Military Review

About the "Stirling" and the student ...

50
Let's start with the fact that the name Stirling is quite common in both England and Scotland. That is, if there is a Stirling castle there, then why not be “Mr. Stirling”? And just such a man - Scottish priest Robert Stirling still 27 of September. 1816 of the year received a British patent for an engine that had nothing to do with a steam engine! Moreover, the engine, named after him, turned out to be unique, since it could work from any heat source!


About the "Stirling" and the student ...

Robert Stirling.

In 1843, his son, James Stirling, used his father’s engine in a factory where he worked as an engineer. Well, already in 1938, Stirlings with power up to 200 hp were created. and efficiency equal to 30 percent.

The principle of operation of this engine is to alternate the heating and cooling of the working fluid in a fully closed cylinder. Usually, the working medium is air, but hydrogen, helium, as well as freons, nitrogen dioxide, liquefied propane-butane, and even water can be used. Moreover, it remains liquid throughout the thermodynamic cycle. That is, the design of the engine is extremely simple and uses a well-known property of gases: from heating, their volume increases, and from cooling it decreases.


One of the many homemade Stirling.

In the Stirling engine is used ... "Stirling cycle", which in its thermodynamic efficiency is not only worse than the Carnot cycle, but even has some advantages. In any case, it is the "Stirling cycle" that allows you to get a working engine made from an ordinary tin can, in just a couple of hours.


Beta Stirling Device.

The Stirling cycle itself includes four main phases and two transitional phases: heating, expansion, transition to a cold source, cooling, compression, and a transition to a heat source. Well, we get useful work in the process of expanding the volume of heated gas.


Phase 1.


Phase 2.


Phase 3.


Phase 4.

The working cycle of the Stirling engine beta type: a - displacement piston; b - working piston; c - flywheel; d - fire (heating area); e - cooling fins (cooling area).

It works like this: there are two cylinders and two pistons. An external source of heat - and they can be even burning firewood, even a gas burner, even sunlight - raises the temperature of the gas in the lower part of the heat exchange cylinder. There is a pressure, and it pushes the working piston upwards, and the displacement piston fits loosely against the walls of the cylinder. Further, the flywheel, scrolling, pushes it down.


Stirling scheme from the can.

At the same time hot air from the bottom of the cylinder enters the cooling chamber. In the working chamber, it is cooled and compressed, and then the working piston rushes down. The displacement piston goes up, and thus the cooled air moves to the bottom. The cycle is thus repeated. In Stirling, the movement of the working piston is shifted by 90 ° relative to the propellant piston.


Photo of Stirling from a tin can.

Over time, many “Stirlings” of different designs appeared, spelled out in the Greek alphabet: alpha, beta, gamma, which have differences in the working cycle. The principal differences between them are small and come down to the location of the cylinders and the sizes of the pistons.


Stirling engine with linear alternator.

Alpha Stirling has two separate power pistons in different cylinders: hot and cold. The hot piston cylinder is in a heat exchanger having a higher temperature, and the cold piston cylinder is, respectively, in a colder one. The regenerator (that is, the heat exchanger) is located between the hot part and the cold part.

Beta Stirling has only one cylinder, hot from one end and cold from the other. Inside the cylinder moves the piston (from which the power is removed) and the displacer, which changes the volume of its hot zone. Gas is pumped into the hot part of the cylinder from the cold part of the cylinder through a regenerator.

Gamma Stirling also has a piston and a displacer, and two cylinders are cold (where the piston moves, from which power is removed) and hot (where the displacer moves accordingly). The regenerator is external, in this case it connects the hot part of the second cylinder with the cold part and at the same time with the first (cold) cylinder. The internal regenerator in this case is a part of the displacer.

There are variations of the Stirling engine that do not fall under these three classical types: for example, a Stirling rotary engine, in which problems of tightness are solved and there is no crank mechanism, since it is rotary.

What are the good Stirling and what they are bad? First of all, they are omnivores and can use any temperature difference, including that between different layers of water in the ocean. Combustion in them is permanent, which results in efficient fuel combustion, which means that it is more environmentally friendly. In addition, he has no exhaust. Less noise - no “explosions” in the cylinders. Less vibration, for example, in beta-stirling. The working body is not consumed by stirling. The design of the engine is extremely simple, it does not require gas distribution mechanisms. The starter is not needed, as well as the gearbox.

The simplicity and the absence of a number of "gentle" nodes provide "Stirling" unprecedented performance for all other engines of tens and hundreds of thousands of hours of regular work.


Swedish submarine "Gotland".

Stirling very economical. Thus, the conversion of solar energy into electricity by means of stirling yields a higher efficiency (up to 31,25%) than heat engines that operate on a couple. To do this, "Stirling" is set at the focus of a parabolic mirror, which "watches" the sun so that its cylinder is constantly heated. It was at such a facility in California that the above-mentioned result was obtained in 2008, and now a large solar station is being built there. You can attach them to the blast furnace shell and then continuous smelting of cast iron will give us a lot of ... cheap energy, because now this heat is wasted!

The disadvantage of the stirling, in general, is one. It can overheat and then it will immediately fail. In addition, to achieve high efficiency in the cylinder must be a gas under very high pressure. Hydrogen or helium. And this is the exceptional accuracy of fitting all its working units and special high-temperature lubricant. Well, the dimensions ... ICE combustion chamber is not needed. Stirling without it can not! And this is an extra volume and insulation and cooling system!


"Litter" - a Japanese submarine with Stirling engines.

However, a change of priorities is likely to make way for Stirling engines. If the focus is on environmental friendliness, then it will be possible to say goodbye to the internal combustion engine once and for all. In addition, they have high hopes for the creation of promising solar power plants. They are already being used as autonomous generators for tourists. And some companies have established production of Stirlings, which operate from a conventional gas oven stove. NASA is also considering options for "stirling-based" power generators driven by nuclear and radioisotope heat sources. In particular, such a stirling, together with an electric generator, is planned to be used in the NASA space expedition to Titan.


"Litter" - the layout.

Interestingly, if you start the Stirling engine in reverse mode, that is, turn the flywheel from another engine, it will work as a refrigerating machine (Stirling reverse cycle), and it was these machines that turned out to be very effective for producing liquefied gases.

Well, now, since the site is military, we note that the Stirlings were tested on Swedish submarines back in the 60 of the last century. And then in 1988, the Stirlings became the main engine of the Nakken-type submarine. With them, she was sailing underwater for more than 10 000 hours. The Nakken-type Gotland-type submarines, which became the first submarines equipped with Stirling engines, allowed them to be under water until the 20 day. Today, all submarines of the Swedish Navy have stirling motors, and Swedish shipbuilders have worked out the original technology for installing such engines on conventional submarines, by plunging an additional compartment with a new propulsion system into them. They work on liquid oxygen, which is then used in the boat for breathing, and it is noted that they have a very low noise level. Well, the above-mentioned disadvantages (dimensions and the problem of cooling) on ​​an underwater warship are not significant. An example of the Swedes seemed to the Japanese people to pay attention to, and now the Stirlings stand on Japanese submarines of the type "Soryu". These engines are considered today as the most promising all-mode single engines for submarines of the 5 generation.


And this is what Stirling student of the Penza State University Nikolai Shevelyov looks like.

Well, now quite a bit about what we have ... "bad youth." I’m coming to 1 September for students - future engine engineers, asking them traditional questions, what they read (practically nothing!), What they like (with this position a little better, but mostly legs, not head!), What technical journals Known are “Young Technician”, “Model Designer”, “Science and Technology”, “Popular Mechanics” ... (none!), and here one student declares to me that he is interested in engines. One of 20, but this is already something! And then he tells me that he made the Stirling engine. I know how to make such an engine out of an ordinary tin can, but it turned out that he did something much more spectacular. I say: “Bring it!” - and he brought it. “Describe how I did it!” - and he described, and I liked his “essay” so much that I bring him here without any changes or abbreviations.


Getting started - "creative chaos."

“I always liked the technique, but especially the engines. With great interest, doing care, repair and customization. When I learned about the Stirling engine, I was fascinated by it, like no other engine. The world of Stirling is so diverse and large that it is simply impossible to describe all possible options for its execution. No other engine will give such a variety in terms of design, and most importantly the opportunity to make it yourself.

There were ideas to make a model of the engine from a tin can and other improvised means, but it is not in my rules to do "how it came and what it got". Therefore, I decided to seriously approach the implementation of this task, to begin to prepare theoretically. He studied the literature on the Internet, but the search did not bring the desired result: review articles and videos, the lack of drawings of models of this engine. Finished models were sold at too high a price. In addition, a great desire to make everything yourself, to understand the principle of action, to debug and conduct tests, to get useful work from this engine and even try to find an application for it in the economy.


“Turning affairs!” (A clever student, he filmed the entire process of work for memory. Present, citizen, film and photo documents confirming ... and here they are!)

I asked around on the forums, and shared with me the literature. This was the book "Stirling Engines" (Authors: G.Rider and C. Hooper). It reflected all история this type of engine building, why the rapid development has stopped, and where these engines are still used. From the book I learned in more detail all the processes occurring in the engine, I found answers to interesting questions. It was interesting to read, but I wanted to practice. Of course, there were no drawings for garage models, as well as on the Internet, well, of course, except for the model from a tin can and foam rubber.

Much to my happiness, the person who was selling the Stirling models laid out a course on making such models, he set it up at that time for 20 $, I wrote to him and paid for the course. After reviewing all the videos, in each of which he explained some particular type of Stirling, I decided to do exactly the high-temperature stirling gamma type. Since he was interested in me with his design, characteristics and appearance. From the video course, I learned the approximate ratio of cylinder diameter, piston diameters, what should be the gaps, roughness, what materials to use in the manufacture, some nuances of construction. But nowhere was the size of the author's engines, only approximately the ratio of the sizes of the nodes.

I myself live in the village, it can be said in the suburbs, my mother is an accountant, and my dad is a joiner, so it was inappropriate to turn to them for advice on building an engine. And I turned to my neighbor, Gennady Valentinovich, for help, he worked at the now-collapsing factory of KZTM in Kuznetsk. For him, this work seemed rather unusual, he listened to me carefully, looked at my sketches, corrected something.

In general, the next day, Gennady Valentinovich brought me an aluminum blank with a length of about 1 m and a diameter of about 50 mm. I was very happy, sawed off the pieces I needed, and the very next day I went to school to try to grind the heater and refrigerator for my internal combustion engine. I sharpened on an educational lathe (on which grandfather Lenin worked).

Of course, there was no accuracy there, the external part of the heater turned out to be quite good, but the cylindrical part itself under the piston was on a cone. Trudovik explained to me that the boring tool goes to bend, because the machine for such things is rather small and weak. The question arose of what to do next ... It was lucky that my mother at that time worked as an accountant at a private enterprise, which was a former Avtomobilzavod. Valery Aleksandrovich (the director of this plant) turned out to be a wonderful person and helped me a lot, I was already provided with a professional Soviet machine and turner who helped me. It went more fun, and literally a week later, almost everything was ready, the assembly of the engine began. There were interesting moments in the construction, for example: the shaft, on which the flywheel was pressed on, was given to the precision mechanics workshop at another plant (in order to get the necessary precision for the bearings); the refrigerator was sharpened on a lathe, and the places for fixings were made by a milling machine, the flywheel was ground on a grinding wheel. For me it was very interesting and exciting. The workers at the factory thought that I was a student, and I was writing some kind of scientific work. I was sitting in the factory until late evening, and they brought me home in Valery Aleksandrovich’s official car. Starting the engine took place in a large environment of the factory workers, it was all very interesting. The launch was a success, but the engine worked poorly.


The result is crowned! The stand angle burned during the test.

The drawbacks were revealed, the plastic hinges were replaced with fluoroplastic, the flywheel was lightened and balanced, the piston received a fluoroplastic attachment for lower heat transfer, and the refrigerator became with a larger cooling area. After fine-tuning the engine has significantly improved its technical performance.

I myself was delighted. Coming to my house, friends first of all approach it to him, they are interested, they ask to run. Gennady Valentinovich drove to show the stirling to his job, everyone was very interested, didn’t even have to call someone, everyone came, looked, were interested. ”

The young man’s name is Nikolai Shevelev, and he is the headman of the group. I took him to the dean, and the three of us spoke very well together. And then I remembered the statistics that to advance humanity along the path of scientific and technological progress, the entire 2% of the population of the planet is enough. I counted the total number of students and realized that ... there is no need to worry. With such as Nikolai, progress will be ensured to us anyway!
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  1. Fox
    Fox 8 November 2016 07: 28
    +2
    But really, are there drawings, with specific characteristics? Or only valid models?
    1. kalibr
      8 November 2016 08: 06
      +3
      I did not ask him. There is a working model. Obviously, he sharpened everything in size and drawings. But it was no longer interesting to me. I myself am not a mover.
    2. marshes
      marshes 8 November 2016 09: 20
      +3
      The "homemade" ones have a website with a forum, they forgot the name. There, from the "wide soul" they upload drawings and video-photo reports.
      1. Sergey S.
        Sergey S. 8 November 2016 19: 58
        +1
        I recommend to those interested
        http://stirlinglab.flybb.ru/topic62.html
    3. avt
      avt 8 November 2016 09: 35
      11
      Quote: Fox
      But really, are there any drawings with specific characteristics?

      This model ??? Ah ... what for? There is actually a chip, about which the author writes, not that the guy made an outstanding sample. And in a self-teaching moment - a person went the very way from design to execution in metal! Actually, the learning process was built during it at MVTU im. Bauman, when junior students were carried out in laboratory work with the ability to do something with their own hands to weld, cast from metal, and the practice was factories.
      Quote: rudolff
      The article is good, educational program for those interested.

      The only trouble is, by the way, it can be noticed here on the site in the comments of individual individuals that it’s not that there are few who are interested, but stupidly there are no people who want to search for something at all. Even a search engine on the Internet. request
      1. Amurets
        Amurets 8 November 2016 14: 52
        +4
        Quote: avt
        Actually, the learning process was built during it at MVTU im. Bauman, when junior students were carried out in laboratory work with the ability to do something with their own hands to weld, cast from metal, and the practice was factories.

        He didn’t study at the Moscow Military Technical University, but the bible was and is now the 4-volume engine of the internal combustion engine edited by Professor Orlin, written by Bauman’s scientists and teachers. I have a paper edition of 1970-1974.
    4. Amurets
      Amurets 8 November 2016 13: 51
      +3
      Quote: Fox
      But really, are there drawings, with specific characteristics? Or only valid models?

      Real textbooks: "Stirling Engines" edited by Kruglov. Myshkovsky. Ryzhkov-Dudonov: "Marine external combustion piston engines. (Stirling engines). Walker:" Stirling engines. "
  2. bocsman
    bocsman 8 November 2016 07: 42
    +3
    Glad for the young man! From it will be good.
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 8 November 2016 08: 01
    +2
    With people like Nikolai, progress will still be ensured for us!
    ..God, God!
  4. rudolff
    rudolff 8 November 2016 09: 15
    +3
    Now the next wave is just rising, is it right that we rested our foreheads at VNEU from ECG to TE and whether it was better to initially develop a unified Stirling. The article is good, educational program for those interested.
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 8 November 2016 13: 14
      +5
      Quote: rudolff
      Now the next wave is just rising, is it right that we rested our foreheads at VNEU from ECG to TE and whether it was better to initially develop a unified Stirling. The article is good, educational program for those interested.

      Well, something similar happened on the timber trucks "Pavlin Vinogradov"

      Gas turbine unit with free piston gas generator (LNGG)

      In turbocompressor gas turbines, the combustion products must be cooled to acceptable temperatures due to their significant temperature by supplying a large excess of air to the compressor due to their significant temperature. A significant proportion of the power of a gas turbine is expended on the compressor drive. In installations with reciprocating gas generators, the combustion of fuel is carried out in a separate cylinder, followed by cooling of the combustion products. With their partial expansion, the gas performs the partial work used to drive the reciprocating compressor. As a gas generator, an engine with oppositely moving pistons in horizontal design is usually used.

      Schematic diagram of a gas turbine unit with LNGG

      In fig. 124 is a schematic diagram of a gas turbine with a free piston gas generator. During the stroke, the pistons 1 diverge from in. m. t. (internal) to n. m. t. (external) and in the reverse course - get closer. When the pistons are near at. m. t. into the cylinder 3 through the fuel nozzles 4 is supplied fuel that burns and the resulting combustion products, expanding, make a working stroke. During the stroke of the pistons 1, the pistons 6 of the air compressors compress the air in the buffer cylinders 10. Through the discharge valves 11, the compressed air enters the outer cylinder 12. At the end of the stroke, the exhaust windows 5 and then the purge windows 2 open, gases are released and the cylinder 3 is purged. The exhaust gases mixed with the purge air are cooled and sent through the receiver B to the gas turbine A. The potential energy of the air compressed in the buffer cylinders ensures the return of the pistons 1. At the same time, atmospheric air is drawn into the buffer cylinders through valves 9 and the cylinder 3 of the engine compresses the fresh charge to the parameters providing self-ignition of the fuel injected through the nozzles.

      After that, the cycle repeats. To synchronize the operation of the pistons, a gear wheel 8 and a rack 7 are used.

      A gas turbine of this type with four LNGGs with a capacity of 2940 kW was installed on timber trucks of the Peacock Vinogradov type.
      One of the options for the Stirling engine.
      1. Aviagr
        Aviagr 8 November 2016 14: 59
        +2
        I may disappoint you - alas, but this is not "styling". Now, if in the receiver Б somehow the heat was transferred to an additional unit with the work being done - then yes. Those. - there is no EXTERNAL heat supply - but only internal.
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 8 November 2016 16: 23
          +2
          Quote: Aviagr
          I may disappoint you - alas, but this is not "styling". Now, if in the receiver Б somehow the heat was transferred to an additional unit with the work being done - then yes. Those. - there is no EXTERNAL heat supply - but only internal.

          Yes, I agree, with you, I was mistaken. It’s just a scheme of the once widespread LNG. SPDK were made according to a similar scheme.
  5. alexej123
    alexej123 8 November 2016 09: 34
    +5
    Thanks, Vyacheslav Nikolaevich. As always, your articles are interesting, with a twist. The Swedes surprise me. It seems like a small country, but they have developed industry. And with the engines in the submarine fleet, the "tone" was set for everyone.
    1. kalibr
      8 November 2016 11: 27
      0
      Just let me correct you - "Olegovich".
      1. alexej123
        alexej123 8 November 2016 16: 44
        0
        Sorry, something found. hi
      2. chenia
        chenia 8 November 2016 17: 07
        0
        And your father is not Oleg Mikhailovich.
        1. kalibr
          8 November 2016 19: 24
          0
          Yes, Oleg Mikhailovich! But his last name is not Shpakovsky, this is the name of his mother in his second marriage.
          1. chenia
            chenia 8 November 2016 20: 39
            0
            Excuse me . just a friend was in my OVAKOLU (Odessa) 72-76 years.
  6. Aviagr
    Aviagr 8 November 2016 09: 45
    +4
    We also had a teacher at the institute, keen on Stirling - I developed one option from his submission, but I was not lucky with the manufacture, like this student. Well done, what to say!
    It is nice to see your Creation in iron, and even better - beneficial to people!
    So what am I doing - my Stirling is designed for autonomous surface devices for receiving e-energy from the sun or moving. There may be those who wish for joint patenting and manufacturing - you are welcome!
  7. andrewkor
    andrewkor 8 November 2016 10: 49
    +3
    Straight envy takes! Forward Nikolay! Just not to Red!
  8. mealnik2005
    mealnik2005 8 November 2016 11: 04
    +3
    I learned about this engine about a month ago, started with the anaerobic installation of submarines and smoothly switched to Stirling. I was particularly struck by the current refrigerator based on it - they heat it with wood, get cold and electricity. But, unfortunately, I did not find literature with mathematical calculations of this device, the efficiency that can be obtained is unknown. It is a pity that he was not taught at the university to broaden his horizons.
    1. kalibr
      8 November 2016 11: 30
      +1
      An even cooler thing has been developed at our university (not by students, of course): an ordinary pipe with two pipes. You blow air in one way. And the other two come out. From one - hot, from another - cold. And that’s all! All for! They can’t introduce it anywhere! But this article is being prepared.
      1. Aviagr
        Aviagr 8 November 2016 14: 48
        0
        Quote: kalibr
        They can’t introduce it anywhere!

        Why? In Uzbekistan, this vortex flow separator has already been introduced in Uzbekistan for gas pipeline welders since the 80-ies: there is just heat + 50, and hell in the pipe in general. So, through this flow separator Cold Air with a hose - to a welder in a pipe under a robe (Hot - just into the atmosphere) - he could already cook 15min, not 2-3 - and pulled them by the legs on the rope .. laughing
        So this is an OLD invention, let your "specialists" not bend their fingers ..
        1. kalibr
          8 November 2016 19: 26
          0
          I'm not saying what's new. Just the application may be different. On one principle.
      2. ver_
        ver_ 8 November 2016 15: 10
        0
        ... horseradish knows how many years this invention .. The Germans worked on this system back in the forties of the last century ... - the so-called vortex tubes - tried to be used on submarines ...
      3. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 13 November 2016 16: 24
        0
        This is called a Vortex tube. By air compressor
        and the copper tube is easy to make.
        The physics of this matter is controversial, but the effect is obvious.
  9. chenia
    chenia 8 November 2016 13: 04
    +2
    To create efficient engines running on the Stirling cycle. it is necessary to get rid of stereotypes (first of all, to abandon the reciprocating movement of the transforming elements, and of the corresponding movement of the working fluid).
    In Pskov, they did something similar (without realizing it themselves). Well, and regenerators (rotating) to insert into the gap of the pipelines of the opposite. streams. Well, they will come to this, over time.
  10. Mikado
    Mikado 8 November 2016 14: 13
    +3
    I have never been interested in engines (there is a sin, excuse me, more books), but I will join: the article is a good educational programgood Dear author, you are doing a good job! good "talents need help, mediocrity will break through on their own."
    1. Andrey Zh
      Andrey Zh 8 November 2016 17: 02
      +2
      I agree with you - talents need help, and mediocrity will break through themselves! However, then the bureaucrats will then gobble up everything! ...
  11. Forever so
    Forever so 8 November 2016 15: 28
    +1
    Absolutely, only 2% of people drive progress, but about 25% move anal values, so 2% drown in shit.
  12. chenia
    chenia 8 November 2016 16: 06
    0
    This type of engine is a real replacement for ICE. Solving mechanical problems and using a simpler working fluid (instead of helium and especially hydrogen) will put an end to the internal combustion engine (which, in principle, is not able to make electric motors.).
    1. Mikhail3
      Mikhail3 8 November 2016 18: 43
      0
      He is not a substitute for anything. And he will never put any points, sorry. The Stirling engine is indeed devoid of "a number of tender knots", but instead has one "tender" knot. Membrane. And this indispensable membrane minimizes all engine benefits. An attempt to replace the membrane with pistons generally makes the Stirling engine senselessly uneconomical.
      Yes, it is possible to make even submarines, at least drives in spacecraft based on these engines. Everywhere where you don’t need to think about the cost of the membrane and the number of its working cycles ... Until we understand the structure of the substance (now we absolutely do not understand anything, apparently go along the wrong paths) and create fundamentally new materials for the membranes, the Stirling engine - funny and useless toy, funny technological curiosity.
      1. chenia
        chenia 8 November 2016 19: 25
        0
        I have a different opinion (look at my first post).
        If there will be unidirectional loop motion
        working fluid in the system, and there seals are not particularly needed (as in a turbine).

        And what is a membrane in DS? Where is alpha, beta, gamma?
        Can mean seals?
        1. chenia
          chenia 8 November 2016 22: 11
          0
          Quote: chenia
          looped


          Error (just looped) -Nado loopback.
        2. Mikhail3
          Mikhail3 14 November 2016 21: 30
          0
          There will be no unidirectional looped movement. As soon as something appears in the system that resembles a piston moving along any desired path, a problem also arises. That is, a leak at the boundary of the movable and stationary parts of the engine.
          The Stirling engine reaches its parameters only when its working volume has no contact at all with the external environment. Roughly speaking, when it is a bag, the moment from which it can be removed only from the outside. A kind of ball, working in the manner of the human heart - increased in size, decreased. Increased-decreased. And the moment must be removed from the wall.
          Then there is some savings and some kind of efficiency. Here the wall of the "bag" is the membrane, which is needed and which is not. The most beautiful demonstrator of this engine is a brass accordion can. Until the brass breaks, everything is perfect.
          The only way to remove something from the ring so that the engine works somehow is to try generating electricity. But a suitable working fluid ... but losses ... Uninteresting.

          Ha! While writing, it seems I’ve figured out how to make a circular motion! And take off the power ... I will not describe. I already foolishly moved hypersonic missiles somewhere forward ... nafig.
      2. Jeronimo
        Jeronimo 9 November 2016 12: 14
        +1
        Quote: Mikhail3
        Stirling’s engine is a fun and useless toy, a funny technological curiosity.

        In fact, this is not a curiosity, but a long-established technology used both in the military-industrial complex and in commercial devices.
        There was a series of articles about the creation of the Javelin complex. So in the sighting unit for cooling the semiconductor guidance element uses a Stirling engine, which allows it to be used several times.
        The complex was adopted in 1991.
        I’m not sure about the following fact: According to new technologies in the USA, the limited term of secrecy and exclusive use does not exceed 10 years.
        In 2001, in the field of instruments for detecting ionizing radiation, devices with cooling on Stirling engines appeared. I suspect that 10 years have passed and lifted the ban on the use of military technology in commercial devices.
        Here is an example of devices on the Stirling cycle, which are even sold massively in Russia:
        http://ortec-online.com/download/Micro-trans-SPEC
        . Pdf
        http://ortec-online.com/download/mobius.pdf
        And here is a link to a global leader in the production of coolers based on Stirling engines:
        http://sunpowerinc.com/
        Of particular interest is the Applications section:
        http://sunpowerinc.com/cryocoolers/applications/
        I know that NASA, using Stirling-based chillers, makes entire test rooms in which space conditions are simulated.
        Moreover, manufacturers in the United States with a dozen. There are also manufacturers in China and in Europe.
        And the article and comments are depressing. Soon we will reinvent the wheel and enjoy it.
  13. pimen
    pimen 8 November 2016 16: 08
    0
    it is strange in general that having the temperature as waste, the ICE did not block with Stirling
    1. chenia
      chenia 8 November 2016 16: 40
      0
      It makes no sense to combine, for an internal combustion engine, an additional steam cycle in a cycle is more acceptable. For example, continued expansion, and at a certain stage, water is injected into the cylinder (we use the heat of the walls and the heat of gases after the last work (work when release occurs during normal expansion).

      And all the charm of Stirling in the regenerator (by the way, Stirling himself did not think of that before).
      1. pimen
        pimen 8 November 2016 17: 20
        0
        firstly, they do not do this or that;
        secondly, water in the ICE cylinders is clearly not the best solution compared to the heat exchanger in the head
        1. chenia
          chenia 8 November 2016 17: 53
          0
          Crower solved these problems (6-cycle cycle), but there the exhaust losses remained the same. There will be no water in the cylinders, only revolutions will have to be reduced
          (taking into account vaporization).

          The heat exchanger in the head is 1-2% plus effective efficiency, and a lot of problems. Does it make sense to mess around?
          1. pimen
            pimen 8 November 2016 18: 19
            0
            I didn’t understand anything: if the ICE efficiency is about 30% and Stirling has about 30%, then why not the resulting 50%? A 6-cycle cycle is clearly the next step in the pursuit of 50 percent
            1. chenia
              chenia 8 November 2016 18: 49
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              What I said in a previous post in no way has a Stirling cycle. This is an example (attempt) of using the heat of the walls and exhaust in the internal combustion engine.

              And using the Stirling head as a heater (combining two conversion mechanisms for one power plant), you will lose more by friction.

              The temperature of the residual gases 700-600 degrees. (it seems not bad), but the density of the exhaust gas is low (6 atm). And to heat the corresponding volume of gas in the pressure vessel (having an average pressure of even 50 atm. (We will not consider the most effective 100-150 atm) for at least some practical value of efficiency.

              And if you take into account the problems with the seals.
              No ICE crossing with Stirling is definitely not worth it.
              1. pimen
                pimen 8 November 2016 21: 02
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                Quote: chenia

                The temperature of the residual gases 700-600 degrees. (it seems not bad), but the density of the exhaust gas is low (6 atm). And to heat the corresponding volume of gas in the pressure vessel (having an average pressure of even 50 atm. (We will not consider the most effective 100-150 atm) for at least some practical value of efficiency.
                And if you take into account the problems with the seals.
                No ICE crossing with Stirling is definitely not worth it.

                a pressure of 50-100-150atm is nothing at all. Rather, the volume of this gas will make sense - accordingly, the removed power. I agree that part of the fuel combustion energy in the internal combustion engine went into useful work, but most of it was ineptly spent on heating the head of the block and mechanical losses. Oh, got it. Mechanical losses - the senseless work of one working cycle for three auxiliary, which is difficult to translate into thermal
                1. chenia
                  chenia 8 November 2016 22: 42
                  0
                  Quote: pimen
                  a pressure of 50-100-150atm is nothing at all. Rather, the volume of this gas will make sense - accordingly, the removed power.


                  Correctly. volume. The point is that heat transfer between two identical volumes of substances with 6 and 50 atm implies a different amount of substance (mass) in these two equal volumes. So. that the heat capacity of the working fluid in the DS) is 8 times greater, and with an equal temperature balance (after heat exchange somewhere -200 C) ... And then you can not continue. The game is not worth the candle.

                  By the way, pure Stirling (without a regenerator) has an efficiency below the steam engine of up to 5%.
  14. Resistance
    Resistance 8 November 2016 16: 42
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    Even in WWII they made such engines, they worked from the heat of the hand. Either pencils sharpened ...? Efficiency can reach 65-70%.
    Previously, no information has come across this drawback: "Stirling has, in general, only one drawback. It can be overheated and then it will immediately fail." As a rule, as a disadvantage, they mention the dimensions of the main gear: o), for pl it is especially important.
    1. kalibr
      8 November 2016 19: 30
      +1
      I did not come up with this. After talking with the student, before writing this material, I read everything that could be quickly read on sterling. So this is not fiction.
  15. Andrey Zh
    Andrey Zh 11 November 2016 23: 11
    0
    Thanks, very interesting !!!
  16. ver_
    ver_ 21 February 2017 15: 16
    0
    Quote: kalibr
    An even cooler thing has been developed at our university (not by students, of course): an ordinary pipe with two pipes. You blow air in one way. And the other two come out. From one - hot, from another - cold. And that’s all! All for! They can’t introduce it anywhere! But this article is being prepared.

    ... vortex tubes were developed by the Germans in the forties of the last century ..- no need to invent the invented ...
  17. Kudrevkn
    Kudrevkn 20 March 2017 13: 53
    0
    Stirling is good! And it’s good for almost 200 years! But the ICE Golubev? But is this "not a dead end branch of the development of ship ICE"?