The notification received by the author about the positive result of the examination of the application for the Ekranoplan invention will allow promoting this project, which can say a new word both in transportation and in the creation of a real ocean fleet Russia.
Heavy ekranoplanes are in fact the only type of weapons and military equipment where our country is already more than 50 years ahead of the design and engineering developments (“Dry cargo ship“ Farewell, Montana ”). Let me try again to justify the absolute possibility and the most urgent need for the development of this "our" mode of transport, which is easily transformed into a new type of strike weapons.
We will assume that any ground-winged ground-wing vehicle (WV) takes off from 500 up to five thousand tons heavy, and up to 18 – 20 thousand tons - super heavy. By the way, so far no one in the world has exceeded the characteristics of the KM-1 displacement developed by Rostislav Alekseev. It is necessary to determine the fact that such a ground-effect vehicle from the point of view of flight altitude. It should not exceed the length of the chord of the main or main wing, and the roll and pitch are within the strictly defined and relatively small values established by field tests.
The airplane scheme of under construction and projected WIG has no future - it does not contribute to the self-destruction of involuntary cabre. The design of the center-section in the form of a mono-wing is due to the need to have on the upper plane of the runway, sufficient for the take-off and landing of two aircraft in the displacement mode. Inside in the median plane, the vessel has paired, at least two-level (double-decked) rooms, the feature of which is composite floors (deck-platforms) with measurements multiple of the number of sea containers and dimensions of combat aircraft. The main power plant consists of two nuclear reactors with a total power sufficient to travel on the screen in cruise flight mode at a speed of 300 nodes (approximately 300 – 450 MW each with a take-off weight of 16 thousand tons).
When starting and landing, additional capacities of turbopropfan engines (TVVD) are turned on - about half of the power required for cruising. Trapezoidal wings with swivel floats at the ends, where the propulsion systems are located — TWDPA on the pylons, adjoin the center section.
To improve the aerodynamic properties in flight and reduce the starting power of the propulsion complex, the displacement hull - hydrolic with jet propulsion system - is capable of retracting into the center section after launch. Unlike traditional air cushion schemes with separate drives on it and on the motion, a TVWD-driven scheme was used for fan-compressors mounted in the side wings flush with the wing system, which are closed in louvre louvres in cruise mode.
Underwing space when starting or landing on an air cushion is protected by a system of swivel slats, flaps and restrictive washers. Three systems were used to stabilize the pitch flight: a specific location of the center of gravity and the aerodynamic focus of the apparatus, fan-compressor units on the mono-wing extremities used at the start to create an air cushion, and a system of stern and fore horizontal stabilizers installed on the center section and side wings. All parameters of the device are calculated. In the transitional regime, columns with supercavitating tandem screws are put forward from the vertical vertical stabilizers from planing to separation from the water surface.
Approximate dimensions of the ground effect vehicle: length - 250 meters, width - 300 meters, height - 35 meters, draft - 3,5 – 4,5 meters. The total power of the power plant at launch is within 840 – 900 MW, in flight - 550 – 650 MW. At the same time, the thrust-to-weight ratio will not exceed 0,115 – 0,120, which is less than this value for KM WT by more than two times. To facilitate the start, the load per unit area of thinner wings is reduced by about half as compared with KM and Orlenk - about 200 – 250 kilograms per square meter against 450, which corresponds to modern fighters. The aerodynamic quality of the vehicle at an altitude of 40 – 50 meters must be at least 22 – 26, the Froude number must be within 10 – 11. The power distribution of the power plant - 4 of a jet-driven vehicle NKA 20 or engines NK-20 according to 20 MW); retractable tandem columns with supercavitating screws, hydraulic or electric (with cryogenically cooled superconducting windings of built-in electric motors) from a nuclear power plant with a total power of 150 – 220 MW; 4 NKA 40 for 30 – 40 MW - drive to fan-compressors installed in the ends of the center-monocry in the usual non-nuclear variant, 8 tandems of the cranked TVVD engines - channelless TVVD, that is, 16 engines for 40 MW (for 92) (mechanical, hydraulic or otherwise) on 55 fan-compressors in the side wings behind the pylons. In the nuclear version, the tandem NCA-8 (development NK-10 and GE-12) tandem NKA-1055 closest to the center section of the 93 – 36 engines are 50 – 55 MW. The rest of the usual TVVD, are used during the start and landing. Subtleties and details omitted.
For heavy and extra-heavy ekranoplans, it is preferable to have the most economical transport NPI in combination with HVDD. Although it is believed that at speeds up to 600 kilometers per hour can come up and powerful besatunnye ICE Balandina. The experience of creating atoms in our country is also quite significant: in the 60s, an atomic Tu-119 with two NK-14А engines was tested with a good weight-to-power ratio - approximately 3 – 3,5. Anti-submarine An-22 with an almost spent NPU was able to fly without refueling for at least 48 hours.
On the clock in the Hudson Bay
Combat ekranoplans can be aircraft carriers, anti-submarine, anti-missile and landing. The latter includes any civilian variant, since a relatively small draft and a nasal tip hanging above the water make it possible to approach the shore and plant military equipment and soldiers. As for the over-the-horizon landing now fashionable in the West, there are no problems here at all. From the forward end of the apparatus, high-speed floating craft with a displacement of up to 500 tons with weapons and manpower are launched. The second combat method of using civilian ekranoplanes in the event of a military threat is the transportation of 300 40-feet or 600 20-feet containers of the Club system to the coast of the enemy. You can use them from four lifts on the upper plane of the monocryl, with several dozen salvos at once.
Inside the aircraft-carrying ekranoplan will accommodate 22-24 heavy fighters, AWACS aircraft. Heavy high-altitude drones will stand on the upper plane of the mono-wing outside the runway; Application aviation it is possible in two modes - in displacement (for reconnaissance and patrol aircraft) and in combat, at a speed of about 150 knots, while a catapult is not required. Aircraft maintenance is carried out according to the conveyor principle: airplanes land and roll out on bow lifts, descend to the lower deck and there they move to the aft lifts, while preparing for the next sorties.
In the anti-submarine version, it is possible to place two submachine guns like the 705 submarine of a XNUMX submarine project with a displacement of up to two thousand tons or several underwater drones inside the center-mono wing, and helicopters and PLO aircraft on the upper plane of the center-mono wing. Since the combat duty routes of American SSBNs are well known, on occasion, the action of the main, most dangerous component of the US strategic nuclear forces can be completely disorganized.
The ekranoplan of anti-missile purpose to describe in detail makes no sense. Three tasks for this type can be noted. The first and foremost is neutralization of ground-based SNF. The starting position is near Vancouver in the Pacific Ocean, near Halifax in the Atlantic, in the Hudson Bay, from where it is easiest to intercept starting “Minutemen” from North Dakota, Wyoming and Montana. The second task is to cover the Arctic and adjacent areas together with the Russian Aerospace Force. And the third is the neutralization of anti-missile systems capable of shooting down nuclear warheads on a downward trajectory.
Eurasian Arctic Bridge
The Russian Navy has a choice: copy the old Western technology or get ahead of them forever. The aircraft carriers "Storm" and nuclear destroyers with a displacement of heavy cruisers will not lead us to the forefront. Following this path, we will not create a real ocean fleet, except to get connections of disparate ships scattered over the water area and dangling who where with the speed of tanker tankers accompanying them. Right now, until the construction of heavy ships has begun, it is possible and necessary to fulfill the dream of Admiral Sergei Georgievich Gorshkov of several hundred EFVs for the Russian Navy. Moreover, there are both technical capabilities and economic prerequisites for the creation of a new type of sub-Eurasian water transport, together with the Chinese, and perhaps even with the Indian, Iranian partners.
We offer to arrange an open or closed competition for the development of a new shipbuilding program that would meet the realities of the 21st century. We have lost time, but we still have about 10 years to decide what to build - aircraft carriers, and most likely coastal defense, such AUG, as in the United States, equipped with ships with nuclear power plants, we will not overpower. You can start designing now and in two or three years to begin construction of an intermediate version of a heavy ground surface vehicle with a displacement of up to five thousand tons, using the design of a homogeneous liquid metal coolant reactor up to 100 MW and modified NK-93 engines developed by Gidropress. And after testing the device, determine the directions for the development of the shipbuilding program.
We still have the opportunity to become a scientific and technical Eurasian transport bridge between the rapidly developing Southeast Asia and the rest of the world through a new transport system and at the same time create a new type of weapon that will exert direct pressure on the main likely enemy.
The development and operation of such a system with the total cost of the Eurasian countries will not become an unbearable burden for the budget of the Russian Federation. The civilian version of the ekranoplans can initially be used on the Northern Sea Route, in increasing the traffic through which China and Europe are primarily interested. Calculations show that for the transportation of 50 million tons, and the need for such volumes may arise by the 2020 year, on the Murmansk-Shanghai line, 90 – 100 ships with 65 deadweight of thousands of tons are required, while moving along the Northern Sea Route at an average speed of 13,4 of the node takes about 23 days. For delivery of a similar cargo with heavy ekranoplans with a deadweight of 10 thousand tons with a speed of 324 node (600 kilometers per hour), no more than 18 – 20 vessels will be required, and the transition time will not exceed 24 hours. The potential demand for transportation along this route exceeds 650 million tons - so much cargo is now passing through the Suez Canal.
The main design solution of the project is the use of specialized similar cargo spaces inside the center section, equipped with several loading and unloading systems. In the military version they can accommodate airplanes and any other equipment, in the civilian - standard containers and other cargoes. With the threat of nuclear confrontation, both combat and transport vehicle wig, armed with cruise missiles, can be transferred to the shores of the main likely enemy in less than a day. Calculations show that in peacetime near the coast of the United States it is necessary to keep from four to six groups of super-heavy ekranoplanes. Each consists of three or four vessels with anti-submarine to anti-missile functionality and a total number of combat aircraft up to 80.
Native ocean expanses
The strategy of using the Soviet Navy in peacetime assumed the duty of ocean multi-purpose connections, primarily near the coast of the main likely enemy. It was the time of the highest military power of the country: there were magnificent middle class ships, excellent naval aviation, a huge number of diesel submarines, but all this threatened the likely enemy in the European or Far East theater. In fact, we were able to create only one permanent maritime unit outside our coastal zone - the Mediterranean squadron. Even starting to build the newest ocean-class ships, we will never reach the combined power of the fleets of NATO and Japan, which are armed with the latest modifications of the Aegis system.
Therefore, it is proposed to step over the standard approaches to the construction of the fleet and create a universal maritime transport and combat system capable of taking us to the forefront. At the same time, the civilian branch is a purely Eurasian, serving the transport needs of the SCO and as the ocean transportation industry is developing BRICS. There is no need for many communications, for example in the Panama Canal: super-heavy W-10s can cross the isthmus over the territory of Nicaragua at altitudes up to 200 meters above sea level.
The Russian Federation has the greatest scientific and technical groundwork both in the ekranoplans and in aviation with nuclear power plants. We are the only ones in the world who have experience in building transport homogeneous reactors: there is a Gidropress project with a capacity under 100 MW, all that is needed is to increase it, there are developments in the creation of ultra-light and ultra-strong structural materials.
It is necessary to set the tasks correctly and immediately build an ekranoplan by an order of magnitude more powerful than Alekseevsky, which our probable "partners" called "Caspian monsters." The task is difficult, but quite capable. It is necessary to understand what a slice of the loaf of global transport infrastructure can be grabbed off, and even a “partner” to sting.
"Caspian monsters" are back
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