Excellent technical vision of Western armored vehicles

Excellent technical vision of Western armored vehicles

The new machine of the British Army Ajax will be equipped with the latest optical systems with day and night capabilities.

Many armies of the world today seek to increase the capabilities of their main combat tanks and infantry fighting vehicles, either through the modernization of the existing fleet, or the acquisition of completely new vehicles. The unpredictable geopolitical situation and the likelihood of engaging in an armed conflict with a well-equipped enemy make us again pay special attention to optics for armored vehicles.

Since the military of the whole world is striving to acquire new or modernize the existing main battle tanks (MBT) and infantry fighting vehicles (BMP), one of the key requirements is the presence of modern optics and aiming systems in them. Advanced optics allow the vehicle commander and gunner to detect, recognize and identify the enemy at extended ranges, which gives them a tactical advantage on the battlefield. Sighting systems, being the brains of weapons, must meet modern requirements in order to guarantee a high probability of hitting them from the first shot at such increased ranges.

In Europe, several countries are in the process of purchasing new cars and modernizing the existing fleet, seeking to postpone obsolescence and fill the lack of opportunities. The UK is engaged in updating its fleet by purchasing a new family of armored combat vehicles (BBM) under the general designation Ajax, manufactured by General Dynamics UK (GDUK), and, in addition, it is upgrading the outdated Warrior BMP and Challenger II MBT as part of the relevant projects to extend the deadlines service.

In accordance with the contract, GDUK will supply the British Army's Ajax 589 vehicles, including the 245 reconnaissance variant, 93 reconnaissance support, 112 combat control vehicles, 50 repair, 38 evacuation reconnaissance and 51 engineering reconnaissance. The reconnaissance option, deployed for surveillance, reconnaissance and information gathering, will be equipped with a turret with an 40-mm gun and an advanced, stabilized, panoramic sighting system.

Modern optical systems have computing power to perform tasks such as target detection, target tracking and integrated image processing.

Sighting systems

Thales was selected in 2011 for the delivery of the Orion system as the main target of the new Ajax machine. It allows the commander to have a panoramic view of the 360 ° and to observe and fire in motion during the day or night. The sight can receive long-wave (LWIR) or medium-wave (MWIR) thermal cameras, as well as wide-angle long-range cameras, while providing high-resolution images from all sensors.

Additional features of the Orion sighting system include an automatic detection and tracking system, plus a laser range finder and target designator. The sighting system DNGS T3 also manufactured by Thales can be used to activate the so-called search and shock capabilities. The two-axis stabilized gunner's sight allows you to detect and capture targets day and night using a color camera or LWIR and MWIR thermal imagers.

The aim complex Orion is installed on a new British Ajax vehicle.

According to Richard French, head of the department of optical-electronic systems and rocket electronics at Thales UK, the Orion and DNGS T3 sighting systems differ from existing systems because they have independent stabilization along two axes. He said that they also have “significant computational power, allowing them to perform tasks such as target detection, tracking and integrated image processing, as well as the Generic Vehicle Architecture interface (common (standard) architecture for vehicles) for connecting to the carrier platform” .

Last year, Thales received a contract worth 60 million dollars for the supply of 245 DNGS T3 sights for the Ajax serial program. According to French, the company will also supply a driver’s vision system for round-the-clock driving, an all-situation situational awareness system and smoke grenade launchers. Thales will also supply the Antares hemispherical review system for Jaguar and Griffon armored vehicles, which are part of the modernization program of the French Scorpion army.

Another supplier of optical systems for the Ajax program was Kent Periscopes, which in March 2016 received a contract worth 9 million pounds for the supply of prism surveillance devices and an additional commander's sight. This additional sight, designated Saber, can be equipped with either a thermal imaging channel or a brightness enhancement channel.

Saber Auxiliary Scope Mounted on Ajax Armored Vehicle

Mark Batchelor, director of business development at Kent Periscopes, said that his company supplies components specially designed for the Ajax program. “There are several of our products on the machine except periscopes, and we also supply a backup sight.”

Modernization of optics and weapons control systems are also an important component of the program to extend the life of the Challenger tank, according to which the service life of the honored MBT of the British Army will be extended to at least 2035 year. A spokesman for the British Department of Defense said that surveillance, detection and acquisition and weapon control systems "are priorities in this project." The consortium, led by BAE Systems, offers a thermal imaging channel upgrade for the gunner's sight, located above the main cannon, and the commander's main sight for getting round-the-clock search and percussion capabilities.

At the show

Along with the new Ajax tracked vehicle, in recent years, several new and upgraded vehicles with modern aiming and surveillance systems have entered the European market. Many companies have used the Eurosatory exhibition in Paris this year to showcase their latest models. The CIO consortium, formed by Iveco and Leonardo, presented a Centauro II 8x8 self-propelled artillery mount, armed with a third-generation 120-mm cannon (barrel length 45 caliber), which will be purchased by the Italian army and is currently undergoing qualification tests.

The Centauro II ACS has a LOTHAR (Land Optronic Thermal Aiming Resource) gunner-sight developed by Leonardo. For effective detection, aiming and tracking of targets from a spot or in motion, the LOTHAR sighting system may include proprietary thermal imagers such as LWIR or MWIR, a high-resolution color CCD camera, eye-safe laser range finder and a day-time optical channel. Leonardo will also supply its Attila D. panoramic commanding sight.

Sight arrow-gunner LOTHAR (Land Optronic Thermal Aiming Resource) developed by Leonardo

A Leonardo spokesperson said that the Centauro II armored vehicle includes the Tilde B thermal imager in the LOTHAR sighting system, based on the LW Hawk detector with a matrix in the focal plane, while in the Attila D sight, the Erica FF detector is based on the MW Hawk detector with a matrix in the focal plane. According to the company, the imager Erica FF can detect armored vehicles at a distance of 20 km and identify them at distances slightly less than 5 km.

At Eurosatory 2016, another new development machine from the German company Rheinmetall, called Lynx (lynx), was introduced. This tracked platform will be available in two versions, Lynx KF31 and Lynx KF41. It is equipped with a Lance tower of the same manufacturer, armed with an 30-mm or 35-mm cannon and a digital fire control system. The tower has two stabilized opto-electronic sighting systems SEOSS (Stabilized EO Sight System) also from Rheinmetall, one for the gunner, forward, and the second with a panoramic view for the commander.

Optical electronic sighting system SEOSS developed by the German company Rheinmetall

According to the company Rheinmetall, the new Lynx armored vehicle can operate in search and impact mode, as well as in the mode of simultaneous and independent search of targets by the commander and gunner at distances up to 3 km. The two-axis stabilized SEOSS includes a third-generation thermal imager, an optional high-resolution CCD camera, a laser rangefinder and integrated fire control and stabilization electronics. Situational awareness system allows you to automatically detect and capture targets, thereby increasing the search and impact capabilities of the Lynx armored vehicle.

Another new vehicle of German origin, featuring advanced optics and targeting systems, is the Puma BMP, which will replace the outdated Marder BMP in the German army. The Puma armored vehicle, manufactured by a joint venture between Rheinmetall and Krauss-Maffei Wegmann, is equipped with an optoelectronic sighting system for the gunner and a panoramic day / night complex with a PERI RTWL laser rangefinder for the commander, both manufactured by Airbus Defense & Space (DS) Optronics.

“PERI RTWL is the latest optical periscope system developed by Airbus DS Optronics for the Puma BMP, as well as for the tank commander Leopard 2,” said Wolfgang Gais, Business Development Director. “This advanced periscope has excellent optical performance combined with the latest technology in optoelectronics.”

This periscope is equipped with a third-generation ATTICA thermal imaging camera and a CCD camera, as well as a laser rangefinder for the implementation of a search and impact mode. Guyz explained that the new fiber-optic gyroscopes increase the mean time between failures and reduce the azimuth of the system. The image from the thermal imager can also be transmitted directly to the commander's sight.

The ATTICA thermal imaging camera is available from the 2010 of the year, replacing the first-generation WBG-X thermal imager, which was built before the 2000 of the year. Airbus DS Optronics can also offer an ATTICA-GL thermal imaging camera specifically designed to extend the life of the MBT, such as the Leopard 2. Another ATTICA variant under the designation ATTICA-GM was created as a retrofit solution designed to extend the life of BMPs such as Marder.

In Germany, the ATTICA thermal imager is installed as standard in the sighting system of the commander PERI R17 A3, and, moreover, standardly in the gunner / commander sights of Leopard 2, which are in service with Canada and Denmark. Guys noted that “Leopard 2 tanks that were upgraded in this way can reconnoiter, identify and mark targets at substantially greater distances and even with limited visibility. With better quality images comes a clearer mastery of the setting. ”

Optics or number?

As modern ground-based machines are becoming increasingly digitized and more and more opto-electronic systems (with advanced day / night capabilities) are being installed to solve vital problems, including aiming and improving the situation, many representatives of industry are wondering about whether optical direct vision systems, such as periscopes, are appropriate now.

“Those who want to switch to optoelectronics and say that direct vision optics are outdated did not end up in a critical situation when the source of electrical power in the car fails,” said Danny Schonning, executive director of Optex Systems, a company specializing in the manufacture of periscopes and various Optical solutions for the US and foreign customers.

“It doesn't matter how brilliantly designed or intelligently assembled electronics, but it fails,” he explained. “Optics of direct vision gives the soldier confidence, he knows what to do ... This is an access point to the outside world, and the more effective we are in providing this data from the outside world to the user, the more informed the soldier will be.”

This view was supported by Mr. Batchelor from the British company Kent Periscopes. “If you ask users, they always want to have a real perspective on the outside world. They want to see an unambiguous picture, otherwise it’s like living in a house without windows - you can go crazy - as a result, the members of the crew have a fit of indisposition ”.

According to Mr. French from Thales, traditional optics, such as periscopes, have a lower profile over armor and better protection, but take up valuable space in the tower. He explained: “Optoelectronic systems are easier to integrate, especially when upgrading existing systems. They may have sensors with a greater range, since they are less limited by the characteristics of the lenses. However, it is more difficult to protect them from damage and their visibility over armor is significantly higher. ”

For Airbus DS Optronics, this is a multi-year dispute that still needs to be fully resolved. The decision in favor of a system, direct vision or digital, is often determined by the choice between reliability and cost - in varying proportions. Of course, customer requirements also have a significant impact.

“In general, many commanders, both tanks and submarines, prefer to rely on their own eyes than on a digital picture on the screen. In the end, it’s a matter of personal preference, ”said Wolfgang Weiss.

Several manufacturers, including Kent Periscopes and Optex Systems, being loyal supporters of direct vision systems, expanded their scope of activity and engaged in digital optics to meet customer requirements. Kent Periscopes offers a periscope with an embedded image, that is, it gives a classic direct optical image, but combines it with digital images from cameras installed along the perimeter of the machine. “When installing it, the crew gets a big advantage. Now, images from different perspectives, from cameras installed along the perimeter of the car, are added to the traditional image through the combined prism. ”

American upgrades

The countries of North and South Americas are also striving to upgrade the optics of their armored vehicles. In the United States, a program is being implemented to modernize the BMD Bradley fleet and the Abrams MBT by installing infrared third-generation 3GEN FLIR front-view infrared systems. In March 2016, the US Army issued a contract to Raytheon and DRS Technologies for the development and pre-production phase of 3GEN FLIR systems.

The third-generation infrared front viewing system 3GEN FLIR was developed by Raytheon and DRS Technologies

The two companies will supply common components (known as B-Kits) that will integrate with vehicle sights and enhance reconnaissance, surveillance and target acquisition capabilities. According to the PEO IEW & S (PEO Intelligence, Electronic Warfare & Sensors) Office of Implementation of Sensor and Electronic Warfare Programs, this will allow Bradley or Abrams operators to detect and identify enemy targets with increased clarity and "significantly longer ranges."

Common components will include a high-resolution dual-band thermal imager (MWIR / LWIR), a cryogenic cooling system / Dewar vessel, optics and electronics needed to convert thermal radiation into video images. In accordance with the original contract, 96 sets of B-Kits will be purchased, and if all options are fulfilled, then the total value of the contract will be approximately 154 million dollars.

This technology will be integrated into the independent thermal imager of the commander of the Abrams tank (CITV) and the main gunner-sight sight (GPS), as well as into the sight of the commander and gunner Bradley BMP.

“At the moment, the Abrams tank and the Bradley BMP are combat platforms slated for the 3GEN FLIR upgrade,” explained Lt. Col. Scott Madore, head of ground sensors at the PEO IEW & S program office. "But since the 3GEN FLIR program is a horizontal technology integration work, there are good prospects in the future to integrate 3GEN FLIR technology into other platforms."

According to Madore, the army plans to conduct a preliminary analysis of the project “around the fall of this year,” and a critical analysis of the project in the spring of 2017. A decision on full-scale production is planned to be taken in 2024, after which the production and deployment of new systems will immediately begin.

When asked about the specific ranges of the new 3GEN FLIR system compared to the previous system of the second generation, the army responded that the disclosure of these data is not possible. However, Madore explained that the modernization associated with the installation of 3GEN FLIR systems "will allow us to ensure superiority over our rivals for many years, and also allow our soldiers to detect, recognize and identify enemy targets outside the range of its projectiles."

A similar program for the modernization of the optics of combat vehicles is also carried out by the US Marine Corps (USCM) at its M1A1 MBT. In 2014, the United States KMP issued a contract to Raytheon for the development, production and supply of a promising target complex of the Abrams tank under the designation (AIDATS Abrams Integrated Display and Targeting System).

Prospective sighting system AIDATS Abrams tank

The system, which includes a thermal sight module (TSM) and a DSM (day sight module) thermal sight module, is designed to give the crew of the M1A1 tank — especially the tank commander — an increased level of control and increased identification range, so that it corresponds to the effective range of the 12,7-mm machine gun installed in the commander's stabilized combat module.

The TSM module uses an uncooled video transducer array with narrow optical and wide visual fields. The DSM module includes a high-resolution color CMOS camera with two optical fields of view that coincide with the fields of view of the TSM module. “A wide field of view of the TSM and DSM modules increases the level of control of the situation of the commander,” said Michael Kreiner, project manager for AIDATS in the Systems Development Command at the USCM. - The narrow field of view of the TSM and DSM modules significantly increases the ability of the tank commander to recognize and identify targets at extended ranges. The DSM color camera replaces the existing black and white camera, which allows the commander to distinguish targets based on color information. "

Krainer said that AIDATS is now in the final stages of the pre-production phase and in the autumn 2016 is scheduled to enter the initial production phase. Current plans provide for the launch of the 2017 system in the summer.

AIDATS will complement the basic optical systems of the Marine Corps M1A1 tanks, which are contained in the main GPS gunner's sight. GPS has direct vision optics for the shooter and also includes a second-generation front-view IR system based on the Standard Advanced Dewar Assembly II. The commander of the tank M1A1 can see the image from the GPS sight through a special channel.

Among the manufacturers and users of optical-electronic systems, disputes about whether combat vehicles should completely switch to digital numbers and move away from direct vision optics, such as periscopes, do not abate. On the photo is a stabilized panoramic commander sight PERI RTWL of the German BMP Puma.

Further south

In Brazil, the modernization of the existing M113 BTR fleet is in full swing, where many new technologies will be introduced, including optics. As part of the contract with the American company BAE Systems Combat Vehicles, the M113B machines of the Brazilian army are being upgraded at Brazilian capacities to the standard M113A2 Mk1 (M113BR). Some components are preserved, for example, a hull, ramp hatches, and other components, such as engines, transmissions and cooling systems, are deeply modernized or replaced completely.

One of the stages of modernization is to replace the existing M17 periscopes and the driver’s night vision device AN / VVS-2 with a single day / night periscope. On older versions of the M113, the driver had to install the AN / VVS-2 device every time after sunset in order to be able to drive the car at night. The new day / night periscope can be used around the clock, the driver does not need to install it, its function has been reduced to switching between day and night cameras.

“The AN / VVS-2 night vision device uses 25-mm tubes, whose scope of use is expanding and the cost is decreasing,” said Danny Shonning, executive director of Optex Systems, which supplies a new periscope for Brazilian cars. “Instead of rearranging an existing device that was installed at night, we provided day and night capabilities combined in one device and replaced the simple M17 driver periscope.”

The system has two cameras in one common periscope housing and a display with a diameter of 16,5 cm. It is installed just at the place where the output viewing mirror of the M17 periscope was usually located. We can replace existing periscopes by car in five minutes, ”explained Schonning.

As for the future development of optical systems, manufacturers are constantly adding new elements and functions to their products, as well as defying the laws of physics. According to Schonning, the introduction of thermal imaging technology is one of the key trends in the market for optical systems. "Every 12 months, we slightly increase the resolution of our thermal imagers, and for the same price, well, or we can reduce the price, while maintaining the same resolution of the device."

Increasing the resolution of the sensor in combination with a decrease in the size of the pixels makes the device smaller and improves the characteristics, said French. - Increased sensitivity and resolution of uncooled thermal imagers. Now Thales can offer a hardened, uncooled thermal imager that can identify a standard NATO target over a distance of more than two kilometers. ”

Processor technology continues to evolve under the influence of the consumer market, especially for devices that combine microprocessors and programmable logic blocks and that "cause great interest in the market of military optoelectronics." Such manufacturers, such as Thales, take for military use all the best and advanced on the market of mobile devices and cars. Thales, represented by its subsidiary Sofradir, pays great attention to reducing the step size of imagers and developing “hot” detectors with less power consumption.

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  1. +8
    4 November 2016 05: 59
    A very interesting article on the state of affairs in this area.
    Unfortunately, our country’s access to this market of advanced Western military technologies is closed for political reasons.
    I would like to know at what level of development the Russian industry of optics and video surveillance is located.
    1. 0
      4 November 2016 07: 17
      Quote: The same LYOKHA
      I would like to know at what level of development the Russian industry of optics and video surveillance is located.

      About the same.
      1. +3
        4 November 2016 14: 14
        C'mon - there, Abrams’s sight is so perfect that the barrel of a machine gun can not be scammed!
        1. 0
          4 November 2016 17: 49
          And instead of a cannon, there’s a metal disc, they’ll shoot with such optics on a fig - they’ll see and drape at full speed faster ... otherwise they’ll be beaten up ...
        2. 0
          6 November 2016 20: 24
          Quote: lelikas
          C'mon - there, Abrams’s sight is so perfect that the barrel of a machine gun can not be scammed!

          This is a dimensional layout.
      2. +1
        4 November 2016 15: 18
        Quote: Gray Brother
        Quote: The same LYOKHA
        I would like to know at what level of development the Russian industry of optics and video surveillance is located.

        About the same.

        Come on. From an empty place in the Wishlist? If it were the same, then they would offer in the market.
        Look, even promising VNEU agree to sell, so do not talk about the non-sale of the latest technologies.
        1. +1
          10 November 2016 22: 02
          if you are talking about VNEU for submarines, then mine is the only thing they can be used for - all developed countries can build a full-fledged marine invisibility submarine and VNEU submarines are unmeasured while also limited in autonomy underwater, I'm not talking about maximum speed - which completely kills any opportunities for the operational use of conventional boats.
          Look at how much German boats with wind turbines cost and how much modern submarines of our building cost, I mean multipurpose ones - and it will become clear that boats with extra-large boats are as dead end as hybrid cars.
          And as for such systems - everything is simple in optics, there is no difference; there is no difference.
          There is a difference in different detection systems such as thermal imagers and so on - they are based on different sensitive matrices and, as a rule, each manufacturer has their own technology for such matrices, and the technical processes are very different - in the end, of course, we have different performance characteristics.
          We take the same optical-electronic observation systems on modern aviation that see the torches of cancer and airplanes at a distance of 50-70 km, which can make it possible to detect an enemy or target without using active radar radiation - that light-sensitive matrix also plays an important role on which the picture focuses and also the computer and software that should filter the useful signal.
          Talking about superiority and disadvantage is a primitive for shkolota - I am more than sure that our and various imported equipment have a lot of advantages and disadvantages, and the task in any design to hide weaknesses and play on strengths as much as possible is all.
          So excuse me, but the level of technology development in this area is now approximately at the same level - and if I say so, it’s not a question to do qualitatively - I think it’s about the same for everyone, but it’s cheap - not everyone can because it will have a minimum price and quality That will be successful in selling to the global market.
    2. +5
      4 November 2016 08: 19
      the author listed a bunch of optical devices and immediately called them "excellent", in order to say so, you have to experience all this yourself, maybe they are not excellent, by the title of the article I thought Kaptsov wrote at all.
    3. +8
      4 November 2016 08: 48
      The market is closed due to dual or military technology, and it would be strange for the CIS equipment to be allowed in, of course not. It’s another matter that far from all is produced for the production of such complexes in the CIS. For example, uncooled microbolometric matrices, I venture to suggest that they are French-made. The Moscow Cyclone won over with plans for the production of such matrices at home, and this is one of the sensitive components for these complexes. To do optics - no problem, buy a matrix for an ordinary picture - no problem. Specialized chips for video processing have long been done at a very serious level, something in Korea, where they still produce, I don’t know for sure, maybe Zelenograd and Minsk. There is no problem in doing this mechanics, but good gearboxes and servomotors are bad in the civilian market, I mean the CIS production, but we can make warriors at home that make sense.
      In general, there is nothing to worry about, there is no serious lag, no, but what components need to be done inside and not bought around the world.
      1. 0
        4 November 2016 13: 19
        I read and saw on YouTube the Russian production association developing and manufacturing gearboxes with a coefficient from 80 to 200. I did not remember any special names
    4. 0
      4 November 2016 13: 40
      Dear sights, and they have not so much modern technology, it’s much cheaper and more efficient to saturate the battlefield with drones than sights with a detection range of 20 km ...
  2. +1
    4 November 2016 06: 04
    Serious opponents .. However, the human factor has not been canceled, and as before, the decisive factor in the victory is, first of all, the crew’s training and motivation.
    1. +13
      4 November 2016 06: 30
      If a pinwheel shells you from 5-10 km and you have nothing but a bazooka, the human factor will not help here.

      Here is an interesting example ...

      1. +2
        4 November 2016 06: 47
        Alexei, you did not understand the comment, it happens that the crews throw perfectly packaged equipment and run.
        1. +2
          4 November 2016 06: 55
          Alexei, you did not understand the comment, it happens that the crews throw perfectly packaged equipment and run.

          hi I agree ... there are plenty of such examples.
      2. +5
        4 November 2016 07: 12
        Quote: The same LYOKHA
        Here is an interesting example ...

        And here is also an interesting example proving that the winner is the one with "stronger nerves"
        1. +6
          4 November 2016 08: 53
          Quote: svp67
          And here is also an interesting example proving that the winner is the one with "stronger nerves"

          How do you like the "modern" optoelectronic-mechanical body kit, proven by experience. laughing
          1. +2
            4 November 2016 13: 05
            I'm sorry - this is in the photo by chance not a Stg 44 ???
            1. +4
              4 November 2016 14: 48
              she is the most yes. there is so much junk. but the caliber is different, not his native
              1. +2
                4 November 2016 16: 21
                Quote: parkello
                she is the most yes. there is so much junk. but the caliber is different, not his native

                Native. Yugoslavs supply both trunks and BP.

          2. +3
            4 November 2016 18: 50
            What can’t you collect from a Yugoslav copy of a German assault rifle 70 years ago and Chinese electronic junk with Ali ...
        2. 0
          5 November 2016 10: 04
          Quote: svp67
          And here is also an interesting example proving that the winner is the one with "stronger nerves"

          it’s also of course, but the tank commander, for the second time, take the same position for firing!
          not professional and not great, as seen in the video.

          To win, you need to have iron nerves and a brain in addition.
          1. 0
            5 November 2016 21: 11
            I agree. And I would not have hoped for a human reaction either ... the car’s reaction is faster.
      3. +2
        4 November 2016 08: 21
        they usually tell us that they can take photos of the numbers on the car from outer space, but those videos that are shown on YouTube and on TV are usually of crappy quality, here is your video too.
        1. +7
          4 November 2016 13: 17
          it’s all a matter of physics (in optical physics, to be more precise), what flies in space actually has the dimensions of a mirror and lenses more than a meter in fact, and therefore you can see the hands of a wristwatch on a clear, not wet day actually being above the object. To get at least a television quality picture - the drone must carry something comparable to a studio camera. It is heavy in terms of weight and redundant in terms of image quality. Moreover, such videos are black and white, which means that with comparable quality, the physical size of the matrices (CCD) is much smaller. From what size the matrix almost uniquely depends on the class of the camera. The size of the CCD sensor is measured in inches. Typical matrix dimensions are 2 / 3 ”, 1 / 2”, 1 / 3 ”, 1 / 4”, 1 / 6 ”. 2 / 3 matrixes are used in broadcast-class cameras (the best in terms of image quality). 1 / 2 matrixes are used in professional-grade cameras (can be used for news). 1 / 3 ”, 1 / 4” matrices are used in semi-professional-quality cameras (they can also be successfully used for news). 1 / 6 matrices are used in consumer (amateur) cameras.
          In addition, the characteristics of the lens (lenses and the entire optical system) have a great influence on the resulting image.

          And besides, there is one important note - those videos that we see - they are of a certain quality, already compressed and translated into the format common on the Internet. In reality, the operator sees much more detail.
          1. 0
            4 November 2016 15: 36
            Quote: Gomel
            To get at least a television-quality picture - a drone must carry something comparable to a studio camera

            you don’t need to drive, in order to point a weapon or make an acceptable reconnaissance shot you need a better resolution than what the people feed. Yes, this is true, sometimes very good quality videos appear, as if someone in the studio did not follow and missed quality information for the plebs. In addition, the journalists and diplomats who are shown this are noted by the staff with good clarity and only for the people it remains dull, and maybe even only for ours.
          2. idr
            6 November 2016 08: 28
            Quote: Gomel
            flies in space it really has the dimensions of a mirror and lenses more than a meter, which is why you can see the hands of a watch on a clear, not wet day, actually being over the object

            You are our storyteller. Why are you misleading people? Distortions due to the atmosphere make it possible, at best, to see a white square with a side of 30cm on a black plowed field.
            About the arrow from the clock please give a reference ...
            1. 0
              14 November 2016 10: 04
              It looks like you are misleading people.
              Minimal search in Google gives for example a company such as DigitalGlobe that publishes free commercial circulation with images up to 25, see everyone. From the WorldView-3 satellite (orbit with an altitude of about 617 km). and what is characteristic in the press release (on 25.05.2015, i.e. more than a year ago), it was noted that only recently the established limit in 50 was canceled, and everything above it was available only to US government agencies (at the end of 2016) set limit in 25, see.). Link: http://investor.digitalglobe.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=
              70788 & p = RssLanding & cat = news & id = 2019869

              By the way, the diameter of an optical lens in the 2.4 meter gives a theoretical resolution when photographing the surface of the Earth in stable 5 cm or better
              It is better if the diameter of the mirror is larger and it can be larger - the diameter of the head fairing of some heavy PH is limited to 5.2 meters.
              These are physical facts. Of course there are a lot of problems that appear when photographing with such clarity. But they are solved, once every two years, commercial companies storm the governments of their countries in order to reduce the limit of permission for commercial sale. And using the rule to cut off the excess, it is safe to say that there are opportunities to get high-definition images with a resolution of at least 5. And there are no obstacles at the moment to get even higher resolution (in 4 and 3,8 cm) which is enough for the above-mentioned comments Rozmysla objectives

              Thus, your ironic and naive comment about the link to the arrow from the clock past the cash register, because such information is not available in commercial, which means general access, you cannot give a complete electrical circuit, say, Pine Gap?
              But there is also such a thing as "Adaptive optics". Yes, it is difficult to launch it into space, it is heavy and eats decent energy, but the result is amazing.

              Adaptive optics is a computer combination and processing of several photos of one object plus a set of different systems: radar, multi-spectral + overlapping of several images with overlapping + post-processing.
              A system of image restoration, by the way, has been known since 80's.

              Yes, and finish reading the comments to the end, I also indicated at the end that the operator sees more details than you do on the video. And he will cling to the first phrase and apart from the previous comment, everyone can.
              1. 0
                14 November 2016 10: 20
                From the Internet: "Hubble Space Telescope 700 km could take the Earth with permission up to 10-12 cmin perfect conditions. Accordingly, KH-11 at the lowest point of its orbit is capable of giving resolution up to 5. But, again, this is in ideal conditions, in the absence of clouds, smog, fog and just dust over the object. In addition, the higher the resolution, and the closer the satellite is to the surface of the Earth, the narrower the bandwidth of capturing its shooting and less opportunity to look around. Those. It is advisable to use such a survey only for objects that have been previously explored, in clear weather, and only during the time due to the orbit of the vehicle."
                1. idr
                  15 November 2016 01: 44
                  And what do you think, piss Hubble carried into space? After all, there are much more powerful telescopes on earth ... All for the same reason - due to distortions introduced by the atmosphere of the earth. Now, if you didn’t have this atomosphere, then yes, you can (theoretically) get 5 as well, having previously compensated for the rotation of the telescope and the earth.
              2. idr
                15 November 2016 01: 30
                Well, I'll start with congratulations. You have just completely changed the subject and tasks of studying such an important area of ​​physics as "Adaptive Optics". Apparently you have a VERY good reason for that.
                I recommend you contact Wiki
                so that they do not fool people and make your proposed change "Adaptive optics is a computer combination and processing of several photographs of one object, plus a set of different systems: radar, multispectral + overlapping several images with overlapping + post-processing." instead
                "Adaptive optics is a branch of physical optics that studies methods of eliminating irregular distortions arising from the propagation of light in an inhomogeneous medium using controlled optical elements. The main tasks of adaptive optics are increasing the resolution limit of observing devices, concentrating optical radiation on a receiver or target, etc. etc. ", I can imagine the surprise of thousands of scientists working in this field. since after your determination it will become clear to them that they have been doing the wrong thing all their lives.

                Now to the point. I really do not like the manner of dialogue when opponents begin to attribute to me something that I did not say at all. So WHERE did you see the word "PERMISSION" in my post? LEAD PLACE. You keep talking about the resolution of images, which has nothing to do with the resolution of optics, and even more so with the distortions introduced by the atmosphere. The meaning of what I have said is very simple, in fact, you can increase the resolution of images at least to infinity, but if the object is impossible due to the distortion introduced by the atmosphere smooth out, then in the picture you will get this most distorted object. However, if the resolution of the image is lower than what you basically can not see it, because these details will not exactly fall into the picture, so for example, if you can see a white square with a side of 30 cm (from the example I gave above) and the resolution of the picture will be below 30 cm, then you simply will not fix this square even on one pixel of the image if the resolution is will say 5 cm then 36 (6x6) pixels will record this image
                There is another problem here. - this is the speed of movement of the subject relative to the camera. In order to understand what I'm talking about, take a camera and take a picture of a flying bird. You will see that I will be more or less clear at shutter speeds of 1 / 1000 seconds. and less, but a bird flies only at a speed of 7-8 m / s, while satellites fly at a speed of 7.9 km / s. Those. to take a sharp picture, you must provide shutter speed in 1 / 1000000 seconds. or the equivalent of 1 million frames per second. which also imposes certain restrictions on the parameters of the matrix in the camera.
                Well, lastly, I’m giving you a link where Black says in a matter of fact that
                "images with resolution as high as 41 cm can be available" and link to source is given (5)
                Look, do not be lazy.

                Actually, I worked for many years with digital pictures on a professional level and VERY well imagine all the problems in this area.
                So your statement that you can see the hands of a watch from space is a TALE or fantasy since in order to see it you need at least 2 pixels or the resolution must be 5 mm. !!! Now do you understand the absurdity of your statement? Fairy tales are good for preschool children. For an adult, they are simply harmful especially with regard to defense.
                Good luck to you.
      4. +1
        4 November 2016 18: 33
        It is written "Shooting militants from the air." Some strange action movies: no one has a weapon. The driver took out the only machine gun from the back only after the car was fired upon. In self-defense, anyone would do that.
      5. 0
        April 6 2017 10: 25
        As an example, it’s clearly not 5-10 km, because from camera shake to a maximum of 2 seconds.
  3. +9
    4 November 2016 06: 44
    Quote: The same LYOKHA
    I would like to know at what level of development the Russian industry of optics and video surveillance is located.

    At the leading, do not worry. I recently participated in a technical discussion of an ECO model, which is at least 15 years ahead of everything that the west now has. And what is being produced now does not lag behind Western models. So we do not need backward technologies of the Western countries and we are not interested in the fact that they covered them there.
  4. +3
    4 November 2016 06: 47
    With all the excellent qualities of optical sights, they are still very vulnerable, so you don't have to go to a fortuneteller to predict the victory of "optoelectronic" or "numbers" as the main sight, and the optics will remain in place for the time being backup ...
    1. +3
      4 November 2016 09: 06
      Yes, the future belongs to "digital". And not just a "digital", but a stereo figure. With the superposition of augmented reality elements in the form of target labels, including unobservable ones, etc. With the combination in one picture of information from all surveillance equipment.
  5. +3
    4 November 2016 08: 29
    The night battle in the smoky city ruins is the crown of the tactical training of the units. The Army is obliged to be able to act effectively in the dark.
    Equipped with reliable multi-functional communications and multi-channel detection and aiming systems, armored vehicles are the backbone of any attack or defensive action.
  6. +6
    4 November 2016 08: 56
    I recall a story about a tankman of a veteran who was allowed to shoot from a modern tank. In short, the veteran did not use modern observation devices, but asked for cloves. Having made the first shot, he, with this nail, made a mark on the triplex, after which, with the second shot, he destroyed the target. The current tankers were in shock (first from the fact that they ruined the triplex, then from the fact that they hit the target with such an antediluvian method).
    1. +1
      4 November 2016 09: 14
      Quote: sabakina
      The operating tankers were in shock (first from the fact that they ruined the triplex, then from the fact that they hit the target with such an antediluvian method).

      The current tankers are unlikely to know how to celebrate on the funnel.
    2. 0
      4 November 2016 15: 36
      Elegant joke.
      1. 0
        4 November 2016 21: 23
        If they give him this second shot.
  7. +4
    4 November 2016 10: 28
    Direct vision optics have one VERY UNPLEASANT drawback. Can be easily "hit in the eye" with laser countermeasures. Systems with digital optics will at least save the crew's eyes. And the non-volatility of these systems can be "reinforced" by asking this question.
  8. +3
    4 November 2016 12: 10
    All that is described in the article is the last century.

    Modern technical vision:
    - high-definition cameras, night vision devices and thermal imagers, the pictures of which are combined on one display;
    - A complete set of all-round cameras with automatic gluing of pictures into a circular panorama;
    - electronic image stabilization, electronic zoom, high-speed optical filters to protect against laser radiation;
    - helmet of virtual reality;
    - automatic target recognition (tanks, infantry fighting vehicles, guns, anti-tank systems, infantry with grenade launchers).

    And the latest squeak in the field of technical vision is semi-automatic target recognition, taking into account the reflex delays of the pupils of the operator’s eyes on objects with unclear signs of targets.
  9. +2
    4 November 2016 12: 26
    Guys, the phrase: "... the targeting system is the brain ..." says a lot. If the author thinks that a piece of hardware (hard) has a brain, then you can hardly trust such an analyst. It is easy to see that many, even quite high-ranking people, do not have brains and the situation is getting worse.
    The object here is an aiming system, i.e. a system of the highest level of complexity, built on certain technical principles (information redundancy, sensors operating on various principles (optimal information processing, optimal control, elements of artificial intelligence, etc.). A prerequisite for creating such systems is the ability to produce MEMS sensors, digital processing systems and algorithms (software). It is impossible to create effective weapons systems without such sighting systems. P is responsible for creating the element base gozin (at least, it is in this very sure). But it is believed that the present we missed (we do not catch up) and should only develop future technologies. Perhaps they are right.
    1. 0
      April 14 2017 11: 50
      why bother with reservations?
      intelligence tools are always inextricably linked with the processing of data by the "brain", otherwise it makes no sense to talk about them at all. It is this connection that the author implies.
      for example, the Japanese had a very good naval reconnaissance during the war, but they say little about it, because its data were often not used and the meaning in the intelligence itself disappeared
  10. +4
    4 November 2016 14: 33
    * Aiming systems, being the brain of weapons
    I'm curious what will happen to this kit if you hit him with shrapnel ...
    after all, he will be demolished from the first shot completely ...
    and what will then be the "brain" of weapons ...
    just a "shrapneal" projectile that explodes a couple of meters before the target and spits out several hundred "balls" - the surface of the tank will be like after sandblasting ... :)
    - I think so ©
    1. 0
      April 14 2017 11: 55
      you can bombard the "brain" of paintball equipment or stupidly throw a lump of dirt or a smoke bomb
      a separate question is the effectiveness of such devices in the taiga, where visibility is often not more than 100 meters.
  11. +2
    4 November 2016 14: 46
    And what is it about the `` all-crushing western technique '' that we don't have?
  12. +1
    4 November 2016 16: 52
    Gray-haired, I agree about shrapnel, but why do not the bourgeoisie pay attention to this and still bring the presented optical systems to working models?
    1. 0
      5 November 2016 13: 22
      Quote: Pencil
      Gray-haired, I agree about shrapnel, but why do not the bourgeoisie pay attention to this and still bring the presented optical systems to working models?

      And money?
  13. +1
    4 November 2016 19: 15
    Several years ago, even before the Ukrainian events and any sanctions, we, in our company, tried to get distributorship from a flir. I was the head of the purchasing department. They had a contract for half "War and Peace". A million conditions. Then I remembered that one of the requirements was not to have trade relations with Iran and the companies that work with it. They collected all the documents, they checked us for six months and ... they shaved us. Apparently did not inspire confidence laughing
    1. 0
      5 November 2016 00: 49
      Quote: dakty
      All the documents were collected, for six months they checked us and .... shaved. Apparently not credible

      - got the info that discredits you, that's all. Or one of yours leaked something that they didn't like. Well, usually these things are for the better, because these
      Quote: dakty
      Million conditions

      you’re tired of observing, where you forget the thread or you won’t resist the temptation, then pay fines according to the clauses such and such ... Well, nafig, such partners. There are tons of simpler businesses
  14. +1
    4 November 2016 19: 33
    Enlighten good people. These huge "windows" 7.62 at least keep without losing quality?
    1. +1
      8 November 2016 17: 11
      I also thought about it, but ordinary optics (triplexes, etc.) do not even hold the bullet from the PM smile always the weak point of tanks were observation devices.
      1. 0
        4 May 2017 12: 27
        Quote: Bursan
        Ordinary optics (triplexes, etc.) do not hold the same

        do not hold, but it's not scary ...
        we have BMP-1, the mechanic always has a spare triplex and not one - it changes in 5 seconds without getting out of the car, in addition one more "long / high" for crossing rivers ...

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