Gosudareva service of Prince Khvorostinin
The reign of Ivan the Terrible least of all could be blamed for the poverty of events. Hikes and wars, oprichnina, the eve of the Great Troubles - all closely and intricately intertwined with each other in an era of dramatic, merciless and heroic at the same time. The king fought a lot and often, and there were also neighbors who willingly and in large quantities complained about him, leaving behind him trampled fields, burned and ravaged villages and towns. The tendency to good-neighborliness had to be grafted more with iron than with intricate expressions in the ambassadorial parchments. For this difficult and troublesome occupation, armies and military leaders are needed, for the monarch, no matter how active he is, needs comrades and associates. The violence of the epoch leaves no place for idleness - the weeks and months spent in the saddle or camp tent mercilessly take time, this most valuable and irreplaceable resource. The practical companions of Ivan the Terrible did not leave behind any memories - only one of the sixteenth-century Russian governors, Mikhail Beznin, wrote brief notes about that era. Others had no opportunity or time for that. For all their seemingly privileged position and origin, they were first and foremost soldiers. One of these people was Prince Dmitry Ivanovich Khvorostin.
At the end of 80's In the 16th century, the Russian state was visited by the ambassador of Queen Elizabeth I, Giles Fletcher. An observant Englishman delved into many aspects of a life unfamiliar and alien to his culture — the work “On the Russian State” later came out from his pen. The ambassador from England was met rather coldly, which may have directly affected his mood and conclusions. Fletcher collected a lot of information: first of all, of course, he was not interested in the peculiarities of the local architectural style or the manner of dressing, but by the Russian army. Ambassador highlighted both its advantages and disadvantages. Among the descriptions of high-born families, from among which the governors were chosen, only one person was awarded a more extensive description. It was Dmitri Khvorostinin, whom the Englishman, who did not feel any reverence for Russians, was depicted as “a warrior of the old and experienced, who rendered great services in the wars with the Tatars and the Poles”. Indeed, the military career of this remarkable Russian military leader by this time was close to completion due to old age - Khvorostinin spent his whole life in campaigns and battles, even a foreigner noticed his weight and importance in the Russian military environment.
Date and year of birth of the future commander are not known for certain. Only by indirect sources was it possible to assume that this is the time interval between 1535 and 1540. Khvorostinin is mentioned in the so-called “Yard notebook”, compiled in 1551 or 1552, which lists all those who are related to the Gosudarev court. Serving at that time began from a young age, and the assumption of possible years of birth is based on this. Khvorostinin belonged to the youngest branch of the Yaroslavl princely house, which was not seedy, but was not distinguished by any special wealth or merit. At a time when generosity played a large role in a military career, it was not easy to come from a clan that was not marked by nobility. Instead of fast and predictable growth, there is a slow and stubborn advance upward, where the most talented and persistent have risen. Father Khvorostina Ivan Mikhailovich is sparingly mentioned in official documents of the 30's, he is known to be in a rather modest position. After many years of service, he managed to grow to the Duma rank of okolnichy. His son Dmitry Khvorostinin began his long-term military career, like all people from the then noble families - the young men fell into the service years with 15. Not so much is known about the young years, for example, that in the 1550s. the young prince served in Kolomna. In 1558, he is assigned to the small fortress of Shack. Similar strongholds in other border regions served as points of deployment for patrol detachments that hunt Tatar gangs, penetrating deep into Russian territory in search of prey and slaves.
Later, in 1559 or 1560, Khvorostinin gets a more significant post as commander of the garrison of Nizhny Novgorod. The Livonian war began, which lasted 25 years, and people who are involved in military affairs have the opportunity to prove themselves. Russia is fighting on the western frontiers, but at the same time it has to closely monitor its southern borders. The annual raids of the subjects of the Crimean Khan are a permanent threat. Khvorostinin now battles Lithuanians and Poles, then leads a maneuverable and exhausting fight against the Tatar cavalry, which feels to be an integral part of the wild steppe. Thus, in the autumn of 1561, Khvorostinin as the head (actually, deputy) under Prince V. M. Glinsky participates in a campaign in Livonia, and in the summer of 1562 he is already in the south, fighting the Tatar raid in the Mtsensk region. Despite his intense everyday life, Khvorostinin's career develops at a moderate pace: so far he is one of many young junior governors in the army of Tsar Ivan IV.
The Siege of Polotsk and the Turning Career
There are a number of opinions about the causes of the outbreak of the Livonian war, but all of them are mainly grouped around two positions. On the one hand, it is believed that the king intended to cut the “isolating” belt of the states separating Russia from Europe. Another point of view on the origins of this long-lasting military conflict suggests that Ivan IV did not set himself broad strategic objectives, but sought only to collect the tribute due to Russia, and to use the forces freed up after a short campaign in the south against the Crimean Khanate that persistently bored.
Being a rather loose confederate entity by the middle of the 16th century, Livonia was quickly defeated. However, Russia's successes did not go unnoticed in the Polish-Lithuanian state. From the tsar, they insistently began to demand "to moderate the ardor" and leave the Baltic states. In November 1561, the Poles granted the request of the Master Gotthard Kettler for the entry of Livonia in compliance with all internal rights in Poland. The conflict has reached a new level, and the clash of two major political players has become inevitable. In an effort to deliver a quick and crushing blow to the new enemy, Ivan IV planned a great campaign in Lithuania with the aim of mastering the Polotsk. The Russian army began preparations for an attack in the fall of 1562. The military contingents gathered in 17 cities, and the army came out from Moscow on November 22. According to the plan, all parts of the numerous troops were to be united in the Great Bows of 5 in January of 1563 of the year. According to various estimates, Ivan IV managed to collect and lead to the Polotsk from 40 to 60 thousand people and a large number of baggage workers for upcoming siege works. The Russians had an impressive artillery of almost two hundred guns, and some of them were large calibers for those times. 31 On January 1563, the army approached Polotsk and overlaid him on February 7.
Polotsk was a strong nut, built on the heights of the area where the rivers Polota and the Western Dvina merge. It consisted of the Big City, Ostrog and Upper Town. Ostrog was a separate fortification of a closed fortress fence. The Polish-Lithuanian garrison under the command of Stanislav Dovoyna consisted of 2 thousand soldiers, who also had artillery. Polotsk was not only an important strategic place on the map - the city was a major economic center. The siege began vigorously - February 5 had already managed to break into the walls in one place, but the main forces did not receive an order to storm. The position of the Poles deteriorated, and 9 numbers Stanislav Dovoyna gave the order to leave the Big City and retreat to the Upper. It was here that Khvorostinin distinguished himself. In the Polotsk campaign, the prince held the position of head in the sovereign's regiment, actually performing the functions of the Tsar's personal guard. During the departure of the Poles from the Big City, a strong fire began, but the Russians rushed there on the shoulders of the retreating forces. However, in the narrow streets of the garrison troops launched a counterattack, and a crisis situation arose, aggravated by fire. On the orders of the king, Khvorostinin and the detachment of soldiers given to him entered the burning part of the city, forced the Poles to retreat to the Upper City and ensured their comrades who were carried away by the persecution from the Great City that was in flames.
Due to the destruction that has occurred, according to various estimates, more than 10 thousand people left the Polotsk, some of whom the Poles sent to the Russians themselves due to lack of supplies. The townspeople were received by the king graciously - they were provided with food. The news of the Polish detachment’s approach to Polotsk forced Ivan IV to intensify siege operations — artillery especially tried its best. By February 15, Polish fortifications suffered considerable damage, and Stanislav Dovoyna decided to surrender the city. February 18 king triumphantly entered Polotsk. He did not forget the agile governor from his regiment, and Khvorostinin was appointed commandant of the city he had taken. For Ivan IV himself, the Polotsk victory was of great importance: after the capture of Kazan, this was the first major victory in which he participated personally. For many, the governor taking Polotsk was the beginning of his career. Including for Dmitry Ivanovich Khvorostinin. In just a few months, the sovereign gives him a very important and responsible assignment.
Not all of Ivan IV's subjects liked the strengthening and centralization of power conducted by the king. There were, of course, dissatisfied and dissenters. Including not only among ordinary subjects, but also high-ranking ones. One of these was an approximate of the king DI Kurlyatev-Obolensky. Who entered into the Chosen Rada, that is, the king's inner circle, this man had a great influence and power. Subsequently, having lost the trust of Ivan IV, Kurlyatev-Obolensky tried to cross the Lithuanian border and find refuge there. However, he was caught, arrested and detained at the Christmas monastery on Konevets Island in the middle of Lake Ladoga. An investigation into the activities of the runaway “oppositionist” led to the need for his transfer to more distant and more protected places. The convoy of disgraced nobles Ivan IV entrusted Khvorostinin. This case was troublesome and dangerous, since there was a high probability of organizing the escape. In addition, the king could not boast of an excessively large number of reliable persons who could be entrusted with such a responsible task. Khvorostinin managed. But a few years later, another king approached, Prince Kurbsky, still managed to successfully flee abroad.
Meanwhile, the oprichnina appeared in the Moscow State. The entire territory of the country was divided into two categories: the Zemstvo and the Oprichnina, each of which had its own administration and army. Zemshchina became the object of repression, the land included in it, often confiscated with the aim of transferring the noblemen from the oprichnich troops. At the same time, the dismissal and wealthy aristocracy was removed from power - loyalty to the king and his trust became the main criteria for promotion. A military nobility, whose pedigrees could not boast of their flowery titles, had a good chance to advance in service. In 60's Prince's career went up at a more confident pace. He falls into the number of oprichny voivods and in the fall of 1565, at the head of the oprichnich troops sent under Bolkhov - to resist the next raid of the Crimeans. For successful hostilities, the prince was encouraged by a monetary reward from the king.
Participation in numerous oprichnichnyh campaigns of subsequent years brought its official results: since 1569, in the documents it is already listed as okolnichy, the second rank after the boyars. In 1570, Khvorostinin was appointed commander of the oprichnich garrison in Zaraysk. In contrast to the easily fortified border Shatsk, this city had powerful stone fortifications. The garrison of Zaraysk was significantly strengthened in connection with obtaining information about the raid of the Crimean khan Devlet Giray. 21 May 1570 Mr. Khvorostinin withdrew his detachment from the fortress, at night attacked a large compound of the Tatars and broke it, having fled. Russian captives were released, which the Tatars were going to sell at the largest slave-owning market of Crimea in the Cafe. It was the first independent victory of Khvorostin, where he personally carried out the command, as well as one of the few major successes of the oprichnen troops, when they managed without the help of the Zemstvo ratification.
Battle of the Young
After the end of the Astrakhan campaign, which was unsuccessful for the Turks, their ally, Devlet Giray, finally felt free from the tutelage of the “big Turkish brother” and decided to take a stroll through the Russian lands on a strategic scale. His army hardly suffered in the unsuccessful Astrakhan campaign, moreover, an enterprising Khan, skillfully complaining of poverty, managed to get a good idea of various kinds of ammunition from Turkish warehouses. In 1571, the city of Devlet Girey gathered a large army under his command and, taking advantage of the fact that Russia had increasingly tied up in the Livonian War, carried out a massive invasion. The few barriers on the southern border were swept away, and the Tatar horde poured a full-flowing river on virtually defenseless Russia. At first, Devlet Giray was going to rampage in the Kozelsk lands, but the defector from the Russian side, Kudeyar Tishenkov, recommended the Khan not to be penny-wise, but to go straight to Moscow, in the area of which then there were few troops. Crimeans managed to pass through unprotected crossings in the headwaters of the Zhizdra River (Oka tributary) and in May 1571 came to the Russian capital.
An attempt to counter the invasion by the oprichnich troops ended in defeat - they were scattered. The warriors of the advanced regiment, in which Khvorostinin served as governor, fought more or less acceptable. He managed to survive. Ivan IV hastened to go to Rostov, where the state treasury was evacuated. The Tatars were able to reach Moscow, but, not deciding on the siege of such a large city, the khan ordered to set fire to the royal summer residence in Kolomenskoye first, and then the Moscow suburbs. The fire spread quickly - most of the houses were wooden, the capital itself was flooded with numerous refugees seeking refuge from the Tatars. Eyewitnesses of this huge fire cite different numbers of those who died in the fire, but it can be assumed that the bill went to many thousands, given the crowded population and the imperfection of methods of fighting fire. In the raging flames only the stone Kremlin survived. Taking a huge booty and capturing several tens of thousands of prisoners, the Tatar army returned to the Crimea.
Encouraged by such a major success, Devlet Giray wrote a letter to the king demanding the transfer of the Kazan and Astrakhan khanates to him. Ivan IV in his return letter gave a rather ornate agreement to give Astrakhan, obviously delaying the time. However, supported by the efforts and the gold of the Polish-Lithuanian and Turkish diplomacy, Khan was so confident in his abilities that he prepared for the next, 1572 year, an even more large-scale campaign against Russia, in order not only to take rich booty, but also to demand from the king substantial concessions . Ivan IV, while Khan pored over drawing up plans, was engaged in a no less significant matter: the search and punishment of those responsible for the destruction of Moscow and the defeat of the oprichnich army. The Kabardinian prince M. T. Cherkassky was appointed the main culprit of the incident, he and several other governors were executed. No evil was found in the actions of Khvorostinin, but the voivode, along with other commanders of the oprichnich army, fell into disfavor. So the existence of actually two parallel military structures in one state adversely affected its defense capability.
In the spring of 1572 of the year, having collected, according to various estimates, from 40 to 60 thousand people (a number of historians call the number 120 thousand), Devlet Girey left the Crimea to repeat last year’s success. However, this time the Russians did not manage to be taken by surprise. As early as January-February 1571, on the initiative of the tsar, a congress of service nobles and villagers who served on the border was held in Moscow. The meeting was presided over by a prominent military figure of that period, voivod M. I. Vorotynsky. The result of this kind of meeting of border guards was the 17 ruling of February on 1571, the “verdict on the stanitsa and guard service”, which regulated and led to a common denominator the entire border guard system, the creation of outposts, stanitsas and observation posts. Reforming and putting in order the “guard service” on the southern frontiers did not have time to somehow influence the invasion of the Tatars, but the next 1572 year the results of the innovations had already affected: the Russians knew about the approximate size of the enemy, its direction of movement and condition.
The tension caused by the long Livonian war grew — it absorbed most of the resources of the Russian state. In fact, the Second Front, created by Tatar raids, was actually added annually to the heavy hostilities in the Baltic States. To counteract the invasion of Devlet Giray, before that, separate Zemstvo and Oprichnaya rati were united into one army, at the head of which was voivode M. I. Vorotinsky. Dmitri Ivanovich Khvorostinin was the second commander in the advanced regiment. In total, taking into account the presence of the Livonian front, the Russians could oppose Devlet Giray with no more than 20 thousand people.
Khvorostinin took part in advanced clashes with the approaching Tatar army, which was transported through the Oka in the Serpukhov region. Total advanced regiment under the command of Prince Andrei Khovansky, where he served as the second commander Khvorostinin, numbered about 4,5 thousand fighters, which included archers, Cossacks, military nobility and foreign mercenaries. The Russians managed to significantly pat the Tatar carts and their guards. Perhaps this and other reasons forced the Crimean Khan to go to the field battle to get rid of the Russian army and freely engage in their direct business - robbery.
The decisive battle took place on July 30 1572, fifty kilometers from Moscow. The rates for the Russians were extremely high - if we exclude all subsequent quantitative additions, Devlet Giray still surpassed the Russian army at least twice. The defeat of the troops of the governor Vorotynsky would have opened the way to Moscow, with all the tactical and strategic consequences that this entails.
The center of the Russian army was reinforced by the walk-city — thick wooden shields, carried in carts and, if necessary, quickly assembled into walls. The shields had special loopholes for firing at the enemy. Thus, the field reinforcement was obtained from the spaced wagon with shields. Gulyay-city was deployed on a convenient hill near the river Rozhay. Nearby was the village of Molodi. Vorotynsky placed his large regiment in this field fortress, having entrusted the defense of the town of Gulyai directly to Dmitry Khvorostinin. The army had many eminent and well-born voivods, but the choice of commander obviously fell on one of the most militarily experienced commanders. The flanks of the gulyay-city were protected by other regiments, the front was a barrier of archers.
30 July 1572. The battle began - the Tatars managed to easily dislodge the front barriers, however, the attackers met the massive fire of pistils and artillery near the walls of the walking-city. Until the evening of the first day of the battle, several attacks were made that were repulsed with heavy losses for the Tatars. The noble cavalry from the flanks also struck a successful counterstrike. By the end of 30 July, Devlet Girey stopped his attack to regroup and bring them in order. He also expected the approach of a detachment of Turkish janissaries who participated in the raid. The Turks, who fought well on foot, were planned to be used to storm Russian fortifications. Until 2 of August, the sides were in positional confrontation, and on this day, Devlet Giray ordered his soldiers to dismount and go on the attack. According to contemporaries, the Tatars attacked massively, stubbornly and bravely, they were actively helped by the Turks. Many managed to get inside the perimeter, but the soldiers of Khvorostinin fought no less steadfastly. Behind the wooden walls were iron people.
Khan carried away the attack, sending more and more new warriors - several violent attacks were repulsed with heavy losses for the attackers. Taking advantage of the fact that the enemy was stuck in an attack on the promenade and weakened attention in other directions, Vorotynsky with a large detachment walked around the Tatar army and hit him in the rear. The troops of Devlet Girey were confused, and then, to top it off, Khvorostinin launched a counterattack from the walking-city by the forces of German mercenaries and archers. Tatars fluttered and ran - the persecution began. The battle of Molodya cost the Crimean Khanate dearly. The relatives of the khan, a lot of Tatar nobility died in the battle. A large amount of stolen property was thrown. It is difficult to overestimate the role of Khvorostinin in the battle of Molodya - perhaps the most responsible and difficult part of the defense fell to his share.
In battles with enemies and ships
After the events of 1571, Mr. Ivan IV set a course for the gradual dismantling of the oprichnina, now the nobility of origin has again played a large role. The merits of Khvorostinin at Molodia remain without special attention, he is still in low ranks and at the same level of posts. The winner and commander of the army commander Vorotynsky fell into disfavor, was accused of witchcraft, arrested and tortured. The commander denied his guilt and was eventually executed.
The second half of 70's It is also characterized by a large number of local litigation in courts with representatives of eminent and distinguished noble families. A striking feature of feudalism is localism, when disputes and litigation between noblemen are solved primarily by the degree of their nobility. In 1579, Khvorostinin loses another local litigation to Buturlin, for which he was obliged to pay 150 rubles in a fine, a huge sum for those times. He continues to participate in almost all the then operations of the Russian army in Livonia, repeatedly going on campaigns against the Tatars. But on service advancement there seemed to be a limiter: nowhere he was given command of not only a separate army, but even a regiment. He is the eternal second voivode.
In the summer of 1578, he was finally assigned to command the regiment, which was actively involved in the taking of the enemy fortress Polchev. However, Khvorostinin submits a local complaint to his second voivode, Prince M. V. Tyufyakin, considering his persona more notable, and therefore not wishing to be subordinate to the less high-born commander. Khvorostinin was sent to Moscow for trial, and the army he left soon suffered a serious defeat at Kesya. Many voivods and military noblemen died - death is indifferent to the degree of nobility and generosity.
Only in 1580 did the king nevertheless decided to raise the governor, to whom he was not very situated. Obviously, the prolonged Livonian war and great losses in the personnel of the Russian army played a role in this. Khvorostinin gets the position of the second governor of a large regiment. In 1580, he, as part of the Russian army, fights with the troops of Stefan Batory on the western frontiers. In 1582, the voivode is already fighting against another enemy, the Swedes, in the Neva area. In February, an advanced regiment commanded by Khvorostinin defeated the troops of the famous Swedish commander and diplomat Pontus Delagardi near the village of Lyalitsy. The powerful blow of the local cavalry, headed by Khvorostinin, overturned the Swedes and put them to flight. The defeat under Lyalitsy and the unsuccessful siege of the Nut forced Stockholm to sign a truce with the Russians.
The Livonian War, which exhausted the forces of the parties, was coming to an end. In March, 1584, Ivan the Terrible died, a new king, Fyodor I Ivanovich, took the throne. In life, Khvorostinin has a chance for change. The fact is that he was a relative of the Godunov family, whose head, Boris Godunov, was the brother-in-law of the new tsar and in fact had unlimited influence on him. The twig was granted the highest order of the Duma boyar, who, by the way, was a deserved warrior long deserving. Stepped up and his military career. In 1585, he turns out to be the commander of all the troops covering the southern border. In the interval between 1585 and 1589, the voivode is continuously engaged in strengthening and strengthening southern cities and fortresses, protecting the territory of the Russian state from steppe raids. At this time, neither the Tatars nor anyone else could break through to the central regions of the country.
In the meantime, clouds were gathering at the western borders. Relatively recently formed and hostile to Russia, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was in alliance with another enemy - Sweden. Without waiting for the neighbors to reveal swords languishing from boredom, Moscow decided to launch a preemptive strike at Sweden, as against a weaker enemy, in the opinion of the Russian command. In January, 1590, a large army in which Tsar Fyodor Ivanovich himself was present, with Boris Godunov invariably at hand, marched to the Swedish border. Dmitry Khvorostinin, in command of the advanced regiment, won the last victory in his long military career in the short-term and successful military campaign for the Russians. In the area of Narva, he destroys the five-thousand-strong Swedish squad under the command of Gustav Banner. Russian troops besieged Narva. The Swedes understand that the further continuation of hostilities is risky and can lead to dangerous consequences - at the end of February, Swedish Field Marshal Karl Horn signs a truce with the king for a period of one year. Russia returned to the fortress Koporye and Ivangorod.
After some time, the Swedes broke the truce, and the war resumed. However, Khvorostinin is no longer involved in it — age, wounds and long-term, almost continuous, combat activity. The old soldier took monastic vows at the Holy Trinity Monastery of St. Sergius, and on August 7 1590 he was gone. So quietly one of the outstanding commanders of the reign of Ivan the Terrible left worldly and swearing affairs. Titles and titles were received by Dmitry Ivanovich Khvorostinin not in the monotonous silence of the boyar meetings, nor in the drunken noise of feasts and feasts, but deserved with blood and sweat, sword, spear and food. First of all, he was a Russian warrior, a prominent representative of a difficult profession - to defend his homeland.
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