Military Review

Gate at the equator

21
Gate at the equatorIn February 2016, officials from the People’s Liberation Army of China (PLA) confirmed the start of construction of their first military base on the Black Continent in Djibouti. According to the available information, it will represent the port, including for servicing PLA ships, warehouses weapons and accommodation facilities.


Turkish media 30 September reported the completion of construction of the first foreign military base in the capital of Somalia, Mogadishu, where up to 200 will be placed personnel and training of military personnel for the power structures of Somalia will be carried out. This news It did not look illogical in light of the trends in Ankara’s foreign policy in recent years, but it was a surprise even for many experts.

The military-political presence here was intensified by Egypt and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The latter, in 2015, concluded an agreement with the Eritrean authorities on the use of the port of Assab, after which they began to build facilities for the new port and military base in this locality. In September of this year. After signing an agreement to sell the infrastructure of the Berbera port in northern Somalia, a group of military inspectors from Egypt and the UAE arrived there from one of the world's largest logistics companies DPWorld from Dubai to assess the possibility of using this port as a military base. In addition, in April 2016, Cairo and Mogadishu announced their desire to bring bilateral military-political cooperation to a new level.

What is motivated by these decisions?

REGIONAL PROBLEMS

Unfortunately, in the view of many, the Horn of Africa is a distant and forgotten region that is the source of endless problems in the form of piracy, terrorism, poverty, and conflict potential.

Somalia today is a region that is economically backward and torn by civil war. The government relatively controls only a part of the territory and relies heavily on AMISOM (African Union Mission in Somalia), a military force of 21 thousand, deployed by the decision of the African Union to stabilize the situation, support the legitimate authorities and fight terrorists. The mission includes contingents from Uganda, Ethiopia, Kenya, Djibouti and some other African countries.

In the central and southern parts of the country, the influence of the Al-Shabab movement (from the Arabic - “youth”), which is leading the armed struggle against the government to create a Shariah state in Somalia, is strongly influenced.

Separately should be said about Somaliland. This is an unrecognized military-political entity in the north of the country with an area of ​​137 thousand square meters. km (over 20% of Somalia). In the XIX century, the territory was under the protectorate of Great Britain, in which it was called the “African meat market” due to the development of cattle breeding. Strong influence London has retained here until now. Since 1960, it has been part of independent Somalia within its current borders. However, relations with Mogadishu were not easy. Firstly, the ethnic tribal group Isaac, which is the backbone of the local population, has historically opposed other Somali tribes, especially Ogaden. Secondly, there was competition for the income of one of the most profitable sectors of the economy - the export of livestock products. During the reign of Mohammed Siad Barre (1969 – 1991), the inhabitants of the north were subjected to repression and other pressure from the government. The response to these actions was the creation of the Somali National Movement (SNM) in London in 1981, which began an armed struggle against Somalia. Ethiopia, which considered the situation in northern Somalia as a means of fighting Mogadishu, its main military opponent of those years, became the main ally of the SNM. On the territory of Ethiopia, thousands of Somaliland natives were hiding, fleeing repression from the authorities. From here, they conducted subversive activities against Mogadishu.

In 1991, Somaliland declared itself an independent state with its capital in the city of Hargeisa. The total strength of the armed forces of this entity is 45 thousand people, along with civilian personnel (according to Hargeisa). The main military threat is the likelihood of aggression from neighboring Somalia. However, against the background of the rest of Somalia, there is stability here, there are prospects for economic growth. The main military, political and economic ally of Somaliland in Africa is Ethiopia.

The situation in Djibouti is more favorable. The main economic and political asset of this country is its geographical location on the banks of the Bab-el-Mandeb Strait. The main contribution to the national GDP is made by the port of Djibouti, serving ships from around the world and connecting Ethiopia with the oceans - one of the largest economic powers in Africa. Djibouti serves more than 95% of Addis Ababa’s foreign trade, which has no access to the sea, and hostile relations with Eritrea and instability in Somalia make it difficult to use the territory of these states as transit ones.

In addition to the Chinese military personnel, military bases from France and the United States and also military personnel from Japan, Germany and Spain are deployed in Djibouti. The territory is used to combat piracy. The French have been here since colonial times, and the Americans have been here since 1999. The latter widely used the territory of the country to support military activities in the territories of Yemen and Somalia, especially for attacking unmanned aerial vehicles against terrorists.

Eritrea is considered the main potential military adversary of Djibouti, where the situation after gaining independence in 1993 was very difficult: deep poverty, weak state institutions, the constant threat of a new conflict with Ethiopia. More than half of the country's budget revenues are foreign financial assistance. A peculiar indicator of economic and social catastrophe is that Eritrea is in fourth place in terms of the number of refugees reaching Europe today.

For neighboring Ethiopia, the most painful side of the Eritrean branch and the subsequent new war in 1997 was the lack of access to the sea. The border areas of Ethiopia are particularly affected by this, but the presence of unresolved territorial and other issues between the two countries does not inspire optimism about the future of the two countries. In June, 2016 broke out military clashes at the border, during which both sides suffered significant losses, estimated by various sources of several hundred people. Clashes of this magnitude occurred for the first time after the Ethiopian-Eritrean conflict of 1998 – 2000.

Alarming events take place in Ethiopia itself: in October of this year. Major unrest and protest actions took place in the suburbs of the capital Addis Ababa by representatives of the Oromo and Amhara ethnic groups, dissatisfied with the policies of the authorities and restrictions on freedoms. The number of victims in the course of the arisen crush is estimated at over 100 people. The police managed to stabilize the situation, a state of emergency was imposed in the country for a period of six months.

But the existence of such problems and challenges, for all their seriousness, does not at all diminish the economic and military-political significance of the Horn of Africa.

STRATEGIC VALUE

This region is especially important: along it is one of the most important shipping routes from the Red Sea to the Indian Ocean, as well as the way to the south of Africa. The direction is in demand, and its value will increase. And the question here is not only in ensuring the safety of these routes.

If you look at the map, though with some degree of convention, you can say that the region is located half way from the Mediterranean to Central and South Africa or from the countries of the Arabian Peninsula and the Middle East in the same direction. This is relevant even if in view of the technical features of transportation: the presence of a ship service center on this route is very important.

On the other hand, Djibouti today is one of the few opportunities to provide logistical access for foreign business to the markets of Ethiopia and COMESA (Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa) - an economic union from 19 countries. Of great importance will be the implementation of projects supervised by the African Union for the construction of the N'Djamena-Djibouti and N'Djamena-Dakar highways, which will cross all of Africa from west to east and will stimulate further economic growth of the continent.

Therefore, the Horn of Africa can be called the Gate of Africa. One should not underestimate the internal potential of the states of the region themselves. For example, the indicators of economic growth in Ethiopia in recent years have consistently kept at the level of 5%, here is also the headquarters of the African Union, the country attracts more and more investors.

And if in the West, and often in Russia, the belief in the ability of African states to pay back investments is questionable, then Beijing behaves completely differently.

CHINA TAKES A BLACK CONTINENT

As early as the middle of the 2000s, it was believed that China was showing an interest in Africa mainly on the subject of cooperation in the field of energy production. The first and most close economic partners of Beijing on the continent were Algeria, Angola, and Libya, which are rich in hydrocarbons. However, today the situation has changed radically: the economic policy of China in Africa is interested in everything, and even countries that have almost no hydrocarbon reserves, such as Morocco, are becoming important partners of Beijing. Agriculture, mining, access to domestic sales markets, investments in logistics and other infrastructure, military-technical cooperation, even the conquest of the banking services market — these and other areas are becoming the subject of cooperation between Chinese companies and African states.

It is also important that African countries, as a rule, are interested in cooperation with the Celestial Empire, although they often have to look to the United States and the EU countries. Claims that cooperation with the West has not brought the expected result for a long time can often be heard from African scholars and politicians. The conclusion of interstate agreements with Beijing is usually presented by African governments as a political achievement, and Chinese investors in most cases are welcome guests here. The reason for this is the absence of a colonial past, the policy of minimal intervention in internal African affairs, Beijing's readiness to work with everyone except terrorist organizations. However, in the struggle with the latter, China is in no hurry to be in the forefront, although its leadership categorically condemns terrorism.

But the most important factor in the attractiveness of China for Africa is its ability to reinforce the interaction not with empty words, but with deed. For example, in 2014, the Eritrean government and the China China Harbor Engineering Company signed a contract to modernize the country's largest port of Masaua, worth $ 400 million, the largest project in stories independent Eritrea today. Plus, the Chinese have invested in the development of the mining industry and energy infrastructure, and the trade turnover between the two countries has increased tenfold in recent years.

China managed to gain a foothold in Djibouti by implementing a number of large projects here, including completing the construction of the Addis Ababa railway from Djibouti worth 2016 billion dollars in 4, which is very important for developing the Ethiopian share and, in the long run, the East African market . The construction of new port facilities in Djibouti by the Chinese companies to service bulk, container and other cargoes and even animal products is in the final stages. The total cost of these projects exceeds 500 million dollars. Currently, these are the largest ongoing infrastructure projects in this African country. The level of cooperation with Ethiopia is also estimated as very active.

All this suggests that China has a firm goal - to strengthen economic positions throughout East Africa.

True, Beijing managed to acquire and negative experience. First of all, it is Libya, where as a result of 2011 events of the year, Chinese investors suffered multibillion-dollar losses. As well as neighboring Yemen, where after the start of the “Resolute Storm” military campaign in 2015, many of Beijing’s plans collapsed, and he was forced to quickly evacuate his citizens from there, for which the navy was attracted.

Obviously, having learned these lessons well, Beijing decided to reinforce its presence with military measures by opening a military base in Djibouti. In the event of an aggravation of the situation or the next attempts of the forces of democracy to gain the upper hand over the forces of reason, Chinese citizens here will no longer be as vulnerable as they used to be. And taking into account the presence of a military base, one cannot exclude the fact that Beijing’s position in the event of an exacerbation of the situation will not be as neutral as it was in Libya, and the Chinese leadership may already try to influence political events in the region taking into account their interests.

All this is dictated only by the need to protect the interests of their country, and it is naive to blame China for the policy of militarism in this region.

REVIVAL OF HOPE

A large-scale cooperation program with Africa is being implemented by Ankara. During the period when the Justice and Development Party was in power, from 2002 to the present, the number of Turkish diplomatic missions on the continent increased threefold - from 14 to 43, and exports to tropical Africa increased from 554 million to 3,9 billion for the same period.

Somalia has a special role in this strategy. It is worth recalling that this country has the second (after Madagascar) length of the coastline on the continent, along its banks pass the most important routes, the geographical location allows you to connect Ethiopia, South Sudan and some other East African countries with the sea, as Djibouti does today . And the presence of the port, even in such a troubled country like Somalia, is better than nothing.

Finally, Somalia itself is a growing domestic market, cattle breeding, large fish stocks, waters of the exclusive economic zone are considered as promising for the detection of hydrocarbons. Investments in exploration in recent years have been repeatedly. In recent years, some sectors of the country's economy have shown modest but steady growth rates.

In 2011, during the famine that broke out in Somalia, the Turkish authorities launched a campaign in all cities of the country to collect humanitarian aid destined for an African country. Together with the funds allocated from state resources, its volume reached 400 million dollars, and the Somali government assessed it as a significant contribution to overcoming the crisis.

One of the main economic projects in Turkey here was the acquisition by Al-Bayrak, a Turkish company, of concession rights to operate the port of Mogadishu, the country's main economic asset, and investing in the construction of new port facilities equipped to the latest standards.

All these initiatives are being presented as “helping the fraternal Muslim people,” and the Al-Bayrak leadership claims that it has no commercial interest in this project and implements it solely to help Somalia. This is in line with the slogans of the Justice and Development Party, based on religious values. However, securing it can bring Turkey considerable dividends in the future.

Of course, the work of Turkish companies is not going very smoothly. Reported incidents between the Turks and Somalis in the port, which ended in fights with the killing of Turkish workers. It also indicates the presence of opposition views in the Somali parliament (without his consent, the government does not have the right to make decisions regarding the port), a number of whose members are negatively disposed towards expanding interaction with Turkey.

The AMISOM contingent, a serious military force in Mogadishu and having its own interests here, is a dubious "ally" of the Turks in Somalia.

Probably, the intention to open a military base in Somalia is aimed at minimizing the risk that the position of the Turks will be undermined here as a result of the aggravation of the situation, be it a change of government, social unrest, etc.

No less interesting initiatives from the UAE and Egypt. The recent investment agreement for the exchange of 442 million dollars in the modernization of the port of Berbera and the road to Ethiopia has opened up great prospects for turning Somaliland into a logistics corridor to meet the needs of Ethiopia. True, this caused anxiety with Djibouti, which may lose a significant part of the income from logistics services.

In addition, Berbera in the past is a naval base built by the Soviet Union in the 1970s. According to some assumptions, the port will become the basing point of the universal landing ships of the Egyptian Navy "Gamal Nasser" and "Anwar Sadat", produced in France and widely known in Russia as the "Mistral". However, this information has not yet been confirmed. It also built one of the largest airfields in Africa.

It should also be recalled that the policy of the Arab countries in the region in past years, by supporting Eritrea and Somalia, was aimed at making the Red Sea an inland Arab sea, cutting off Ethiopia from the exit to it. In particular, this was the main reason why Somalia joined the League of Arab States in 1974. After achieving this goal at the beginning of 1990, attention to the region from the Arab countries weakened.

However, the changes in Yemen, when the UAE, as one of the most active members of the coalition, required a base for military operations, made their adjustments. Initially, the bet was placed on Djibouti, but the deterioration of relations between the two countries in 2015 forced the UAE to look for alternatives, the main of which was the Eritrean port of Assab. Its significance for the coalition’s actions turned out to be very great: in 2015, it provided measures for the naval blockade of Yemeni ports, the transfer of equipment and personnel, and even military units from Sudan, which became an ally of the coalition.

Judging by the level of activity of Abu Dhabi in the form of rapid construction of new port facilities and a military base in Assab, the UAE leadership intends to deploy a military presence here for a long time, and the crisis in Yemen is still far from its end.

NEW AFRICAN WAR

As for Egypt, according to official statements of Cairo, the strengthening of relations with Somalia, which began in 2013 after a long break, is due to the need to cooperate in fighting terrorists, to ensure the safety of navigation in the area, to assist Somalia in overcoming the crisis, to strengthen common positions Arab Republic in East Africa. The need to assist the allies in the hostilities in Yemen, especially the possible use of the naval base in Berbera, is also pointed out. Nevertheless, these statements are perceived by a number of experts as not entirely exhaustive.

Although Egypt is an ally of the Arab coalition, leading military operations against the Housit movement in Yemen, in fact, only the Navy is involved in this in the form of patrolling the area of ​​conflict. Cairo is in no hurry to interfere here more deeply and put the heads of its soldiers there. The reason for this is trivial: Shiite military formations and the possible expansion of Iranian influence in Yemen do not pose any threat to Egypt.

The same can be said about Somalia. It is noteworthy that even during the rampant maritime piracy in previous years, which caused the Egyptian economy a significant loss due to the use of alternative routes and the loss of part of the revenue of the Suez Canal, Cairo did not make active efforts in the Somali direction. At the present time, the threat of piracy is localized and is not on the agenda.

Some large investment projects from Egypt in Somalia can hardly be expected either.

What is the real reason for the activity of Egypt? Search for it should be in neighboring Ethiopia.

The whole of East Africa today is following the development of the Renaissance project - the construction of a large hydro-technical complex and a power plant in Ethiopia on the Nile River. Its capacity should be 6 GW, which exceeds the total capacity of all power plants in Ethiopia. Needless to say, Renaissance will significantly contribute to the development of East Africa. Completion is scheduled for 2017 year.

The cost of construction is estimated at 4,8 billion dollars, which is about 15% of the country's annual GDP. Chinese investors are also involved in financing.

However, the fly in the Nile, the main source of fresh water for Egypt, which has always been very sensitive to the implementation of any projects in the upper reaches of the Nile, including the Renaissance, is a spoon of tar. In the 1970s, Cairo even threatened with a military strike if the project started, which forced Ethiopia to curtail such initiatives.

After the political turmoil of 2011, Cairo’s ability to resist this process weakened, and Ethiopia took advantage of it by launching construction in the same year.

The consequences for Egypt are extremely difficult to assess: some experts say that this complex, with a competent approach, will not do any harm for the Arab Republic at all. The most gloomy scenario assumes a decrease in flow of 20% or more during the tank filling period, which will bring a significant loss to agriculture and the economy of Egypt.

True, Addis Ababa demonstrates respect for the fears of Cairo by organizing cooperation and mutual advice on engineering issues, and the Ethiopian government promises to carry out the reservoir filling process only in a period of favorable climatic conditions in order to avoid causing losses to Egypt. A number of bilateral agreements have been concluded between the two countries, the relevant commissions are working.

But even with the development of events in a favorable scenario, this project poses a threat to Egypt, if only because Ethiopia, one of the leaders of the African Union, is able to “close” the tap at any time and reduce the flow of water to Egypt.

By the way, Egypt itself today is not in the most optimistic situation. The budget deficit, reduction of investment attractiveness, depletion of reserves and, as a result, cessation of natural gas exports, the crisis of the tourism industry, reduction of financial assistance from the Arabian monarchies due to falling oil prices, the need to take unpopular measures in the form of reducing government spending. According to some assumptions, already in 2017 – 2018, new social perturbations and agitations can reach the country. Against this background, a difficult demographic situation: with a population of more than 88 million people, some experts wonder whether Egypt will pass the threshold of 100 million people that will be reached in the coming years.

In this situation, the shortage of water resources and, as a result, a blow to the agriculture and food security of Egypt, which may arise from a decrease in the flow of the Nile, will simply be a disaster for the country. To allow this for the Egyptian authorities would be tantamount to signing a death sentence to yourself.

There were no threats from Egypt to Ethiopia. So far, Cairo has only intensified diplomatic work with the countries of the African Union in order to convince them of the inappropriateness of building this dam. But these measures did not bring a serious result.

Much of the experts, journalists and the public in East African countries already have no illusions about the events described above: they make an unequivocal conclusion: Egypt is preparing to give a decisive battle for the waters of the Nile, and the two largest African countries are heading towards war. It is this that local experts explain the activity of Egypt in Somalia in recent years, and talks about the possible opening of a military base in Berbera are even perceived as an attempt to create a springboard for conducting military operations in the region.

Some African media also point to Egypt’s involvement in the recent unrest in the suburb of Addis Ababa with the aim of destabilizing the situation in Ethiopia. True, no evidence of this is not presented, and Cairo strongly denies its participation in these events.

In turn, Ethiopia is also preparing for any scenario. In particular, measures have been strengthened to protect the object under construction by transferring special forces units there and strengthening the air defense system.

It is difficult to say how the situation will develop further. Especially given the fact that there may appear interested parties. It is clear that both countries will do everything possible to resolve this dispute by peaceful means. However, if the situation evolves according to the worst scenario, this could turn into a destabilization of the entire Horn of Africa. We cannot exclude a conflict with a huge number of victims, comparable in scale to the Second Congolese War of 1998 – 2002, which killed more than 5 million people.

For the countries of the region, the clash of such large regional powers, in whatever form it occurs, does not promise anything good: their territories can become a theater of military operations.

However, so far there are no clear signs in favor of the implementation of this scenario.

With all the problems of the Horn of Africa, its importance has increased in recent years, as evidenced by the events described above and the emergence of new players. The sad thing is that a significant part of the infrastructure here was created by the efforts of the USSR in previous years, and the influence of Moscow was later lost. However, today the need to restore Russian influence is evident: Africa, with all its problems, is a very rich and dynamically developing region, without cooperation with which the development of such a large country like Russia is unthinkable. However, so far the Russian presence here is not on the scale that Moscow needs.
Author:
Originator:
http://nvo.ng.ru/gpolit/2016-11-11/1_925_africa.html
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  1. demiurg
    demiurg 12 November 2016 15: 17
    0
    Have money, have interests, let them build.
    1. novobranets
      novobranets 12 November 2016 16: 04
      0
      Africa is a treasure trove of minerals, including diamonds, gold, platinum, uranium, etc., and also ore with a high content of rare earths, some of which are orders of magnitude more expensive than platinum. So, China has plans for very fat chunks of this wealth, and is building this base for a reason, "for the presence", but to defend its own, sometimes not particularly legitimate claims.
    2. 210ox
      210ox 12 November 2016 18: 38
      +2
      And there are interests, and money (there is someone to shake), but desire is not visible only .. I mean our country, and the base in Cuba ..
      1. nerd.su
        nerd.su 13 November 2016 13: 27
        +1
        Cubans clearly said no foreign military bases. They are now closest to resolving the issue of lifting the embargo and foreign military bases, especially ours, they do not need at all.
  2. cap
    cap 12 November 2016 15: 36
    +4
    Also, Berbera in the past is a naval base built by the Soviet Union in the 1970s. According to some assumptions, the port will become the base point for the universal landing ships of the Egyptian Navy Gamal Nasser and Anwar Sadat, made in France and widely known in Russia as the Mistral.

    Everything great is seen in the distance. Only now, over the years, it is clear that our fathers thought with their heads, as it should be.

    "Yes, there were people in our time, not like the current tribe .."
    1. Andrey Yuryevich
      Andrey Yuryevich 12 November 2016 17: 00
      +2
      riots and protests took place in the suburbs of the capital of Addis Ababa by representatives of the Oromo and Amhar ethnic groups, who were dissatisfied with the policies of the authorities and the restriction of freedoms.
      in the 80s (the beginning) there was silence ... a classmate served urgently in Ethiopia .. heat, macaques, bananas, sand ... there is a photo. Gorbachev violated the balance of power in the world, screwed up all the bastard, now we have what we have ...
  3. 16112014nk
    16112014nk 12 November 2016 16: 37
    +6
    Quote: cap
    it is clear that our fathers thought with their heads, as it should be.

    The current leaders have only $$$ in their eyes, so there is no time to think.
    That is why in the USSR they sold alcohol from 11 o’clock? Because Soviet doctors found that enzymes in the body break down alcohol most effectively from 11 a.m., which was reported to the pr-in, which allowed trade from 11 a.m. And our anti-people production, in which only $$$ is in the eyes, is allowed at any time, because of democracy.
    Why should the temperature of hot water in apartments be 60 degrees? Because, again, Soviet doctors found that at this temperature bacteria die in the pipes. And our managers with $$$ eyes want to lower it to 50 degrees, supposedly to lower tariffs. But as you know, the road to hell is paved with good intentions. Most likely, the degree will be reduced, and the tariffs will be raised (they will find the reason), and it will affect people's health.
    1. Cat man null
      Cat man null 12 November 2016 16: 56
      0
      Quote: 16112014nk
      That is why in the USSR they sold alcohol from 11 o’clock? ... And our anti-people pr-in, in whose eyes only $$$, permits at any time, because democracy

      - uncle, questions like "when it is possible and when it is impossible to sell a hanka" are not ruled by the Government of the Russian Federation
      - these issues are ruled by local ... um ... bodies
      - I, for example, in a small town in Zamkadye, sell a hani from 9 a.m. to 10 p.m.
      - it's official. Unofficially, if you do not mind where and where you are, you can get hold of at least 4 in the morning ...


      Quote: 16112014nk
      And our managers with $$$ eyes want to reduce it to 50 degrees, supposedly to reduce tariffs

      - time again ...
      - the government of the Russian Federation is not engaged in such nonsense
      - I, for example, have a local thermal power plant doing this. That's how much she gave out, so much will be
      - and somehow it feels much more than 60 degrees Celsius ...

      That's something like yes
      1. 210ox
        210ox 12 November 2016 18: 47
        +2
        Roman, the temperature in your batteries directly depends on the air temperature in the street. And you correctly noticed that it is more than 60 degrees, but this is at the entrance to the heat point ... Well, then .. How lucky with the management company .. Regarding vodka, it’s also fair , all set by local, they also turn a blind eye to violations for the same $$$$ .....
        1. Cat man null
          Cat man null 12 November 2016 19: 01
          0
          Quote: 210ox
          the temperature in your batteries directly depends on the outdoor temperature

          - for sure. And it is regulated by the same heat point, 300 meters from the house
          - only from my hot tap always flows ... well, almost boiling water. That is, it is unrealistic to hold a hand under it. Sorry, there is nothing to measure, but there are definitely more than 60 Celsius request


          Quote: 210ox
          As for vodka, it’s also fair, everything is set by the locals, they also turn a blind eye to violations for the same $$$$

          - Not certainly in that way
          - "established" by the city administration
          - and the police control the execution
          - they’re agreeing with them ...
    2. nerd.su
      nerd.su 13 November 2016 13: 32
      0
      Quote: 16112014nk
      Soviet doctors found that enzymes in the body break down alcohol most effectively from 11 a.m.

      Can I have some kind of confirmation of your words? Link or title of a book, article?
  4. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 12 November 2016 18: 28
    0
    Africa, Africa .... Where is it?
    Egypt, of course. But diamonds and ores will be tidied up by China. So let them fight terrorists in Africa.
    1. nerd.su
      nerd.su 13 November 2016 13: 33
      +1
      Quote: Mavrikiy
      Africa, Africa .... Where is it?

      And what does your nickname on the site mean?
      1. Mavrikiy
        Mavrikiy 15 November 2016 16: 51
        0
        Quote: bot.su
        Quote: Mavrikiy
        Africa, Africa .... Where is it?

        And what does your nickname on the site mean?

        Well done, pinned, chopped (+).
        1. nerd.su
          nerd.su 15 November 2016 17: 33
          0
          Pin it, it will never rust after me! hi
  5. Barakuda
    Barakuda 12 November 2016 18: 56
    0
    I did not really understand what the article was about.
    Russia in Africa has nothing to do, God forbid, at least to use its resources with ONLY.
    Middle East, Far, Arctic - this is the element. Yes, and the former kissed neighbors do not give rest - such as Tajikistan, Kazakhstan (although it seems to be correct), Kyrgyzstan, etc.
    Somehow specialists work poorly, even on drugs.
    Everyone knows, but not, development is underway request And then, in Moscow and Kiev, do they smoke and sash?
    Cheaper from Colombia to drive?
    Ah GDP-Vova, would clean him his ranks .....
    1. nerd.su
      nerd.su 13 November 2016 13: 45
      0
      Quote: Barracuda
      Russia in Africa has nothing to do, God forbid, at least to use its resources with ONLY.

      Everywhere Russia can be found. We even mine uranium in the USA, to say nothing of Africa.

      By the way, Ukraine could also turn out well in Africa, thanks to the ties of the Soviet era. Yes, only the Ukrainian authorities have enough mind to buy only coal in South Africa, and to supply tanks bypassing UN sanctions ...
  6. midshipman
    midshipman 12 November 2016 18: 59
    +3
    So "Andrei Yuryevich" noticed that Gorbachev screwed up everything about our positions on this continent. I agree with him. Thanks to him, we got out of Angola with the Cubans. And we were loved and respected there. I have the honor.
    1. Barakuda
      Barakuda 12 November 2016 19: 40
      0
      I’m sorry, sorry.
      In 1985, to us in the Kiev region. got a bunch of orphans from Cuba.
      order - do what you want. These are kids.
      What did the Cubans do - pipes climbed all the stoker. flags from the sheets were set by Cuba and the USSR. Now resolved. Our people do not perceive half-breeds, as well as their mothers. Although tryndyat in Russian and Ukrainian, the color of the skin is not the same, it sucks to live. Almost everyone went somewhere.
      1. zombirusrev
        zombirusrev 20 November 2016 16: 55
        0
        I wonder how you can make the USSR flag from a sheet :) What are we talking about nonsense? There was one people who loved the purity of his blood in the ass whipped the whole world! Now, sadly, she is silent in the corner with downcast margals .... apparently, and do you want the same? Do not be afraid, our orderlies brains will set you right! ....
      2. zombirusrev
        zombirusrev 20 November 2016 16: 59
        0
        I’ll add a little about the purity of your pseudo-race ... your Poles, Germans, Turks, Mongols, were staring at your sweet soul back in the late Middle Ages when Ukraine began to form as a state as part of the Commonwealth ....