How was Bonaparte escorted


Today is the anniversary of the glorious battle of Vyazma, in which Russian troops under the command of General Miloradovich and the Cossacks Ataman Platov defeated the rearguard of Napoleon’s army, retreating from Moscow. The French infantry corps of Marshals Ney and Davou, the Italian corps of Marshal Beauharnais and the Polish corps of General Poniatowski were hit. It should be noted that the Russians attacked the French convoy, being in the minority, there were only 24 thousands against 37 and a half thousand enemies. It would seem that this is a deadly risk, but ours, as they say, having caught courage in the previous victorious battle for Maloyaroslavets, felt that the enemy was weakened and psychologically broken down. Therefore, the risk paid off.

On the morning of November 3, 1812 of the year (in a new style), Russians from the southern flank attacked the corps of Beauharnais as the least resistant. The Italians quickly "broke down" and fled in a panic to the north, to the surrounding fields, while ours blocked the Old Smolensk Road, along which the French retreated. At the same time, Davout’s hull, which was last in the column, was cut off from the main forces. The marshal fell into a trap: behind him on the heels of the division Paskevich was marching, and Miloradovich and Platov were already waiting for him in front.

Attempt to break through failed. Davout had to turn off the road and let his battalions bypass the blocked area, over snow-covered fields and ice swamps, where many soldiers froze to death. At that time, the Poles of Poniatowski and the remnants of the Beauharnais corps, still retaining their combat capability, after learning of the plight of Davout, turned around and went in the opposite direction to "break the cork" and open the way to the allies. Ours managed to install artillery batteries along the road, and this “offensive” was taking place under rapid fire, which caused great losses to the Poles and Italians.

Having passed several miles and never met Davout, who, as already mentioned, moved around, Poniatowski and Beauharnais turned back again. By the middle of the day, both marshals and the general, with their heavily-thinned troops, approached Vyazma, where Ney's corps held positions. At an emergency meeting, Ney promised to restrain the Russians until the soldiers of Poniatowski, Beogarna and Davout, who due to fatigue and frostbite could no longer fight, would pass through the city and cross the bridges to the western bank of the Vyazma river.

But Nei overestimated his strength. When the Russians approached Vyazma and attacked his troops on the move, the French were able to hold out for a very short time. After about two hours, they could not stand the next attack and rushed to run, and the Russians on their shoulders rushed into the city. She and her retinue hurriedly left the river and ordered the bridges to be burned behind him, although many of his soldiers remained on the east bank. All of them were waiting for death or captivity.

At around midnight 6, when it got dark, the battle was over. About three thousand soldiers and officers of Napoleon died in it, more than a thousand were missing, and another four thousand were taken prisoner. Thus, the total irretrievable losses of the French and their allies were eight thousand people, and no one considered the wounded, contused and frostbitten. The Russians lost only about 800 people killed and about 1000 wounded, capturing many trophies, including several dozen guns and hundreds of wagons with various cargoes.

After Vyazma, it became clear to everyone that the fate of the "Great Army" was predetermined, and its soldiers could only desperately fight for life with the Russian troops, partisans, famine and the "general frost." But few of them managed to prevail in this fight.

On the screen saver - the soldiers of Miloradovich attack Vyazma, a picture of Peter von Hess.

Map of the battle of Vyazma. Above - the actions of Russian (blue) and French-Polish-Italian (red) troops on the Old Smolensk road in the morning. Below are the positions of the Russians and the French by two o'clock in the afternoon, before the start of the storming of the city.

Napoleon's army retreat along the Smolensk Old Road at the beginning of November 1812.

How was Bonaparte escorted

The camp kitchen of the Ney is one of the Vyazma trophies of the Russian army.
Our news channels

Subscribe and stay up to date with the latest news and the most important events of the day.

Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. +13
    12 November 2016 06: 46
    The retreat of the army of Napoleon is a vast topic ...
    The disappearance of the 600 combined group of troops of EUROPE under the command of the talented commander of FRANCE in RUSSIA is a whole historical poem on military subjects.
    I read a lot of books on this subject ... I admire KUTUZOV's mind ... the heroism of soldiers and officers of the Russian army ... peasants who resisted barbaric civilization from the WEST ... the result is logical ... a just VICTORY over the worst enemy of our people.
    1. +6
      12 November 2016 09: 30
      Barbarian civilization. Offset. Take into service.
      1. Cat
        12 November 2016 11: 40
        Well, yes "unhistorical" we are Russian people. Every time we fall out of the outline of their civilization from Western critics! They have not been able to reconcile themselves for 1000 years! crying
        Such a desire to shout to them in the mirror, look "you are our civilized", just first wash and wipe yourself. tongue
        1. +1
          13 November 2016 07: 00
          Take a look, but not the point. Do not look.
    2. avt
      12 November 2016 10: 05
      Quote: The same LYOKHA
      The disappearance of the 600 combined group of troops of EUROPE under the command of the talented commander of FRANCE in RUSSIA is a whole historical poem on military subjects.

      Nothing epic. An example of this is the German corps of several tens of thousands of those that went to St. Petersburg, which practically surrendered to hundreds of Kulnev's hussars. Otherwise, the otkudp would have been taken by the army of the "victor Boni" under the leadership of Blucher. bully It’s quite an european comme il faut, carried through the centuries and .... materialized, for example, in World War II from the same Romanians. In time to betray, it is not to betray, but .... TO PREDICT.bully
    3. 2-0
      26 November 2016 18: 00
      The same LYOKHA! A lot of books I have read on this topic are certainly good ... But such a moment. If Buonapartiy fled along the Old Smolensk devastated road, and lost the remainder of the alleged 600 thousand, then ask, how much did our valiant army, marching on the "shoulders" of the retreating, lost? Be surprised if you don't know!
  2. +6
    12 November 2016 08: 35
    The author, as always, pleases with detailed articles on significant events wink
  3. +8
    12 November 2016 09: 07
    Dear Vyacheslav, great article. I didn’t know that you are fond of history. I published the story "The Forgotten Governor-General" in the magazine "Youth". Positive developments followed immediately. As a result, in September 2015 M.A. To Miloradovich (the savior of Russia, as he was called in Russian society), a monument was erected in a solemn atmosphere on Moskovsky prospect in St. Petersburg. There were also a solemn liturgy, a dinner party at the monastery and a concert at the Hermitage theater. In "VO" there are also my publications (excerpts from the story) about him. I will quote the words of General Ermolov about Miloradovich: "To be near you on the battlefield, you need to have three spare lives." I have the honor.
    1. 2-0
      26 November 2016 18: 13
      "midshipman"! My opinion about the "courage" of a military leader, not to mention the general. Waving a saber with your mind, or walking in front of the chain is not necessary at all. You were assigned to lead the troops, so lead. The almost complete loss of regular officers in the Russian army in 1 MV was caused by precisely this stupid heroism, and in the German army (in my opinion, it seems) the statute directly forbade officers to be in the attacking chain.
      Knightly times have passed, why did Miloradovich climb under bullets? They would have killed, and chaos came. This illustrates well the experience of our 1st and 2nd squadrons in Russian-Japanese.
  4. +5
    12 November 2016 09: 26
    Wonderful essay!

    We can add that the invasion of Napoleon cost Smolensk region a terrible, previously unprecedented number of casualties-100 000 people!
    The war was fierce .....
  5. The comment was deleted.
    1. +5
      12 November 2016 10: 34
      Quote from rudolf
      They didn’t achieve the main thing; the defeat of Napoleon’s army near Vyazma did not happen. Generally surprising. Napoleon did not lose a single battle in Russia, but he lost the war.

      Drink some water. Napoleon did not lose the war, but lost the empire. As for the battles, everything is clear here, Napoleon did not win a single battle in Russia.
      1. The comment was deleted.
        1. +3
          12 November 2016 17: 07
          Quote from rudolf
          Napoleon could not win any battles in Russia, since the Russian army, remembering Austerlitz, constantly retreated almost to Moscow itself, trying to give a general battle only near Borodino. Equally, Napoleon also then retreated, avoiding major battles. There was a chance to defeat Napoleon’s army under Berezin, but failed.

          Interesting you get. And Tarutin was not, and Maloyaroslavets, and so on. And I understand, I understand, I understand. Only major battles are considered. So decide how many thousand participants to be considered large? Not less than 100?
    2. +4
      12 November 2016 17: 32
      Quote from rudolf
      They didn’t achieve the main thing; the defeat of Napoleon’s army near Vyazma did not happen. Generally surprising. Napoleon did not lose a single battle in Russia, but he lost the war.

      Interesting. The unfortunate VIKI leads 7 battles in Russia. I wonder who won there, do not tell?
      since the Russian army, remembering Austerlitz, constantly retreated almost to Moscow itself, trying to give a general battle only near Borodino.
      It's a shame. And draped remembering Austerlitz. How lucky we were that he was. If he hadn’t existed, we would have rolled the general with all the foolishness of Napoleon, and he would have rolled us out, it would have been great (the seagulls dream of Bavarian beer, and now we would have pulled a bougie, mmmm). By the way, all the same, look at VIKI, there were some battles in front of Borodino, Gorodechno, Smolensk ...
  6. +1
    12 November 2016 11: 33
    I liked the article, easy to read, not overloaded with numbers ..
    It is possible to recommend for additional reading at school.
  7. Cat
    12 November 2016 11: 48
    Last week the child taught Krylov's fable "The Wolf in the Sheepfold"! I told her about the allegories contained in the text: Kutuzov and Bonopart. Now let me read your article. I see that my daughter is hooked on the topic ....! As a father I am glad, thank you very much for your work, I no longer wait, but wait for the continuation.
    While slipping my daughter books about childhood M.I. Kutuzova, maybe burn out.
    1. +3
      12 November 2016 14: 13
      Quote: Kotischa
      ... I told her about the fables of allegory inherent in the text: Kutuzov and Bonopart ...

      Before the tomb of the saint
      I stand with a drooping head ...
      Everything is sleeping all around; some lamps
      In the darkness of the temple
      Pillars of granite bulks
      And their banner is the looming row.
      Under them lies this ruler,
      This idol of the northern squads
      The venerable guard of the land of sovereign,
      The suppressor of all her enemies
      This rest of the glory
      Catherine eagles.
      The delight lives in your coffin!
      He gives us the Russian voice;
      He repeats us about that year
      When the popular faith voice
      Appealed to your holy graying:
      “Go save!” You stood up and saved ...
      Listen to our true voice today
      Rise and save the king and us
      O formidable elder! For a moment
      Appear at the door of the grave
      Appear, breathe enthusiasm and zeal
      The shelves left by you!
      Appear and kiss your
      Point us in the crowd of leaders
      Who is your heir, your chosen one!
      But the temple is immersed in silence
      And be quiet of your grave
      An unflappable, eternal dream ...

      A.S. Pushkin in 1831 dedicated the poem "Before the Holy Sepulcher" to the commander, writing it in a letter to the daughter of Kutuzov Elizabeth. In honor of Kutuzov, poems by G.R. Derzhavin, V.A. Zhukovsky and other poets. The famous fabulist I.A. During the commander’s life, Krylov composed the fable “The Wolf at the Kennel”, where in an allegorical form he depicted Kutuzov’s struggle with Napoleon ...
      Full text: http: // / klin-9 /? P = 1968
      1. Cat
        12 November 2016 14: 56
        Thank you for reminding me!
        There are a number of people in the history of Russia about whom it is possible with a clear conscience to say "our Everything", one of their galaxy is M.I. Kutuzov.
        This is clearly reflected in the Winter Palace, where portraits of the heroes of the Patriotic War of 1812 hang on all walls.
        Two giants
        In a hat of gold cast
        Old Russian Giant
        Waiting for another
        From distant alien countries.
        Over the mountains, over the valleys
        A story was thundering about him,
        And face each other
        He wanted them at least once.
        And he came with a military thunderstorm
        Three-week bastard, -
        And with a bold hand
        To grab the enemy’s crown.
        But a fatal smile
        The Russian hero answered:
        Looked - shook the head.
        The impudent gasped - and fell!
        But he fell in the far sea
        To the unknown granite
        Where the storm is in the open
        Noises above the abyss.

        Author: M. Yu. Lermontov
        1. +2
          12 November 2016 17: 47
          Author: M. Yu. Lermontov
          By the blue waves of the ocean,
          Only the stars will flash in the sky,
          The ship is alone,
          It rushes on all sails.

          High masts do not bend
          Weathercocks don’t make noise on them,
          And silently in open hatches
          Cast-iron guns look.

          Can't hear the captain on him
          Not visible sailors on it;
          But rocks, and secret shoals,
          And the storm doesn’t matter to him.

          There is an island on that ocean -
          Desert and gloomy granite;
          There is a grave on the island
          And in it the emperor is buried.

          He is buried without the honor of abuse
          Enemies in loose sand
          A heavy stone lies on it,
          So that he could not get out of the coffin.

          And at the hour of his sad death,
          At midnight, how is the year,
          Quiet to the high bank
          Aerial ship pestering.

          From the tomb then the emperor,
          Waking up suddenly is;
          He wears a triangular hat
          And a gray camping frock coat.

          Crossing your mighty hands
          Head down to the chest,
          He goes and drives the wheel
          And quickly embarks on a journey.

          He rushes to France dear,
          Where the throne also left glory
          Left the heir son
          And he is the old guard.

          And just my native land
          Envy in the darkness of night
          His heart flutters again
          And eyes burn with fire.

          Big steps ashore
          He walks boldly and straight,
          Companions loudly he calls
          And the marshals are menacingly calling.

          But the grenadier barbel sleeps -
          In the plain where the Elba is noisy
          Under the snow of cold Russia
          Under the sultry sand of the pyramids.

          And the marshals do not hear the call:
          Others died in battle
          Others cheated on him
          And they sold their sword.

          And stamping on the ground with his foot,
          Angrily back and forth
          Walks along the quiet shore
          And again he calls out loud:

          He calls a kind son
          Prop in the wrong fate;
          He is promised half the world,
          And France only to itself.

          But in the color of hope and strength
          His royal son died away
          And for a long time, waiting for him,
          The emperor is alone

          He stands and sighs heavily,
          As the east dawns
          And dripping bitter tears
          From the eyes to the cold sand

          Then to your magical ship,
          Head down to the chest,
          Going and waving his hand,
          The path is set back.
          1. 2-0
            26 November 2016 20: 09
            Poetic evening, b! Heine, b! Chaliapin sang well.

            Two grenadiers to France
            They wandered from Russian captivity
            And both soul saddened.
            Reaching German land.

            They will have to - hear - see
            Shame on his native country ...
            And the brave army is broken
            And the emperor himself is in captivity!

            Sad listening to the news
            One of them said: “Brother!
            My sorrowful heart hurts
            And the old wounds are burning! ”

            Another answers: "Comrade,
            And it’s time for me to die;
            But at home his wife, youngsters:
            They have no stake, no yard.

            What do I need? Asking for Christ
            Let and children and wife ...
            Other heart concern:
            In captivity the emperor, in captivity!

            Fulfill my covenant: if I am here
            I'll end the days of soldiers
            Take my body, comrade
            To France! Bury it there!

            You are an order on a red ribbon
            Lay on my heart
            And you will gird me with your sword
            And put a gun in my hands.

            And quietly, and sensitively I will
            To lie, as if on guard, in a coffin.
            I hear the horse rye
            And cannon thunder, and a pipe.

            Then he goes over the grave!
            Banners triumphantly rustle ...
            Then the emperor will come to you
            From your grave your faithful soldier! ”

  8. +3
    12 November 2016 18: 22
    "Why did I go to you, Russia,
    Holding the whole of Europe in your hands? "
  9. +1
    14 November 2016 09: 59
    "The attempt to break through failed. Davout had to turn off the road and send his battalions around the blocked area, through snowy fields and icy swamps, where many soldiers froze."
    From November 3-18, the temperature was from + 5 at the beginning to -8 at the end, the frost to -20 was after crossing the birch, i.e. after 28 November. Napoleon was still beaten in the heat, so it is unclear how he had most of the army frostbite.
    1. 2-0
      26 November 2016 20: 05
      "gringo"! An interesting point. You can get frostbitten even on a summer beach, no matter how paradoxical it sounds. Only a few conditions are needed.

"Right Sector" (banned in Russia), "Ukrainian Insurgent Army" (UPA) (banned in Russia), ISIS (banned in Russia), "Jabhat Fatah al-Sham" formerly "Jabhat al-Nusra" (banned in Russia) , Taliban (banned in Russia), Al-Qaeda (banned in Russia), Anti-Corruption Foundation (banned in Russia), Navalny Headquarters (banned in Russia), Facebook (banned in Russia), Instagram (banned in Russia), Meta (banned in Russia), Misanthropic Division (banned in Russia), Azov (banned in Russia), Muslim Brotherhood (banned in Russia), Aum Shinrikyo (banned in Russia), AUE (banned in Russia), UNA-UNSO (banned in Russia), Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People (banned in Russia), Legion “Freedom of Russia” (armed formation, recognized as terrorist in the Russian Federation and banned)

“Non-profit organizations, unregistered public associations or individuals performing the functions of a foreign agent,” as well as media outlets performing the functions of a foreign agent: “Medusa”; "Voice of America"; "Realities"; "Present time"; "Radio Freedom"; Ponomarev; Savitskaya; Markelov; Kamalyagin; Apakhonchich; Makarevich; Dud; Gordon; Zhdanov; Medvedev; Fedorov; "Owl"; "Alliance of Doctors"; "RKK" "Levada Center"; "Memorial"; "Voice"; "Person and law"; "Rain"; "Mediazone"; "Deutsche Welle"; QMS "Caucasian Knot"; "Insider"; "New Newspaper"