in the waters of the river. Irtysh during a campaign against Kuchum 6 August 1585 troops that appeared nearby

Summing up, it should be noted that the tactics of the Ermak squad was based on the rich military experience of the Cossacks, accumulated over many decades. Hand-to-hand combat, accurate shooting, strong defense, maneuverability of the squad, the use of the terrain - the most characteristic features of Russian military art of the XVI - XVII centuries. To this, of course, should be added the ability of the ataman Ermak to maintain rigid discipline within the squad. These skills and tactical skills to the greatest extent contributed to the conquest of rich Siberian expanses by Russian soldiers. After the death of Ermak, the governors in Siberia, as a rule, continued to adhere to his tactics.


Monument to Yermak Timofeevich in Novocherkassk. Sculptor V. Beklemishev. Opened 6 May 1904

The accession of Siberia was of great political and economic importance. Up to 80's XVI century "Siberian theme" is practically not mentioned in diplomatic documents. However, as Ivan IV received information about the results of Ermak's campaign, she took a firm place in diplomatic documentation. Already by 1584, the documents contain a detailed description of the relationship with the Siberian Khanate, which includes a summary of the main events - the military operations of the ataman Yermak against the troops of Kuchum.

In the middle of 80's. In the 16th century, the colonization flows of the Russian peasantry gradually moved to explore the vast expanses of Siberia, and the fortress built in 1586 and 1587 were not only important strongholds for fighting the Kuchumlians, but also the foundation of the first settlements of Russian grain-growers. The governors sent by the Russian tsars to the harsh in all respects Siberian region could not cope with the remnants of the horde and achieve the conquest of this fertile and politically important region for Russia. However, thanks to the martial art of the Cossack ataman Yermak Timofeevich, already in the 90-s. In the 16th century, Western Siberia was incorporated into Russia.
Author:
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http://encyclopedia.mil.ru/encyclopedia/history/[email protected]
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  1. Cartalon
    Cartalon 27 November 2016 20: 30
    +6
    Good article, now Fomenkovtsy and great Tatar people will give heat.
    1. Cat
      Cat 27 November 2016 22: 24
      12
      I don't know about Fomenko-Nosovtsy? And the Ural and Tyumen Tatars in their legends remember Ermak as a living legend (a demigod) who handed over Siberia into the hands of the white king. I even witnessed a scientific dispute during a round table about who Ermak was - a Tatar or a Bashkir. Assistant professors have already begun to try on each other's beards. On the arguments of the majority, that if Timofeevich, then Russian. We united and drove our majority under the bench. Moreover, scientific arguments without hands. Although my neighbor for a joke that Yermak is a "Jew," shook him in the ear from his scientific advisor.
      1. redeemer
        redeemer 27 November 2016 22: 46
        +4
        maybe it’s worth not believing the old pieces of paper, but material facts? and from them it turns out that all official history, even modern, is complete nonsense. and you, like fools with a written bag, rush ...
        1. Cat
          Cat 27 November 2016 22: 57
          +1
          What material facts !!!? laughing
      2. Rivares
        Rivares 28 November 2016 00: 29
        +2
        Quote: Kotischa
        And the Ural and Tyumen Tatars in their tales recall Yermak as a living legend

        But the Tyumen "Tatars" before the renaming of the 1930s for some reason called themselves the Volga Bulgars.
        1. Cat
          Cat 28 November 2016 04: 50
          0
          It's not so simple!
          The ethnos, which is now called "Tyumen or West Siberian Tatars" includes several waves of formation of the ethnos. Indigenous inhabitants (nobility) - the first wave of expansion from Bulgaria - the second wave of expansion from the Tatar-Mongols of Chigiskhan and Batu, the third wave from the Tatars who came with Kuchum without a permanent steppe and northern mixir (from Bashkirs, Voguls and Ostyaks). Moreover, the first and third waves were insignificant in order to change the mentality and language, and the mixes are constant!
      3. V.ic
        V.ic 28 November 2016 06: 29
        0
        Quote: Kotischa
        and drove our majority under the bench.

        Does this mean that N.M. Karamzin was mistaken in citing the name Olenev in the History of the Russian State?
      4. V.ic
        V.ic 29 November 2016 06: 19
        +1
        Quote: Kotischa
        who was Ermak - Tatar or Bashkir.

        By the way, in Bashkiria there is Ermekeevsky district, located near the Belebeyevsky district, closer to the border with Tatarstan. In tune, is not it?
    2. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 28 November 2016 10: 57
      +7
      Quote: Cartalon
      Good article, now Fomenkovtsy and great Tatar people will give heat.

      I am not a Fomenkovets and certainly not the Great Tatars, but I will not applaud frank hack. What is this article good about and what new knowledge does it personally give you?
      I like the color pictures and their quality and relevance noted, but ...
      Primary source: website of the RF Ministry of Defense, section - Encyclopedia. It was written unknown when, author: Maria Konevskaya, junior researcher at the Research Institute of Military History of the Military Academy of the General Staff of the RF Armed Forces. With such a resounding position, such a quality material. Well, okay, the link to the mason Karamzin and the Russophobe Kostomarov endured, but "carefully researched in the works of GF Miller," this is how to endure? An authoritative historian, whom Lomonosov slapped in the face for slandering our history, on the website of the Ministry of Defense in authorities. Well, Miller brought a suitcase of "extracts from primary sources" from the expedition, and he messed them up. He did not really know the Russian language, but to read handwritten texts, but to understand ... Nonsense. Yes, and there was a social order, under Ivan the Terrible there was only one game. The bandit gang won Siberia, oh, how. It turns out the savages were lying under a palm tree and a pineapple fell on their head (pineapple is a grass, I know, but it's more interesting). Historians, I can't see any further than my nose, even if they asked L. Gumilyov.
      1. Cat
        Cat 28 November 2016 17: 45
        +1
        I applaud with all paws, bis, bravissimo !!! Nothing to add a point!
      2. V.ic
        V.ic 28 November 2016 18: 29
        +2
        Quote: Mavrikiy
        if only L. Gumilyov was asked.

        I agree! It is advisable to read Lev Nikolaevich in a book version, with a pencil in hand, having some knowledge of history, and these "dashing" "foreign lads" did not open anything except "SpeedInfo" and the State Department manuals. But the aplomb of ten Obamas combined!
        1. ando_bor
          ando_bor 28 November 2016 20: 58
          +2
          I began to understand Lev Nikolaevich when I didn’t just read and received a lot of knowledge on history, and when the Great Steppe came from Drava and Morava, Danube, Dniester, Dnieper, Kuban, Don, Volga, Urals to Selenga and Amur, and in width from the south mountains to the northern seas, with an understanding of the nature and life of the local population.
  2. multipulti
    multipulti 27 November 2016 20: 46
    +1
    An interesting article, who were older at school! but Siberia was conquered, or annexed! But as soon as they argue, Catherine hired contract soldiers and sent their lands to fight! But what happened happened!
    1. captain
      captain 28 November 2016 08: 57
      +2
      Thanks to the Cossacks for Siberia, Transbaikalia and the Far East. Thank you to these amazing people for the riches they gave us.
    2. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 28 November 2016 11: 01
      +1
      Quote: multipulti
      An interesting article, who were older at school! but Siberia was conquered, or annexed! But as soon as they argue, Catherine hired contract soldiers and sent their lands to fight! But what happened happened!

      You are lucky, now they probably do not pass. Who knows, now Yermak is in the school curriculum? They can easily withdraw, there are not enough hours for sex education.
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 27 November 2016 20: 48
    +6
    Russian Columbus - Ermak, Khabarov, Dezhnev ...
  4. Cat
    Cat 27 November 2016 20: 52
    +6
    Yermak was also credited with participating in the Livonian War, robbery and robbery of royal and merchant ships passing along the Volga, but reliable evidence of this was also not preserved.


    Skrytnikov has references to documents that in the last years of the Livonian War, Yermak headed the ship's army from the Volga Cossacks. About robbery on the Volga, in the "complaint" the Strogonovs directly point to Ivan Koltso, who beat the Nogai on the Yaik, and pinched the merchants on the Volga. More likely he joined Ermak at the mouth of the Kama.
    Before the campaign, the Stroganovs supplied Yermak and his retainers with everything necessary, from gunpowder to flour.

    According to the recollections of the Cossacks themselves, Ermak Timofeevich took supplies by force and against the will of the Strogonovs. The Strogonovs, on the contrary, tried to orient Yermak to Oryol-town and other Kama cities, which were besieged by Mametkul with the Pelymsky princes. But Yermak chose to go on a deep raid for zipuns to Siberia.
    The squad was divided into five regiments led by elected Yesauls. The regiment was divided into hundreds, those, in turn, by fifty and tens.


    Even in the Tobolsk Chronicle, Ermak had three thousand Cossacks, they went to Siberia for three years, and each year they fought three general battles with sparkling bronze helmets and shields. Everything was easier in the squad of Ermak was no more than 750 people: Cossacks and hunters. Where are five regiments of 500 people? In the Urals, in 1580, no more than 5 Russian people lived, with wives, children and the elderly. More likely, there were two chieftains Yermak and Ivan Ring, five Yesaul (centurions) and 000 Subaul (half-hundred).
    Going on a campaign, the Cossacks on the river. Chusova and Serebryanka crossed the path to the Ural Range, further from the river. Serebryanka to the river Tagil walked through the mountains. The passage of Ermak through the Ural Range was not easy. Each plow could lift up to 20 people with a load.

    Yeah, on foot! wink
    Dragging plows on themselves and dragging! Heavier thrown. Remizov still saw their skeletons in the XNUMXth century.
  5. Cat
    Cat 27 November 2016 22: 05
    +8
    Volleys of Cossack squeals inflicted significant damage to the enemy. However, do not exaggerate the importance of firearms. From the squeak of the end of the XVI century it was possible to make one shot in 2-3 minutes. The Kuchumlyans basically did not have firearms in service, but they were familiar with them. However, the battle on foot was the weakness of Kuchum.

    According to the memoirs of contemporaries Zaporizhzhya Cossacks shot 1-2 rounds per minute! I do not think that the Volga Cossacks of Yermak fired less often. The highlight was that on one shooter there was one - two loaders and two or three squeaks. In the foot ranks of Ermak the Voguls and Ostyaks met. Tatars Mametkula were in a raid on Perm. Regarding firearms, there were even 4 guns in Isker (from Kazan), according to Skorinov, they were simply thrown off the cliff at Yermak, without a single shot.

    In October 1982, Yermak launched an assault on the fortifications of the Siberian capital. The first assault failed

    Where did the first unsuccessful assault come from, I refer to Plutarch! The Tatars themselves in their tales speak of a three-day assault on Isker, which ended with the victory of the Russians. The first landing and imitation of the assault by Yermak was carried out in order to divert the forces of the Tatars from the defense of the capital.

    After the capture of the capital of the Siberian Khanate, Tsarevich Mameteul remained the main enemy of Yermak

    That's just to the fall of Isker, he managed to return with the Tatar cavalry.

    In November-December 1582, the Tsarevich exterminated a detachment of Cossacks who went fishing.

    Killed Ivan Ring with forty associates.

    As evidence of the fruitfulness of his actions during the Siberian campaign, Yermak sent Ivan IV a captive prince and furs

    Mametkul rose to the rank of second commander of a large regiment in the Russian army. He even applied for the post of "Kasimov Khan".

    Ermak Timofeevich died in the waters of the river. Irtysh during a campaign against the nearby Kuchum troops on August 6, 1585

    Even the Tatars, Khanty, Mansi and Bashkirs themselves give the death of Yermak more lines in their legends.
    I'm tired of adding everything. For the idea to the author plus, for the implementation of the idea minus. In the article "kasha-malasha" of contradictions, conjectures and myths. To write about Yermak Timofeevich one has to go his way from Chusovaya to Ob. During which inconsistencies and embellishments of the academicians' offices will disappear at once. In the Kama region, in Perm, in the Urals and the Trans-Urals, Ermak is a legend fanned by the myth of truth and fairy tale. All along the way of Ermak Timofeevich and his comrades, hundreds of Ermakov caves, tracts, fighters (rocks), stones, groves and individual trees, where are his treasures, winter quarters, overnight stays, and even graves ...? Yes, yes, plural. By the campaign Ermak tried to "poddyulitsya" all starting from the Strogonovs to the Tobolsk monks, where his comrades lived out their days. Even now, many Bashkir and Tatar families are proud that they were enemies or friends of Ermak Timofeevich. One legend about chain mail and a fur coat from the royal shoulder is worth something!
    I wait and hope that someday I will see a worthy article on VO about Ermak Timofeevich.
    1. RASKAT
      RASKAT 27 November 2016 22: 57
      +2
      The heavy shell is a gift from the king
      The death of his wine.
  6. witch
    witch 27 November 2016 22: 40
    +1
    Quote: Kotischa
    Volleys of Cossack squeals inflicted significant damage to the enemy. However, do not exaggerate the importance of firearms. From the squeak of the end of the XVI century it was possible to make one shot in 2-3 minutes. The Kuchumlyans basically did not have firearms in service, but they were familiar with them. However, the battle on foot was the weakness of Kuchum.

    According to the memoirs of contemporaries Zaporizhzhya Cossacks shot 1-2 rounds per minute! I do not think that the Volga Cossacks of Yermak fired less often. The highlight was that on one shooter there was one - two loaders and two or three squeaks. In the foot ranks of Ermak the Voguls and Ostyaks met. Tatars Mametkula were in a raid on Perm. Regarding firearms, there were even 4 guns in Isker (from Kazan), according to Skorinov, they were simply thrown off the cliff at Yermak, without a single shot.

    In October 1982, Yermak launched an assault on the fortifications of the Siberian capital. The first assault failed

    Where did the first unsuccessful assault come from, I refer to Plutarch! The Tatars themselves in their tales speak of a three-day assault on Isker, which ended with the victory of the Russians. The first landing and imitation of the assault by Yermak was carried out in order to divert the forces of the Tatars from the defense of the capital.

    After the capture of the capital of the Siberian Khanate, Tsarevich Mameteul remained the main enemy of Yermak

    That's just to the fall of Isker, he managed to return with the Tatar cavalry.

    In November-December 1582, the Tsarevich exterminated a detachment of Cossacks who went fishing.

    Killed Ivan Ring with forty associates.

    As evidence of the fruitfulness of his actions during the Siberian campaign, Yermak sent Ivan IV a captive prince and furs

    Mametkul rose to the rank of second commander of a large regiment in the Russian army. He even applied for the post of "Kasimov Khan".

    Ermak Timofeevich died in the waters of the river. Irtysh during a campaign against the nearby Kuchum troops on August 6, 1585

    Even the Tatars, Khanty, Mansi and Bashkirs themselves give the death of Yermak more lines in their legends.
    I'm tired of adding everything. For the idea to the author plus, for the implementation of the idea minus. In the article "kasha-malasha" of contradictions, conjectures and myths. To write about Yermak Timofeevich one has to go his way from Chusovaya to Ob. During which inconsistencies and embellishments of the academicians' offices will disappear at once. In the Kama region, in Perm, in the Urals and the Trans-Urals, Ermak is a legend fanned by the myth of truth and fairy tale. All along the way of Ermak Timofeevich and his comrades, hundreds of Ermakov caves, tracts, fighters (rocks), stones, groves and individual trees, where are his treasures, winter quarters, overnight stays, and even graves ...? Yes, yes, plural. By the campaign Ermak tried to "poddyulitsya" all starting from the Strogonovs to the Tobolsk monks, where his comrades lived out their days. Even now, many Bashkir and Tatar families are proud that they were enemies or friends of Ermak Timofeevich. One legend about chain mail and a fur coat from the royal shoulder is worth something!
    I wait and hope that someday I will see a worthy article on VO about Ermak Timofeevich.


    see the movie Yermak. article as if it had been deducted from him
    1. Cat
      Cat 27 November 2016 23: 14
      +1
      Attention!
      If you have an old movie
      (THE USSR).
      The new documentaries are patriotic, but the historical content is "blizzard". Or a set of folk tales, or a list of church sermons, although it can be worse, crap based on Cossack beliefs. For example, the practice developed by Ermak personally and secretly passed on from father to son ..... blah, blah, blah ....?
      But what a promising start to the article is almost a complete alignment of dates ..... and zilch ..... Honestly, I was upset.
  7. RASKAT
    RASKAT 27 November 2016 23: 06
    +3
    In general, about that era, Ivan 4 the Terrible, a lot of things are unknown, slandered, unsaid, forgotten. And the Cossacks under him carried out what feats and accomplishments. I know for sure that of the 37 years of his reign, there were only 3 years of peace, the rest is all wars, campaigns, battles. In times of time. That's what normal films need to be made, the cooler Game of Thrones plot is.
    Recently, a lecture about the Battle of Molodi caught my eye. From the same time is very interesting.

    I hope you enjoy it.
  8. witch
    witch 28 November 2016 00: 02
    +1
    Quote: Kotischa
    Attention!
    If you have an old movie
    (THE USSR).
    The new documentaries are patriotic, but the historical content is "blizzard". Or a set of folk tales, or a list of church sermons, although it can be worse, crap based on Cossack beliefs. For example, the practice developed by Ermak personally and secretly passed on from father to son ..... blah, blah, blah ....?
    But what a promising start to the article is almost a complete alignment of dates ..... and zilch ..... Honestly, I was upset.



    Yes, it is the USSR is a very old film.
  9. Mangel olys
    Mangel olys 28 November 2016 07: 40
    +1
    Well, well ...., storytellers.
    1. Cat
      Cat 28 November 2016 17: 53
      0
      Quote: Mangel Alys
      Well, well ...., storytellers.

      In what? If you are shy, you can in PM. I am interested in the treasury of the Tatars.
      Thank you.
  10. Niccola Mack
    Niccola Mack 28 November 2016 09: 38
    +2
    Ivan the Terrible came up with a good idea - to collect "problem" children and send them "new lands" to master in Siberia!
    And the guys at work (do not get naughty), and the state is expanding.
    But Catherine still realized that the Cossacks - this is a good military reserve of cool fighters.
    They mastered Siberia and the Far East and "held" - and there, farmers and industrialists were catching up.
    Although merchants and industrialists often scouted the land first.
    It all started with Yermak and the Stroganovs!
  11. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 28 November 2016 17: 32
    +1
    Quote: V.ic
    Quote: Kotischa
    and drove our majority under the bench.

    Does this mean that N.M. Karamzin was mistaken in citing the name Olenev in the History of the Russian State?

    To Karamzin far to run, ask. At VO in 2013 article on this subject.
    https://topwar.ru/31453-kto-zhe-ty-ermak-alenin.h
    tml
    1. Cat
      Cat 28 November 2016 18: 25
      0
      Quote: Mavrikiy
      Quote: V.ic
      Quote: Kotischa
      and drove our majority under the bench.

      Does this mean that N.M. Karamzin was mistaken in citing the name Olenev in the History of the Russian State?

      To Karamzin far to run, ask. At VO in 2013 article on this subject.
      https://topwar.ru/31453-kto-zhe-ty-ermak-alenin.h
      tml

      There are dozens of versions about the origin of Yermak. I am inclined to believe that Ermak was a Volga Cossack. Whether he was Olenev, I honestly don’t know.
      1. libivs
        libivs 12 February 2017 16: 47
        0
        Ermak Timofeev - Don Cossack of the town of Kachalina (Kachalinskaya village).
    2. V.ic
      V.ic 28 November 2016 19: 08
      0
      Quote: Mavrikiy
      At VO in 2013 article on this subject.

      I read it, thank you for the "tip", but not impressed.
  12. moskowit
    moskowit 28 November 2016 20: 39
    +1
    Cognitive for those who first heard the name Ermak.
    Authors or persons who have provided material for publication and reprinting should more carefully read the text ...
    Dear colleagues. Note how one preposition "C", which should not be in the text, can change the meaning of the sentence ...

    "... Engaging in a fight with the crowd, in the absence of any battle formations, the Kuchumites suffered defeat after defeat, despite their significant superiority in manpower ..."