New T-80BV tank modernization project
According to the latest domestic press reports, the defense industry has now completed the development of a project for the modernization of existing tanks. In the near future it is planned to begin the implementation of the program for updating equipment. It is reported that the first renovated and updated T-80BV will be transferred to the military department in the next 2017 year. The modernization project involves the replacement of parts of components and assemblies that are directly related to the combat qualities of the vehicles. It is also planned to improve performance.
The latest reports on the future program for the modernization of existing tanks were published on November 14 edition of "Izvestia". The publication of this mass media indicated the main technical features of the modernization, the start dates of work, etc. In addition, data were presented on the current state of affairs. It is reported that JSC Omsktransmash (Omsk) and JSC Special Design Bureau of Transport Engineering (St. Petersburg), which are part of the Uralvagonzavod corporation, were engaged in the development of the tank renovation project.
Alexander Umansky, the chief designer of the T-80 family of tanks, told the press that now the enterprises-developers of the modernization project are completing preparations for the upgrade of the armored vehicles. Next year, Omsktransmash will begin work on the repair and modernization of tanks coming from the troops. Documentation on the new project, in accordance with which the work will be conducted, is the result of cooperation between the two enterprises.
The terms of the works and the number of tanks sent for modernization have not yet been specified. These features of the current program must be determined by the customer in the person of the Ministry of Defense. Apparently, all such project details will be published later.
Modernization of the new project is proposed to expose the main battle tanks T-80BV, remaining in a number of armored units. These vehicles can still be used by the troops, however, a number of characteristic features of the technology itself and some “external” factors seriously hamper the operation. In particular, for a number of reasons there is no possibility of full repair of tanks with the replacement of existing components and assemblies with the products of the original models. Including for this reason, the current modernization project proposes the use of a significant number of new components.
Recall tank T-80BV was adopted by the Soviet army in 1985 year. This machine was a direct development of T-80B and had some differences from the base sample. In order to improve the combat qualities, some new units and units were used, first of all, a complex of dynamic protection. Unlike its predecessors, the T-80BV on the case and the turret bears the blocks of the “Contact” system, capable of protecting it from some enemy projectiles. The installation of dynamic protection led to an increase in combat weight of approximately 1200 kg, after which this parameter reached 43,7 T. The rest of the T-80BV is almost the same as the basic T-80B. Preservation of existing characteristics contributed to the maximum possible use of the existing design.
From the predecessors of the T-80BV differed dynamic protection "Contact." Photo by Vitalykuzmin.net
From the point of view of the main features of the design, the T-80BV was a typical Soviet-made main tank. At the same time, at the heart of the T-80 family were some original and bold ideas. In all projects of the family, the classic layout of the machine is used with the front compartment of the control, the fighting compartment in the center of the hull and the engine-transmission compartment in the stern. Armament is placed in a rotating turret. The case has a differentiated reservation with a combined frontal projection protection and a weaker single-layer structure of other units. To increase the level of protection against modern weapons, the tank should be equipped with the Contact system.
The most important feature of the T-80 family of tanks, including the BV modification, was the use of gas turbine engines. In the stern of the T-80BV, a GTE-1000TF type motor is placed, capable of developing power up to 1100 hp. Such a power plant gives the car a power density of more than 25 hp. per ton, thanks to which the maximum speed on the highway reaches 70 km / h. Power reserve - 500 km. Characteristic features of a tank with a gas turbine engine are fast acceleration and other differences in terms of mobility. At the same time, in certain modes, fuel consumption can be twice as high as that of armored vehicles with diesel power plants.
The main armament of the T-80BV tank is the 125-mm smooth-bore gun-launcher 2-46-1. The gun with a barrel length 48 calibers mates with a loading mechanism designed for the automated supply of ammunition in the chamber. Up to 38 shots of various types are placed in the loading mechanism conveyor and in additional packs of the fighting compartment. To increase the target's range, a tank can use guided missiles of the 9K112-1 “Cobra” and 9K119 “Reflex” missiles launched through the gun barrel. The maximum range of the missile reaches 5 km. The tank also carries a PKN caliber 7,62 mm machine gun coupled to the gun and a large-caliber anti-aircraft gun.
Due to the construction of new armored vehicles and the gradual modernization of existing models, Soviet and Russian industry produced a large number of T-80BV tanks. So, according to The Military Balance 2016, the Russian army currently has about three and a half thousand T-80B, T-80BB and T-80 tanks, of which up to 450 units remain in service and have not yet been sent for storage. . The technique used by the troops is still a very formidable force, but in its present form it has limited prospects.
According to available data, currently the age of the T-80BV tanks remaining in the units ranges from 25 to 31. A characteristic problem of such a fleet is a reduction in combat readiness associated with moral and physical obsolescence. In addition, the ability to repair and restore tanks is limited, which is a consequence of the problems of past years. So, by now, the production of 1А33 type fire control systems has been discontinued. Also, the Cobra missile system, the loading mechanism aggregates, the radio station, weather sensors, etc. are no longer produced. Because of this, the repair of some armored vehicles is impossible because of the banal lack of spare parts, the source of which can only be other tanks.
This situation leads to the fact that the continued operation of existing tanks is still possible, but the result of various failures may be disabling equipment with the inability to recover. In other words, all the T-80BV tanks and “related” modifications in the army risk completely withdrawing from service in the foreseeable future due to the impossibility of full maintenance, repair and upgrading. Given the number of such equipment, we can talk about undesirable loss of armored vehicles, which could still be used by the army for some time.
In the summer of this year, it became known that Omsktransmash was engaged in the development of a project for the modernization of the main tanks in the army. The project provides for the overhaul of equipment with the subsequent replacement of a number of obsolete components and assemblies. The result of the application of innovations, stipulated by the new project, should be the extension of the service life of the tanks and the increase of their basic parameters. In addition, it was intended to a certain extent to facilitate the operation of the updated T-80BV due to some unification with tanks of the T-72B family.
One of the problems of T-80BV tanks is the lack of mass production of some elements of the fire control system. A new modernization project involves the dismantling of existing equipment and the installation of new products. Thus, it was proposed to use the multichannel gunner sight Sosna-U with an optical, thermal imaging and rangefinder channel with the ability to control a rocket. The use of the product "Sosna-U" allows you to increase the potential of the tank in observation of the terrain and search for targets. Provides detection of objects at any time of the day, the calculation of the necessary amendments and stabilization of weapons. The sight can find the target and determine the distance to it at distances up to 7,5 km. At night, visibility is reduced to 3,3 km.
The multi-channel sight of the proposed type also has a “double” mode of operation, using which the equipment is used not only by the gunner, but also by the tank commander. Such a function allows two crew members to conduct combat work more efficiently, search for targets and direct weapon. As an aid to finding targets and aiming weapons, it is proposed to use the improved periscope 1P67 sight. Having significant differences and losing the "Pine-U" in some characteristics, the 1P67 product allows solving a similar range of tasks, but with some limitations. In particular, the periscope sight is unsuitable for aiming a gun in the dark.
New equipment should receive and tank control department. To improve the capabilities of the driver at night, the use of a TVN-5 binocular observation device is proposed.
In order to ensure the compatibility of new electronic devices with existing units of the tank, it was proposed to refine the automatic control of the loading mechanism. After some of the required changes, this device gets the opportunity to work on the commands of new fire control systems.
Tank T-80BV-RM, one of the options for upgrading existing equipment. Photo Gurkhan.blogspot.ru
The existing complex of dynamic protection “Contact” is proposed to replace the modernization project with the “Relic” system, which is notable for its increased performance. The basis of "Relic" is a new element of the dynamic protection of hypersensitivity type 4C23. As part of this product, there are two plates of armor steel, with a lesion scattered by the explosive charge in different directions. Such a movement of the plates, allegedly, can significantly increase the destructive effect on the attacking element of anti-tank ammunition. Due to the main innovations of the design, the Relikt complex differs from the systems of the Contact family by its greater effectiveness in countering sub-caliber and cumulative ammunition.
A characteristic disadvantage of tanks with gas turbine engines is high fuel consumption in some modes of operation. The proposed T-80BV retrofit project takes this into account and offers an interesting solution to this problem. The upgraded power plant receives a mode of so-called. parking small gas. At the same time, fuel consumption is reduced to 35 kg / h, and the engine power is transmitted to the starter-generator, through which consumers can be supplied with a total power up to 6,8 kW.
The introduction of a new mode of operation made it possible to dispense with the use of a full-fledged auxiliary power unit, but at the same time improve the efficiency of the main engine. Taking into account the fact that about 50% of the time the engine has been running, on average, comes to a halt of a certain duration, such an innovation can have a noticeable economic effect.
The modernization project involves the replacement of existing communications equipment with newer products. It is proposed to use the radio station P-168-25-2, operating in the ultra-shortwave range. Such a station is capable of providing open or encrypted radio communication at any time of the day without any restrictions on meteorological conditions. It is possible to transmit analog and digital data over a simplex or duplex channel. If necessary, the station can be removed from the tank and used in a portable version. The project also proposes the use of new means of internal communication, switching and control.
As is clear from the published data on a promising project for the modernization of obsolete tanks, the essence of the proposed update is to replace a number of units with new systems of similar purpose. It is noteworthy that in most cases such a replacement should lead to a noticeable increase in performance, as is observed in the case of fire control systems or dynamic protection. Other aspects of the project should reduce the impact of negative features of technology, such as increased fuel consumption.
Tower experienced T-80BV-RM. Photo Gurkhan.blogspot.ru
It is easy to see that the proposed project for updating the T-80BV involves the preservation of a large number of existing units and assemblies of the tank. This feature of the project should lead to the fact that some of the technical, combat and operational characteristics will remain at the same level. Thus, as a result, the upgraded tank will be, at least, no worse than the original equipment in terms of certain parameters, in terms of a set of parameters and capabilities.
The approach used to modernize technology is unlikely to lead to a high growth in overall capabilities, but this is not its goal. Such an update of equipment is intended for repair with the extension of the resource, as well as for the replacement of outdated and discontinued devices with new equipment currently being manufactured. Ultimately, this allows you to continue the operation of equipment for some time, further enhancing its characteristics. Without such an upgrade, the existing main tanks have dubious prospects. Obviously, in connection with the failure of certain units, the replacement of which is impossible due to the lack of spare parts, the troops will have to write off the tank or use it as a source of parts for other machines.
Details of the proposed modernization of tanks became known in the summer of this year. A few months after that, the domestic media reported on the current state of affairs. Reportedly, to date, the enterprises Omsktransmash and the Special Design Bureau of Transport Engineering have completed the development of the project and are carrying out preparatory work prior to the beginning of the reworking of army vehicles. Next year it is planned to receive from the Ministry of Defense the first T-80BV tanks, which will have to undergo the required modernization.
The plans of the military department regarding the number of tanks being upgraded and the timing of the required works have not yet been specified. Probably, repairs and upgrades will take at least a few dozen tanks, although we can talk about large quantities of equipment. In military units, there are about 450 T-80 tanks of several modifications, including "BV". Another three thousand armored vehicles are in storage. What proportion of this technology will be restored and improved - will be known later.
Currently, the Russian defense industry continues to develop the existing fleet of armored vehicles. For several years, the enterprises have been engaged in the overhaul and modernization of the T-72 family of tanks with an update on the T-72B3 project. According to recent reports, a program for a similar update of T-80BV machines should start soon. In the foreseeable future, it is planned to begin supplying the newest T-14 tanks, but until a sufficient number of such equipment appears, the ground forces will have to operate existing machines. The current and planned modernization programs, in turn, will allow the army to wait for rearmament, having equipment with higher characteristics.
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