Military Review

War, gold and pyramids. (part three). Pyramid texts

Something for a long time we have not addressed stories Ancient Egypt, interrupting our story about the pyramids of the Old Kingdom just on the three pyramids of the father Khufu - the creator of the most famous of all of us pyramids in Giza. And it is hardly surprising that the complexes are inherent not only to modern children, but in the past they have not been canceled. You think it is easy to be the son of the great Snofru - the Pharaoh conqueror, who left behind not one, but three pyramids. Well, so, if I don’t do more, ”his son Khufu could reason,“ at least I would build myself a pyramid that no one else had built for himself, and ... built it!

War, gold and pyramids. (part three). Pyramid texts

The ruined pyramid of Pharaoh Unis. Photo from one of the steps of the pyramid of Djoser. In the background is the pyramid of Pharaoh Teti.

However, it should be remembered that the pyramids themselves were built and many other (!) Pharaohs of the Old Kingdom before Snofru and many of them have survived to the present day! And it is thanks to these not-so-well and to the surviving pyramids, we definitely know that they were intended precisely for the repose of the pharaoh's souls, and not for some other purposes. How do you know, someone impatient will ask us, and we will answer: the pyramids themselves, or rather, the Pyramid Texts found inside them "told" the scientists about this.

What it is? But that - the oldest literary monument of such a significant volume, which reached us from Egypt, and is a hieroglyphic text inscribed on the walls inside the pyramids of Pharaoh V of the Unis and such pharaohs of the VI dynasty, like Atoti, Piopi (or Pepi) I, Merner and Piopi (Pepi) II, located again in Saqqara.

View of the cobbled road leading to the pyramid of Pharaoh Unis V dynasty.

What are these pyramids, let's start with this. So, Unis (and it was in his pyramid that the very first “texts of the pyramids” were found) ordered to build himself a pyramid in Saqqara called Nefer-sut-Unis - “The places [of rest] of Unis are wonderful”. It is quite small (67 × 67 m, and 48 m height), and it is located right behind the south-western corner of the fence, around the memorial complex of Pharaoh Joser. Today it is very badly destroyed - the top has rounded, the walls have burst out, the base is completely filled up with blocks that have collapsed from above, therefore it does not even reach half of the previous height. However, despite the strong destruction of the pyramid from above, its internal premises have been preserved very well and are allowed for inspection by tourists.

Pyramid of Pharaoh Pepi II in South Saqqara.

Anyone who gets inside is always amazed at what he sees. And he sees the walls of the burial chamber, from the floor to the ceiling, covered with the most ancient hieroglyphs, in fact, the most real extravaganza of these ancient written characters containing huge amounts of information. These are the “Pyramid Texts”, which are sacred documents compiled at the end of the 3rd millennium BC. priests of the city of Heliopolis, although, judging by their content, some of them belong to even more ancient, pre-dynastic times.

As you can see, little remains of the pyramid of Pepi II.

Before this burial chamber covered with hieroglyphs under the Unis pyramid, one should get through the northern wall down the long aisle that French archaeologists dug up shortly after the discovery of this monument.

Pyramid of Userkaf - the first pharaoh of the V dynasty altogether resembles a pointed hill.

The chamber itself is composed of two small rectangular rooms, which are separated by a wall with a low door opening. Both rooms are overlapped by a gable ceiling, decorated with images of the stars of the beloved Egyptians in blue-green. The tomb's area is equal to 7 × 3 m, the ceiling has a height of 6 m. The massive Unis sarcophagus, made of black granite, is located near the western wall.

Pyramid Niuserra - Pharaoh, who ruled around 2458 - 2422 BC. er V dynasty.

However, his pyramid with the texts on the walls is far from the only one, that is, over time, the writing on the walls became fashionable, and then this “fashion” passed. In the necropolis of the Pharaohs of Memphis, built somewhere in the period between 2350 and 2175. BC Oe., except for Pharaoh Unis (middle of the XXIV century. BC. e.), four such pharaohs as Aunt, Piopi I, Merenra, Piopi II, and Neferkar (XXII century BC) were also buried. That is, the pyramids, in which these “Texts” were inscribed on the walls, were built over a century and a half!

And this is how the Pyramid of Niuserra and its entire funerary complex could look immediately after construction.

Archaeologist Maspero discovered them in 1880, and then for many years they were copied, translated and published. Moreover, it was these texts that became the initial foundation for the study of the Egyptian language, religion and culture, on which all further Egyptology grew. But besides this, they are also a very important monument of universal significance. Why? Yes, because it is perhaps the most ancient work of religious literature in the world. They contain ancient funeral rituals or, more correctly, a set of certain magic formulas and corresponding sayings, which were supposed to enable the departed king to achieve immortality in the next world. It was in the “Pyramid Texts” that the scientists found the first link of that indissoluble chain of funeral magical rituals, which passes through Egyptian pagan civilization and even partly Christian. That is, here we very clearly see those ideas about the funeral world that the ancient Egyptians were guided by, burying their kings here.

Plane pyramid Niuserra

For it is perfectly clear that no one would write the requiem texts on the walls, say, of the same breadbasket or in the repository of ancient secrets. No, in the pyramid texts there are no references to aliens from space, neither Atlantes, nor the inhabitants of the mainland Mu or the ancient Hyperboreans - "people from the north." There is nothing there. Speech in the pyramid texts is about what the departed Pharaoh (name) has to say, at the court of Osiris, what the carrier needs to say across the river of the dead, in a word, everything that an ordinary person cannot remember, but ... if he is literate, he can easily read !

One of the burial chambers of the pyramid of Unis.

Interestingly, in different pyramids, “Pyramid Texts” differ in their volume. So, in the pyramid of Unis, they contain 649 strings, in the Atoti pyramid - only 399, in Piopi I there are more than 800, but in Piopi II - almost 1400. Many of the sayings tend to be repeated in two or more pyramids, which is not surprising. Total 712 sayings of different lengths were found, ranging from just one phrase to texts of a relatively large volume. For those who are familiar with such works of other nations, it is easy to find here many familiar features: these are various conspiracies whose power is connected with belief in the power of a word, remnants of totemism, that is, when a person, knowing the names of the creatures with which his afterlife well-being, calls them, after which they can no longer harm him. There are also curious references to stories from the life of the gods, hints of some myths, very often incomprehensible to us, because they did not reach us, finally, the “reminders” about how to correctly pronounce certain words and not confuse anything!

Here they are - "Pyramid Texts".

There are formulas that should be followed by funeral rites, incantations against various demonic entities, animals and people who are at enmity with the dead king, and, of course, prayers to the gods with requests to provide their departed patronage. It is difficult to study texts, since they are written not just with hieroglyphs, but with archaic language and spelling, specially adapted for writing magical texts. For example, their authors tried to avoid hieroglyphs that depicted living creatures that could harm the late king, even if they were only carved in stone. The green color of the written hieroglyphs was also the color of the resurrection, that is, in these texts there was not a single trifle that would not act in the interests of the pharaoh who had found his last refuge under this “mountain of stone”.

The wall in the pyramid of Pharaoh Aunt with the Pyramid Texts carved on the stone.

The first "texts of the pyramids" tried to decipher himself Gaston Maspero, with 1882 year began work on their translation and publication. Later they were all published in one volume in 1894. In 1910, Kurt Zete took over the work, not only carrying out the publication of “Texts”, but systematizing them into groups, and scientists have been using its numbering of texts up to now. The Russian translation was started, but not completed by the Russian scientist A.L. Kotsiyovsky, a student of the founder of the Russian Egyptology - BA Turaeva. So now, the fully completed translation of the Pyramid Texts in Russian, alas, does not exist. But in 2000, a book was published with that part (chapters 1-254) of the texts that he managed to translate.

Reconstruction of the necropolis of Pepi II.

Why did the “Pyramid Texts” appear and why did they disappear from them afterwards? Perhaps their builders thought that only the pyramids themselves were not enough to gain them the king of eternal life? But why, then, were they discarded from their mark? What is this ancient rationalism or something else that we do not yet know about the spiritual life of the ancient Egyptians?

So, judging by this image on the wall of one of the tombs, the Egyptians and transported from place to place huge stone statues. And who prevented them from transporting stone blocks for the construction of the pyramids in the same way?

Interestingly, the texts in the tombs of the nobles of the Pharaohs almost never changed in content. The essence of them - a continuous boast in his address and a description of useful acts for which the deceased praised Pharaoh. Thus, the biographical inscription in the tomb of the grandee of Una, who was a contemporary of Pharaoh Piopi I, we learn about the Egyptian military campaigns in the land of Palestine. She reports that Pharaoh mobilized warriors throughout Egypt from the Elephantine island to the Delta inclusive. In addition, he strengthened his troops with auxiliary detachments from Northern Nubia and Libyan mercenaries, after which he sent all this considerable army under the leadership of Una against the kheruisha Bedouin tribes (literally “those who are in the sand”) in the Sinai Peninsula and in the desert regions of South Palestine. The expedition ended in complete success, which we can judge by the following victory song of the Una warriors:

This army returned safely,
reversing the Bedouin country.
This army returned safely,
ravaged the Bedouin country.
This army returned safely,
taking down her fortress.
This army returned safely,
chopping down her fig tree and grapes.
This army returned safely,
lit a fire in all of her ...
This army returned safely,
having killed in it detachments among many tens of thousands.
This army returned safely,
[capturing] in it are captives of a great number [detachments].
His majesty praised me greatly for this.

View of the southwest corner of the pyramid of Pharaoh Unis and the stepped pyramid of Pharaoh Djoser in the background.

To be continued ...
Articles from this series:
War, gold and pyramids. Part one. What was before the pyramids?
War, gold and pyramids. (part two). Snofru - pyramid builder

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  1. V.ic
    V.ic 24 November 2016 06: 07
    "Texts of the pyramids", which are sacred documents drawn up at the end of the XNUMXrd millennium BC. priests of the city of Heliopolis, (c)

    "Heliopolis" means ... Well, well. The name is very Greek. This is where in the "country of the Great Hapi", two thousand years before the construction of Alexandria, to take the Greek name of the city?
    1. kalibr
      24 November 2016 07: 11
      And then he was called so differently, but how - it is not known exactly. Only the Greek name of the era of Alexander is known ...
    2. Engineer
      Engineer 24 November 2016 08: 05
      In ancient Egypt, it was called Iunu, and later the Greeks began to call Heliopolis. So the name is Greek and stuck to the ancient city.
    3. Retvizan
      Retvizan 26 November 2016 15: 25
      Quote: V.ic
      "Texts of the pyramids", which are sacred documents drawn up at the end of the XNUMXrd millennium BC. priests of the city of Heliopolis, (c)

      "Heliopolis" means ... Well, well. The name is very Greek. This is where in the "country of the Great Hapi", two thousand years before the construction of Alexandria, to take the Greek name of the city?

      nothing strange, the Greeks (for example Herodotus) carefully rewrote texts from teachers (Egyptians). The center of culture was shifted to Athens (then back to Alexandria and back to Athens)
  2. Max repp
    Max repp 24 November 2016 07: 06
    Very interesting article. I have not read the previous articles, but right now I’ll read it. Thanks to the author!
  3. Engineer
    Engineer 24 November 2016 08: 03
    And actually what do you have to do with it Military Review?
  4. Nitarius
    Nitarius 24 November 2016 08: 50

    How much is the history of reversal ... then Greece with Her God ... although Greece as such is NOT ... there is HELLAS! and who and in this connection is engaged in a similar lie, a big QUESTION!
    This applies to many FINDS! and we have in Russia in Mountain Shoria .. so the story from Darwin, etc. complete Lies! and ending with the Roman empires .. it is necessary to reconsider .. and I do not think that they will ever tell us the TRUTH!
    1. 2 – 0
      2 – 0 24 November 2016 10: 28
      Nitarius! According to the film, some shots were made of stone, it’s not known what, and other shots were made by plasmoids ... If the geologists had come forward and told their version of the formation of structures in Mountain Shoria, it’s another matter, but for now the peasant looks drunk ...
  5. ruskih
    ruskih 24 November 2016 09: 10
    "Why did the Pyramid Texts appear and why did they disappear from them later?"
    I think this is due to the priests. They are the keepers of rituals, sacred secrets and knowledge.
    Thanks for continuing.
    1. kalibr
      24 November 2016 16: 26
      There will be more ... in all the pyramids!
  6. 2 – 0
    2 – 0 24 November 2016 10: 12
    It’s something kaneshna, Champollion, Rosette stone, etc., etc. But only Mark Twain has a story "Learned tales for exemplary elderly boys and girls", which I read as a child, well, I periodically reread Twain, and there in the story there is a moment when insects deciphered human inscriptions ... When I read about deciphering dead languages, I always remember this story.
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 27 November 2016 19: 07
      "which I read as a child, and from time to time I reread Twain," ////

      But it seems that you are on Mark Twain and stuck in development.
      In the days of Mark Twain, archeology was only in its infancy as a science.
      Areeologists were lonely enthusiasts, freaks, "nerds". Above them
      everyone was laughing, not just Mark Twain. Only in the last 30 years, perhaps, archeology has become
      science applying the achievements of chemistry (spectral analysis), physics
      (ultrasound, electron microscopes, comp programs).
      Today, from a piece of "blind papyrus" (from which the ink has been completely washed away, and
      that were previously dumped) read the records that were written
      in different languages ​​and in several layers. For the smallest scratches that
      left feathers and sticks, and which the microscope easily sees. The mass of material.
      About time, life, trade, accounting reports,
      drawings ... love letters, court sentences.
      Of course, Fomenko's lovers, history whistleblowers, authors of "books about secrets", etc.
      I don’t like all this. It leaves no room for fiction and fantasy.
  7. DimanC
    DimanC 24 November 2016 14: 26
    Well, yes, the texts were told. The paved road is 100500 times better than the pyramid itself, but they did the same thing at the same time ...
    1. 2 – 0
      2 – 0 24 November 2016 15: 00
      Yes, an interesting point. If you removed the lining from the pyramid (who? And on?) Then why didn’t you dismantle the adjacent buildings?

      1. svd-xnumx
        svd-xnumx 24 November 2016 18: 08
        Yes, an interesting point. If you removed the lining from the pyramid (who? And on?) Then why didn’t you dismantle the adjacent buildings?
        Yes, because the adjacent buildings were covered with sand and saved from the weathering of the looting.
        1. 2 – 0
          2 – 0 25 November 2016 10: 22
          Yeah, the existing version, you have to come up with something ....
      2. Awaz
        Awaz 28 November 2016 22: 31
        it may be a new building. I already wrote that even the guides acknowledge that in places all of them recently built there themselves
    2. activator
      activator 24 November 2016 16: 20
      Quote: DimanC
      Well, yes, the texts were told. The paved road is 100500 times better than the pyramid itself, but they did the same thing at the same time ...

      And there are a lot of other things, because things are incomprehensible as manufactured even by today's standards, but a lot of course was done clumsy for that period, and all attention is paid to this, and the fact that it is not clear how the Egyptians got it, Egyptians. that maybe the Egyptians didn’t build the heresy immediately show the adobe pyramid, but it just might be a miserable attempt to imitate. Examples even now there is the so-called cult of cargo, for example Tanna, where in the course of 2mv there was an Amer base and planes dumped a bunch of nishtyaks from planes. the Lafa ended and the Americans flew away, they naturally began to build some kind of aircraft as deities. And any alien flying to this island with all responsibility can declare that there is no developed civilization on earth and even show pictures. For some reason, it’s not loaded, but here’s can be read.
      lyotopoklonnikov-chyornyx-ostrovov-melanezii /
  8. Mikhail3
    Mikhail3 24 November 2016 20: 51
    As for all sorts of aliens - I deeply doubt it. I can imagine aliens like that. But why should they pile up stone buildings on our planet, here my imagination fails.
    Most of all I am surprised by something else. Here is a drawing of the pyramidal complex. In which the priests lived and served there various services. We look. The only way to the second line of storerooms, so to speak, is through the "altar" hall. That is, sweaty porters periodically sneak past the supreme deity, grunting and popuking? Very godly ...
    In general, that the pyramids, that the complexes with them, are built in such a way that one cannot even call them temples and burials. The temple, with a single entrance one carriage wide. In order, then, to open the way for believers ... thirty people a day. And that is unlikely to be typed, after all, it is necessary to carry the priests food, drink, all sorts of household trifles, to take out, excuse me, feces. Busy "sublime road" all the time! And the internal structure ... some kind of plague.
    Looking at all this, I personally think about a certain technical structure. This is how some kind of technological device, of which the pyramid is a part, all this acquires at least some kind of logic. Equipment. The first thing that comes to mind when looking at the "burial chamber" and the exit from it is that the pyramid looks like a kind of containment, a protective shell for some very harmful and dangerous process. Or on a part of a device that needed a large mass of stone of a certain shape to work.
    Few staff. No believers, no idle worshipers, no place or conditions for them. By the way. Who realties sees the inscription "toilet" on the diagram? Or did the people there run to the statues in silence? Apparently everyone who was in the pyramid needed a couple of buckets ...
    Well, then the equipment was removed. Or destroyed. Well, the painting began with praise (to the one who erected the pyramid, it’s ridiculous to praise oneself with texts. It’s the same as jumping out of a bentley and chasing passers-by with a cry - look how cool I am! Bentley would say for himself) about pathetic hikes and the burning of a couple of vineyards. Attempts to adapt the great to life, which has become very miserable.
    This is a strange topic - the pyramids. And the version of historians is not at all convincing.
  9. kalibr
    24 November 2016 21: 05
    Quote: Mikhail3
    Apparently everyone who was in the pyramid was missing a pair of buckets ...

    There was no one in the pyramid. She was walled up. And nobody praised himself with the texts of the pyramids - did you read what was written there? Tips and memos on how to ensure the pharaoh successfully gets to the other world. And the statues of the pharaohs are there, and instructions are the house of the repose of such and such ... Strange, what else is needed, what inventions?
    1. ruskih
      ruskih 24 November 2016 21: 51
      So I love this page, and you will rest, sometimes you will laugh enough, I just presented a mummy and a "pair of buckets", oh, sorry not to see how she ran to these buckets ... laughing
      And about the texts, maybe the pharaoh with memory was bad, sclerosis lol , well, I couldn’t remember the whole text, so the crib was all over the wall. fellow
      1. kalibr
        25 November 2016 20: 22
        Exactly! In the same form there were appeals to the gods: O Atum, holding his male part in his left hand and the female part in his left, the husband of his mother, shining in the sky like Ra himself ... a mighty bull with his foot in heaven and on earth ... Si -Amon-Mary-Ra-Atum, may you live forever! And there are 9 main gods and many others! I only shared the general outline, and so there for each god half a page!
        1. ruskih
          ruskih 25 November 2016 21: 52
          Yes, patience and perseverance of scribes can be envied, but as they say, they made mistakes in some texts on the wall.
          And yet, Vyacheslav Olegovich, I apologize for the slightly "hooligan" comment above. repeat
          1. kalibr
            26 November 2016 21: 57
            Yes, what nonsense ...
    2. Andrey Sukharev
      Andrey Sukharev 24 November 2016 21: 58
      And they found the pharaoh there, feel free to ask?
      1. 2 – 0
        2 – 0 25 November 2016 10: 27
        "Andrey Sukharev". Pharaohs (?) Were found, one might say in a heap, both great and not so great. They organized a mourning procession along the Nile, the people stood along the banks and greeted the old rulers.
      2. kalibr
        25 November 2016 11: 49
        Of course not. Only in the pyramid of Djoser was found a fragment of the hand of the mummy and a few more fragments in some other pyramid. They also bandaged rings, amulets, fingertips, necklaces. Therefore, the mummies were broken first in search of treasures ... But the mummies in the tombs, not the pyramids, were found and the inscriptions on the amulets determined who is who.
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 25 November 2016 12: 40
          if I’m not mistaken, they found a piece of a leg in Joser's pyramid .. he wrote a report at school. Now for the first time I found out why mummies were not found in the pyramids. Somehow I had no idea!))
    3. Mikhail3
      Mikhail3 25 November 2016 19: 25
      Most of my text refers to the pyramidal complex, which is of the "temple" type.
      There are statues. And there are directions. They are easy to make, unlike an extremely strange pyramid. Why does the house rest two series of pantries? Why would he even have some kind of temple, and even with limited access? The small pyramid, the pylons to neither the village nor the city ... all this is not at all majestic, but surprisingly illogical for the grave. The pyramid is a satellite, as if the building of the control panel of a nuclear reactor ... Etc.
  10. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 26 November 2016 00: 06
    "the leadership of Una against the Bedouin tribes of the Heruish (lit." those, "/////

    It is interesting that on the territory of Israel there have been preserved confirmations of the campaigns of the armies of the pharaohs to the north, to Syria and beyond. There were records carved on the stones: like "the army passed from Egypt", "The army returned from the campaign". Parallel to the Mediterranean coast, about 20-40 km from the coast, the remains of one of the world's oldest "highway" Egypt - Turkey, laid almost 5000 years ago, are being excavated. Along it there are fortresses, checkpoints, warehouses ... ruins, of course.
    1. Mikhail3
      Mikhail3 26 November 2016 13: 14
      What do the lettering look like? It's just that I'm wondering, no tips. "Scientists" historians will never pay attention to the fact that for some reason there is no toilet in the "temple complex" with one single entrance. Well, if toilets are not a thesis topic for them. Alas, from this "science" no intelligible answers can be obtained practically for anything.
      But here to your inscriptions. Who made them and why? Carve an inscription - this is not a tweet to do. It takes many days to pound on the stone, spoil the chisels (expensive pleasure), drink and eat. In the absence of fast and cheap transportation, food storage facilities, etc., any noticeable business should have had very good reason. The loungers simply did not survive.
      Who do you think beat out the inscriptions and why?
      1. Retvizan
        Retvizan 26 November 2016 15: 52
        Quote: Mikhail3
        "Scientists" historians will never pay attention to the fact that for some reason there is no toilet in the "temple complex" with one single entrance. Well, if toilets are not a thesis topic for them. Alas, from this "science" no intelligible answers can be obtained practically for anything.
        But here to your inscriptions. Who made them and why? Carve an inscription - this is not a tweet to do. It takes many days to pound on the stone, spoil the chisels (expensive pleasure), drink and eat. In the absence of fast and cheap transportation, food storage facilities, etc., any noticeable business should have had very good reason. The loungers simply did not survive.
        Who do you think beat out the inscriptions and why?

        Yes, this is the cornerstone of controversy. Historians in general are dark people in physics, mathematics, chemistry, cartography and other sciences, but they do their work based on their vision.
        As a result, we have a bunch of questions. Why was the very big structure built, and how? And for historians, everything is simple - they explain all actions by religion, and the way they do - they drove more people to slaves and built ... Physics, mathematics, logistics and other sciences do not smell there .. that you can’t transfer 100 tone blocks and install only a large crowd that such a crowd can not be built on the site .. in general there are many questions.
        While there is no time machine, we can only guess and draw conclusions based not only on history, but on all sciences at once! For historians of version 2, official and different, the usual other always interferes. And the official has many shortcomings.
        The climate has changed in Egypt then (all over the globe), the Sahara from the savannah has become a desert, the rivers have all dried up. Erosion has changed, the civilizational breakthrough of the Egyptians has weakened (judging by the pyramids)
        In general, it was a short period of construction of so many large buildings and with such a level. Before and after everything turned out much worse.
        1. 2 – 0
          2 – 0 26 November 2016 18: 26
          "Retvizan"! You wrote about the toilet and dissertations ... Do you know that for an archaeologist there is no greater happiness than digging out a garbage can? Here dissertations and titles go "in full according to plan". The larger the dump, the more happiness the expedition has. Let the archaeologists confirm.
          1. Mikhail3
            Mikhail3 26 November 2016 19: 08
            Yes, we are aware of ... You see, science is the work of establishing the relationship between natural phenomena, and on the basis of the established relationships, the construction of hypotheses, that is, attempts to predict how nature will "work" further. If the hypothesis of the origin of rain from the evaporation of water by the sun in clouds is confirmed by experience, it becomes a theory. That on which we can rely in objective knowledge.
            Unfortunately, history is by no means a science. It does not apply either thinking or even the slightest real working scientific apparatus. Of course, historians order all kinds of analyzes, and they say a lot of clever words. But historians enter the results in their "scientific" works only those that they like. And those who do not like, they ignore. Historians arbitrarily turn to any data in general, to paint something according to the method "I see it this way", to accept the theory "in the opinion of the scientific community", that is, without the slightest proof, is a common practice.
            As a result of development, this "science" is a dump of silly stories. What good is it if they find a trash heap? They diligently describe what they find. It is true that what does not fit into the theory that they currently like, they will throw out. And what about the purpose of what was found, instead of scientific work, will be a riot of imagination ...
            Well, historians see the complex at the pyramid. And what is their "science" enough for? Just to claim it is a temple. But what kind of temple, edrena stick, without any convenient entrance? Without basic amenities? Was there that the worshipers were shitting anywhere? That's the problem.
            There are historians. There are dissertations. Money fooled by the states. There are no answers! No thoughts! There are academicians, no considerations. Yearning...
            1. voyaka uh
              voyaka uh 26 November 2016 21: 39
              "Unfortunately, history is by no means a science." //: /

              And archeology, fortunately, is.
              And archaeologists know such an ancient invention of mankind, which appeared
              immediately with pottery: NIGHT POT.
              Bowls of the simplest form were used for the collection and removal of sewage. Slaves (or residents) dumped their contents as they accumulated in the designated
              "dirty ravines". For this reason, in pyramids, palaces, etc. no toilets.
              1. Mikhail3
                Mikhail3 28 November 2016 19: 01
                Quote: voyaka uh
                And archaeologists know such an ancient invention of mankind, which appeared
                immediately with pottery: NIGHT POT.

                I'm sorry. You too ... In general, archeology is not a science either. And the chamber pot is not the oldest pottery, of course. But your statement is very typical. There is no thought in him, there is a desire to blurt out loudly. These are the "sciences" - history and archeology. Without a thought, but with a desire to be sure to blurt out. Louder! Voices!
                Are you tired. You get tired of trying to wake a thought in your head, where it never spent the night.
                Ну-ка. Где в припирамидальном комплексе помещения "технических служб"? Где те самые "рабы", на которых историки списывают все необозримые работы, которые надо выполнить в одни руки (по их представлениям). Где они живут? Где они едят, спят, сами испражняются, где им готовят пищу? И?
                After all, all this activity should leave a lot of traces, and those that no grave robbers can back up, all this activity is carried out without gold and precious stones, right? Something bothered me ...
            2. kalibr
              26 November 2016 22: 05
              Mikhail, and who are you, let me curiosity, by education and in what field of activity do you earn your daily bread?
              1. Mikhail3
                Mikhail3 28 November 2016 19: 48
                Heat Engineer, 308 specialty. He worked at the thermal power station, now I am engaged in construction, weak and high-current installation, installation of optics, security systems. If you want, I can become a writer, I have the necessary abilities). Or a historian. I know how to bang loudly, and more than that, nothing is needed there, right?
      2. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 26 November 2016 21: 56
        For: Michael3
        "Who do you think knocked out the inscriptions and why?" ////

        You are looking for riddles from scratch. Small fortresses were built along the roads. There
        taxes were collected. Kingdoms lived off the collection of tribute. The head of the fortress had to be able to read and count at least. And keep the simplest "chronicle". The most important events were noted: "the army of Pharaoh X passed", "the army of Pharaoh X returned with trophies", etc.
        They coped with the letter on stone effortlessly.
        In Jerusalem, for example, 1000 BC was made a water supply system - a stream spent
        in town. They pierced 600 m of solid rock. Found records of works. They cut through the bottom of the brigade of 12 people at the same time from both sides. 6 people in each brigade chopped down, replacing each other - 6 took out the breed. And we did it for 1 year! We missed at the docking by only 10 meters. And we straightened it "to knock". The water supply system still exists (for tourists) And I walked through it with a flashlight - right through. And I saw the place of "inconsistency". smile
        Despite the fact that Judea of ​​that time is a remote province compared to Egypt, where they did
        engineering structures are a hundred times more complex.
        1. kalibr
          27 November 2016 21: 56
          Photo by Alexey, photo !!! They have no price! Especially the junction! How lucky you are. Already wrote that I don’t shine there.
        2. Mikhail3
          Mikhail3 28 November 2016 19: 28
          I was not looking for riddles, you misunderstood. Just asked, I don’t know exactly this topic. You answered quite logically, thanks. Records in the fortresses, of course, had someone to lead, there was food for this and there was time. Yes, and there was a tool.
          "Solid rock" - sandstone? Limestone? However, diabase could have been pierced, it was also possible. This is not the main question for classical Egyptian history. Poddolbali one-sided discussions, in which the opponent is simply not able to clearly answer you, more does not own either logic or thinking ... melancholy. I hope for you.
          You see, the classic idea is this. The Egyptians were primitive farmers. Picked the earth with sticks. But, the Nile Valley was fantastically fertile, there was nothing to do ... and the pharaohs ordered their slaves to build the pyramids. And the slaves built. With the help of ropes, sticks, round stones that were used to pound other stones, and other fantastically productive tools.
          I am an engineer. These statements are nonsense of dangerous madmen. The construction of structures of this scale is possible. But it is inevitable, under any conditions, require a whole industry. Industry will inevitably arise, you know? And this industry cannot, for no reason, never, under any circumstances and circumstances, be limited to pyramids ONLY.
          Here in Russia (for the first time in the modern world) they have mastered casting of iron. For casting, of course, guns. And what? Instantly a great, epoch-making, amazing construction arose - the Russian stove. The cast-iron grate, hob and view changed the country. Instantly on a historic scale.
          Sailors navigated for 1,500 years across the seas, dotting the bottom with sunken vessels, thought, tried, tried ... and in the end gave birth to a brilliant engineering product - a ship rope. And then, instantly, in Europe began to build large structures. You see, with a rope you cannot move a large stone, it will break. A rope is needed. A rope is a completely different story.
          And so in everything. No more business is possible without major technological breakthroughs. And such breakthroughs cannot remain near a narrow zone of initial application. They are immediately used everywhere. And in classical Egyptian history this is completely absent. Only mentally mournful "experts" bang cobblestones on cobblestones, furiously proving that you can break off a piece like that, see ?! We see. Well, purely children ...
          Where is the industry in that era, which we are pointed to as the time of the construction of the pyramids? There is no trace. I am an engineer and I can only make an estimate based on technical thinking. The pyramid builders were there before. And then something happened to them and to their industry. I also strongly suspect that we see their tools. We just don't understand that these are exactly tools. Our technique is based on mechanics and electricity. And what is electricity, or rather, why it appears, we are not aware. Absolutely. "Outside forces" is synonymous with "I completely misunderstood." Who said that there is only an electromagnetic field? But this is speculation, of course.
          1. voyaka uh
            voyaka uh 29 November 2016 15: 49
            "Here in Russia (for the first time in the modern world) they mastered the casting of cast iron. For casting, of course, guns" ////

            Of course ... in Russia, guns ... laughing

            "The country in which they first began to smelt pig iron is China,
            The historical fact dates back to the XNUMXth-XNUMXth centuries BC. In the Middle Kingdom
            cast iron products were very popular, coins were made from cast iron,
            weapons, household items.
            The first cast-iron cookware was made in China; it was called cast-iron wok
            Is a frying pan with thin walls up to one meter in diameter. "////
            1. TOPchymBA
              TOPchymBA 30 November 2016 04: 13
              Have you tried to read comments?
              The conversation is that in order to build such structures, appropriate technologies and means of production are needed - which our historians do not understand and cannot provide evidence of their presence.
              From myself I will add.
              What we have in such ancient monuments as the pyramids cannot be explained from the point of view of rationality, which causes controversy.

              Try to justify the "pimples" on the stones and why weren't they removed?
            2. Mikhail3
              Mikhail3 7 December 2016 11: 11
              The cannons, cast in Russia, lie near the Arsenal. You can pick it out with your finger. The cast iron "cast in China for the first time in the world" is only recorded. In Chinese. Moreover, the Chinese, being sober, pragmatic and cheerful people, openly admit that they rewrote ALL of their history records when each emperor changed. All entries. With the change of every emperor.
              The Chinese know how indescribable crap European historical "science" is. And that thinking in the heads of historians is impossible. They are directly told - "we ascribe to ourselves all the achievements that come to mind." So what? And nothing. This plague continues to be invoked. It's not even funny anymore. I just feel sorry for these "scientists" ...
      3. kalibr
        26 November 2016 22: 01
        People knocked out. That was their job. They were paid for it. And why now in the center of Penza they are building a concrete cathedral of unreal strength, with gilded domes? People work from morning to evening ... And in other cities ... They hope to be saved in the next world. And who does not save - will lick a hot pan! And in Egypt it was the same!
        1. 2 – 0
          2 – 0 27 November 2016 11: 26
          Flood kaneshno, I’m calling you ....

          Distribution is hell, heaven.
          The turn comes to the former high-ranking official, concurrently, although this is prohibited by the law of "the owner of factories, newspapers, ships ..."
          The apostle Peter is standing.
          Former ruler, busily approaching the apostle
          - Well, to me in paradise!
          - To hell with you ...
          Official confused
          - What the heck? I helped the church with money, built temples.
          Peter checks the lists
          -You to hell.
          Official stewing
          -I gave millions to charity, how many orphans from my hand were fed ...
          - To hell, no options.
          The official is kicking on his knees and in tears
          - How the hell? Yes, you double-check your lists, please, I secured a lot of money so that pensioners on the Victory Day would not leave without gifts, I made all hospitals in the region use new equipment, gave alms to the poor five thousandths ...
          Apostle Peter
          - Just a moment ... I looked at the book ...
          You are absolutely right! You, of course, go to hell - but we will return all the money to you ...
  11. Hapfri
    Hapfri 26 November 2016 09: 50
    An interesting topic. However, I am a fan of the view on the Egyptology of the Laboratory of Alternative History by Andrey Sklyarov.
  12. Awaz
    Awaz 28 November 2016 22: 28
    I'm certainly not a big pyramid specialist, but I've been to Giza and the Djoser pyramid. I don’t know about you, but it seemed to me that everything that was configured here, all this was built on some very ancient foundations. The Djoser pyramid has a pit where the Egyptians are digging something and the depth of this well is even visible with an unarmed look and the deeper it is, the better the material is viewed. But in Giza, I noticed that the path passing next to the sphinx seems to be to the Cheops pyramid (well, in the middle which) is built on the basis of very well processed granite, but on the top you can already see the sandstone or does it know what is called, but it’s already quite simple the material. But this underground granite is very high quality finished and has cutouts interesting. Here is my opinion. moreover, the guides even recognize that part of the external buildings are modern remodelers ...
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 29 November 2016 00: 34
      So in any excavated object of antiquity. The layers related to periods minus several thousand years ago are 5-15 m below the current level. The upper floors of ancient structures were destroyed by wind, earthquakes and wars, and they were rebuilt later. And the lower floors and foundations were preserved relatively well. In Israel, what is excavated
      to separate from what is completed to show contemporaries the appearance of a white line on the stones.
      1. Awaz
        Awaz 30 November 2016 13: 55
        Nor do I argue. I'm talking about the fact that even the pyramids of Giza are built on something. After all, the sphinx in relation to the base of the pyramids of these meters is 10 exactly lower, and maybe more. Well, all the other pseudo-pyramids have a too primitive appearance, but inside, on the contrary, they are made very qualitatively, and these "insides" are exactly much lower than the level of the base of the pyramid.
        In general, I personally am inclined to the fact that all that we see is built on the basis of civilization that existed once upon a time ago. Somewhere these buildings turned out to be more successful, somewhere they look like cheap fakes, somewhere in general modern remodels
  13. 2 – 0
    2 – 0 30 November 2016 23: 13
    Quote: voyaka uh
    But it seems that you are on Mark Twain and stuck in development.

    Be careful with the expressions! For a long time did not send? I can send ....

  14. Net
    Net 29 December 2016 14: 41
    A beautiful picture of the transport of statues.
    We count. The real Egyptian Sphinx in 1988 fell from the neck a small piece weighing 350 kilos.
    With a height, width of more than 20 meters and a length of about 60 meters, the volume of the Sphinx is about 24000 cubic meters. Since this is not a rectangle, we conditionally halve the volume. So, 12 thousand cubic meters. meters.
    When the density of the stone is about 2 tons per cubic meter. meter, we get an approximate weight of 24 thousand tons.

    How did the ancient Egyptians carry this weight?
    But the fact is that Japanese researchers during seismic sounding found cavities under the Sphinx. That is, the builders first cut down the cavities, and then the Sphinx was pulled over them. Perhaps like a tombstone.
    How can 24 thousand tons of stone be moved without breaking off the paw statue?
  15. Net
    Net 29 December 2016 15: 46
    The largest quarry in Russia and Europe for the extraction of Koelga marble (closer to limestone) produces a total of 55000 cubic meters of blocks per year. It uses the latest equipment, drilling machines, diamond ropes, etc. etc.
    As you know, the Cheops pyramid consists of 2,3 million blocks, a volume of 2,521,000 cubic meters. So, to get such a volume of blocks, using modern equipment and working a whole year (except for 2 spring months due to flooding of the quarry), it takes at least almost 46 years.
    (But it is believed that Cheops ruled only 23 years).

    2,3 million cubic meters is only the pyramid of Cheops. The volume of all buildings on the plateau (pyramids, temples) is approx. 9 million cubic meters.
    There is a very revealing example, on the basis of which labor productivity is visible depending on technology - the tunnel under the Lamansh. The volume of extracted rock is 8 million cubic meters. Moreover, this fragmentation by modern methods (the British used to fill the cape from it and organized a park on it, the French took the pulp to the sea). Built 7 years (only driving to the meeting of two parties). The penetration was carried out in the chalk layer - it is softer.
    For the construction of the tunnel, 11 special tunneling shields with a rotor diameter of 8 meters were developed. During operation, the rotor rotates at a frequency of 2-3 revolutions per minute.
    In total, 13 workers and engineers worked on this "tunneling of the century". In just 000 years, 7 km have been covered.
    In 1876, the tunnel also began to build. They built the same 7 years, but only 3,9 kilometers passed.
    If we take 1876 as the start of work and the speed with that technology (even discarding the fact that they simply crushed the stone), construction will be completed by 2146. And the Egyptian peasants between gardening works were able for 24 years ... Wedges, hoes, choppers and copper chisels ...
    I quote from the work of Zagraevsky: “These are the realities: only 10–20% of the stone turned out to be marketable.
    It is necessary to take into account that even with such a tough selection, stone was exported from the old Russian quarries, processed only rough - in the form of shapeless blocks. ... That is, in fact, even less will come out. Carbonate limestone is considered in the work. Completely with the technique and methods of mining and so on. can be found here:

    In short, in order to build only the Cheops pyramid from the blocks, the source material of the quarry needs to be chopped not by 2.3 million blocks, but 10 times more!
    We count. We divide 20 years of construction (continuously, day and night) into 2,3 million blocks = 4,57 minutes per 1 block cut. It is doubtful that they built at night, so the term is reduced = 2,3 minutes per block. And considering that the initial volume should be 10 times larger, we get 13,8 seconds (!) For the manufacture of one block (!)
    What is the speed of cutting a block with copper-bronze saws? It is not known exactly, but I read somewhere that about 5 days per block. Total, we get 31300 sawmills alone, not counting other workers, or rather 62 thousand people (because the saws are two-handed). Do you represent the crowd? Where in the quarry could they all be accommodated? Even 10 times smaller?
    And also have 31300 bronze saws and continuously update them. You need to have a small foundry nearby :)
    Conclusion: with ancient technologies, the construction of the pyramids in the terms agreed upon by modern history is NOT REAL and impossible. So, either the technology is different or the timing is different.
  16. Diviz
    Diviz 21 January 2017 16: 20
    If you look at the construction design from above, they resemble microcircuits built from quartz. Sensors Transmitters Amplifiers, etc. more public attention should be given to this.
  17. Farhat
    Farhat 30 June 2017 15: 36
    The texts of the pyramids are translated conditionally, appeared much later.
    Everything in the pyramids contradicts the version of the crypt, but everything proves that these are the defenses of the pharaohs and were necessary as shelters, for example, during a surprise attack by a foreign enemy, rebellion of the people, army rebellion, palace coups, etc.
    Scientists themselves have already denied the crypts, but now put forward another awkward version: the pyramids are monuments.
    Here in the comment I described everything a little more