Military Review

Riddles of the Great Mound (Part of 2)

47
The first thing that caught the eye of archaeologists at the entrance to the front camera - it is plaster, which was in excellent condition. On the floor one could see a lot of wooden furniture remains. The front camera turned out to be incredibly large in size and, moreover, was literally strewn with various burial utensils. The attention of researchers attracted a hole that formed between two stelae of marble. As it turned out, between them lay a relief plate of gold. Near the entrance to the tomb was burned with gold, inside which archeologists managed to find arrows. Bronze knee pads with gold plated on them were found near the burn. On the floor were oil vessels made of alabaster. A delightful pectoral of gold was found near one of the walls, and two jellyfish, also made of gold, were found nearby.


Riddles of the Great Mound (Part of 2)

Entrance to the museum in Vergina.

The lining, made of gold, was in the form of a plate, which was divided into three parts. Two of these parts were decorated with beautiful reliefs of figures, and the third part, which was the largest in size, was decorated with an ornament that ended in the upper part with a figure of a warrior. All reliefs were united by a plot depicting warriors who donned armor and armed with swords. They lead a bloody battle with the enemies. At the same time, women and children are looking for a secluded place at the altars with images of gods. Logically, one may conclude that the capture of the city is depicted: the victors rush into the temples. Scientists immediately suggested that the fall of Troy is depicted - the most beloved story for all Greek masters. Later, having studied the relief in more detail, the researchers questioned this, since none of the characters could be compared with any hero. Most likely, this is the plot of some other battle, about which we do not know anything.


Burning and Leggings in the tomb.

It is not a secret for anybody that the leaders of the Scythians used such rich mountains; several pieces of such mountains were found in the southern part of Russia, in the places of Scythian settlements. Archaeologists found seven similar gorites in Karagodeashash - most likely, they were made on the same matrix. This was confirmed by the Soviet scientist A.P. Mantsevich. From this we can conclude that this burning was the military prey of the Macedonians after their battle with the Scythian wars. As you know, King Philip II in 339 BC. er He fought with the king Ateus and defeated him. Macedonian warriors have captured huge booty. Most likely, at this very moment it burns and got to them.


Lights in the museum. On the left is the golden pectoral.

After the sarcophagus in the anterior chamber was opened, a number of pleasant surprises awaited the researchers. Inside there was another urn, but this time it was smaller in size. The researchers immediately removed it and proceeded with the autopsy. Inside lay the bones that covered the brocade of purple-gold color. The threads of gold were in good condition, but the purple threatened to disappear. The researchers immediately took photos. Saving this cloth was a very difficult task. A group of restorers led by T. Margaritov managed to do this. But there was another find, the uniqueness of which is just incredible. In the urn, along with the remains, lay a female diadem of gold - one of the most unique jewelery that we inherited from antiquity. The main feature of this ornament was not its luxury, but the elegance with which this ornament was made.


An image of battle scenes on fire.

Stems of gold adorned with many curls, buds, the legs of which are also made of gold. The whole composition was crowned with palmetki and the image of the bees above the flowers - all this together created this unique work of art.


Diadem.

Having examined in detail all the finds, the scientists came to the conclusion that they had found a royal tomb. It was the largest of all the Macedonian tombs, inside it was painted by a famous artist, and the finds are of tremendous value, both literally and figuratively. The importance of the finds suggests that the tomb belongs to the head of the royal family. This is supported by the diadem of gold and silver found by scientists. The ends of this adornment were held together with a Heracles knot, which allowed the size of the volume to be adjusted.


Perhaps King Philip looked like this in his unique iron armor.

Dating finds is not difficult. According to scientists, they relate to the third quarter of IV. BC e., and more precisely to the period between 350 and 325 BC. er
Provided that the dating is correct, one can conclude that this tomb belongs to Tsar Philip II - the father of the famous Alexander the Great. The works of anthropologists tell us that the remains belong to a man between the ages of 40 and 50 years, and, as we know, Philip was killed at the age of 46 years. A group of archaeologists from England conducted the restoration of the skull. Immediately there was a similarity with the image of the king. Also on the right temporal bone was found a depression, which was once a wound from an arrow. The remains of the second urn, as expected, judging by the diadem, turned out to be female. This is a young girl aged from 23 to 27 years, most likely, was one of Philip's wives, but which one is not yet known. Thus, the amazing treasures found by archaeologists in Vergina allowed to shed light not only on the Macedonian civilization, but also on the entire Hellenistic era of the 4th century BC. er


"The tomb of the prince"

However, this work is not over. Later, archaeologists managed to find another tomb (Tomb III), which was located northwest of the first tomb. Scientists immediately suggested that one of the members of the royal family rested in it. This tomb was small, but it also had two cameras. Unfortunately, the painting of the facade of the tomb was not preserved, since it was carried out not on plaster, as in other tombs, but on a panel of wood or leather. However, a small fresco was found in the front chamber. It depicted a double chariot. Of course, we cannot put this frieze on a par with that wonderful painting that was found in other tombs, but still it also belongs to the hand of a great master, who knew a lot about his work.


Painting with the image of the chariot.

Inside the chamber were many items. Many residues from organic materials were found on the floor. Cups made of silver were found in one of the corners of the chamber. Almost all of them were in excellent condition. In total, archaeologists have discovered 28 objects. After they were processed, it turned out that they were not of such high quality as the finds from Tomb II, but some of them were no less valuable. Some of these objects had a very unusual, one might even say original form, which was not typical for silverware. However, despite all this, researchers have discovered several masterpieces. For example, the pate with the image of the ram's head at the end of the handle. This is an excellent example of metalworking that existed in the 4th century BC. er


Bronze oil lamp.

However, these are not the only subjects that deserve close attention to themselves. For example, a gilded sword tip was discovered. Also found were five gilded scrapers (shears) made of bronze. We also managed to find the greaves, which were gilded. In a terrible state, it was discovered some kind of clothing made of leather or woven fabric of gold. Human remains were found after cremation. They were surrounded by a crown made of gold, oak leaves and acorns. This beautiful crown was not as massive as the one that was found in the First Tomb, but despite this it can also be recognized as one of the most amazing crowns of gold, inherited from antiquity.


Museum premises: finds from tombs.

With almost one hundred percent probability we can assume that the tomb also housed a bed of wood, which also decorated ivory carvings. From the heap of fragments only two elements of the bed were sifted out. Most likely, it was the decoration of the legs of the bed. The painstaking work of G. Petkusis allowed scientists to restore some elements of relief and ornament. As it turned out, Pan was depicted on the relief, and a Dionysian couple was depicted on the left side. It can be seen that a mature man holds a torch in his hand, at the same time he rests on the shoulders of a young woman.


The painting of one of the tombs in Vergina: the funeral procession.

The careful work of anthropologists has established that a young man aged from 12 to 14 years rests in the tomb. Only the fact that this tomb was built specifically for the deceased young man, allows to classify it as a royal tombs. If anyone still had any doubts, the treasures found by archaeologists should completely dispel all fears: you should remember about the found tomb, which was made in all traditions of high art.

Some of the historians suggest that this tomb belongs to Alexander IV, the son of the famous Alexander the Great. As you know, he was declared king after the death of his father, and slain in 310 - 309 BC. er


Portrait of Philip II ivory, height 3,2 cm.

Despite all those amazing discoveries, the work in Vergina did not stop. In 1982, archaeologists managed to excavate the city theater, in which Philip II was killed, and his son was proclaimed king. In 1987, another startling discovery was made. Another tomb was found. After the autopsy inside, the scientists managed to detect a huge amount of burial utensils. As it turned out, this tomb belongs to the VI century BC. er From this we can conclude that this is the earliest tomb, which was discovered in the ancient Macedonian capital. Also, during excavations at depth, limestone blocks were discovered, which made up a large structure. As it turned out, it was the burial chamber. Unfortunately, the robbers have already been here. But despite this, the scientists were lucky to find a unique find in one of the chambers - it turned out to be a marble throne with an ornament made on it. He stood in the farthest corner of the tomb. On its back there was a relief with the image of plants and the image of Pluto and Persephone on the chariot. Next to the throne was a bench, which was designed specifically for the legs. Scientists suggest that this tomb belongs to a woman. Most likely, she also belonged to the royal family. After death, her body was also cremated. After that, the remains were placed in a casket.


Gold earrings from burial in Vergina.

Today, all these artifacts found during excavations in Vergina are the exhibits of the museum in Vergina and the museum of archeology in Thessaloniki. Everyone who looks at them, of course, sees something of their own, but one thing is certain - a very high level of the then Greek culture, somewhat later, namely after the campaigns of Alexander the Great to the East, which became the basis for the culture of the Hellenistic era.
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  1. V.ic
    V.ic 2 November 2016 06: 13
    0
    Glory to the archaeologists! Stories glory! So how much does this material correspond to the theme of the site?
    1. sergeyzzz
      sergeyzzz 2 November 2016 07: 56
      +2
      How not to match? But what about the war chariot in the picture? wassat
      1. V.ic
        V.ic 2 November 2016 11: 02
        0
        Quote: sergeyzzz
        But what about the war chariot in the picture?

        This is already in the part concerning painting. And if with regards to reliability, then where is the "driver of the mare", is it not instead of the "descendant of the gods" to torment the divine hands "with the reins"?
    2. tanit
      tanit 2 November 2016 13: 01
      +3
      This section of the site is called History, if you have not noticed. hi
      And this material corresponds to the topic much more than materials about the line for bread or stolen narrow gauge rails. smile
      1. V.ic
        V.ic 2 November 2016 16: 44
        0
        Quote: tanit
        This section of the site is called History if you have not noticed. And this material is relevant

        ... if you couldn’t notice I’ll explain my point of rhenium: in the above article there is archeology in its pure form: opening of the tomb, excavation of finds, subsequent description of the object, conservation of the finds, description of the finds, drawing up a report (without which it is impossible to legitimize the results of excavations in science and culture) and in the end, after the legislative registration of documents for the object, the world will be shown another "object of cultural heritage".
        1. tanit
          tanit 3 November 2016 10: 29
          +1
          I will continue your list. As well as a description of the armor found and parts of equipment not characteristic of the Macedonians, and an assumption of how it got into the mound. hi Frescoes, traces of wounds at the temple ... No, I understand that about the harm-benefit of Orthodoxy, it, of course, is most relevant to the subject of the site ...
          That is, what comes out in 50 percent of the articles under the heading Opinion and Analytics - have much more rights to publish?
          Sincerely, but then objectively, complain in the other sections, about the non-compliance of the article with the site.
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 2 November 2016 07: 35
    +3
    Thank you, Dmitry .. An interesting article ..
  3. tveritianin
    tveritianin 2 November 2016 09: 31
    +2
    Twice visited this hill museum. I saw everything with my own eyes and decided that I would definitely go there again on my next visit to Greece. Everything seen is just fantastic !!! Will definitely visit again. Many thanks for the article to the author
  4. Monster_Fat
    Monster_Fat 2 November 2016 10: 44
    0
    Where are the "riddles"?
  5. 2-0
    2-0 2 November 2016 11: 01
    0
    People, you can say people !!!
    Well, tell me at least someone illiterate (the question remains unanswered for probably 10 years). I see a chariot on the wall! From which the chariot had an axle and hubs. Well, at least tell someone ...
    I now see in the old "Ben-Hur" race on fours, at a speed of 40 km per hour, they talk about the races in Rome and Constantinople. AXES and HUBS from what?
    Let’s drop the carts. I’m interested in war chariots, especially about a two- or four-horse!
    1. kalibr
      2 November 2016 14: 07
      0
      Those that have come down to us are from birch!
      1. 2-0
        2-0 2 November 2016 14: 10
        0
        Where and how did you find it?
        1. kalibr
          2 November 2016 14: 24
          +1
          On the territory of the Russian Federation. There were materials about this, including in the electronic media. I won't tell you exactly where exactly. But the word "birch" has sunk. Then ... they found the disassembled chariot in the tomb of Tutankhamun. There should be material about this on the website of the Cairo Museum of Egyptology. Then there is the same book in England "War chariots" there should also be. It is on the Osprey publishing house website.
          1. Lebedev Sergey
            Lebedev Sergey 2 November 2016 19: 23
            +2
            Offhand, I will say: Sintashta, Southern Urals.
          2. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 2 November 2016 21: 24
            0
            Come on, Vyacheslav, where are the birches, and where is Ancient Egypt, even taking into account global climate changes!
            1. kalibr
              2 November 2016 21: 34
              0
              Did I write about the birch in Egypt? I wrote "here, on the territory of the Russian Federation." I wrote about Egypt - "you need to find out"!
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 2 November 2016 22: 23
                0
                Sorry for Egypt, carried away! But on the subject of birch as axles and hubs, doubts still torment, the material for the supporting structure is brittle at constant horizontal and vertical dynamic loads.
              2. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 2 November 2016 22: 37
                0
                Now I'm trying to remember that, in general, commercial wood can grow in this region, but besides the Lebanese cedar, only date palms and all kinds of "barren fig trees" come to mind.
                1. Operator
                  Operator 2 November 2016 23: 07
                  0
                  The best material for war chariots on the territory of our Black Sea region among the Aryans was considered Caucasian ash.
                  1. 2-0
                    2-0 3 November 2016 15: 34
                    0
                    Ariev of which haplogroup?
            2. Operator
              Operator 2 November 2016 21: 35
              0
              The war chariots originated in the south of the Urals and Siberia, 3 thousands of years BC, on the migration of Aryans from Eastern Europe to Central Asia, China, the Iranian Highlands, Hindustan and Anatolia.

              After 1,5 for thousands of years, the Anatolian Hyksos (local Semites assimilated by the Aryans) invaded Egypt on chariots and ruled there for about a hundred years, after which the Egyptians adopted the invention of the Aryans.
  6. Rick ball
    Rick ball 2 November 2016 14: 20
    +1
    You don’t have an assistant professor, he would know how to preserve valuables ... When I was at school I hated tomb robbers, and now I have climbed into Christ’s bosom ...
    1. kalibr
      2 November 2016 14: 25
      +2
      In Japan, this is why the decree of the emperor forbids the excavation of ancient tombs-kofuns. They dug up only a few, by personal permission of the emperor. But there are thousands of them! And no one even touches a finger!
      1. 2-0
        2-0 2 November 2016 15: 38
        0
        Vyacheslav .... it’s not necessary, but ... Not everyone speaks English in free form, therefore - don’t have to be so modestly defiant ...

        As for the axles from the birches - I said, let’s drop the carts, I’m interested in these, so that horses have smoke from the nostrils, sickles on wheels from the Persians and Dorians through the Trojan system like a knife into butter, and bloodshots all around, intestines and insides on the sickle-chariots of the Persians ... Bosko-arms-legs chopped off all around lying around, beauty - he wrote himself, already goosebumps went from the performance.

        Regarding the decree of the emperor. You know Vyacheslav, looking at Caucasoid physiognomies (adjusted for generations of Japanese women naturally) of the generals and admirals of Japan, well, at least in the beginning of the 20th century, you will inevitably think that by decree the emperor protected the country from all sorts of different things ... Maybe Europeans are mastering Japan and what samurai is - did not pass exactly as they tell us. Moreover, I saw real Japanese, scary macaques, but samurai ... the thing is completely different.

        They found a chariot, almost a toy one, they also found a boat, you can’t swim on it.
        1. kalibr
          2 November 2016 16: 10
          0
          I didn’t mean to offend you with a reference to an English book. Sorry. As for the axles ... you need to look from what axis of the Egyptian chariots. I just do not remember offhand. And the English book must also be sought. As for macaques ... who knows. There are many photos of the 19 century samurai that look quite European, but that doesn’t mean anything. The language belongs to the Altai language group. This is certain. That is, the Japanese are the descendants of the ancient Altai. And who were the ancient Altaians ???
          You really wrote well about chariots. You need to put the topic of chariots in the plan for future articles. But ... first get in touch with Cairo, which will take time.
          1. 2-0
            2-0 2 November 2016 17: 46
            0
            Yes, I didn’t take offense, so I started to want ....

            Nah, that's not the point. These are different shots - samurai, not even samurai, but aristocracy and ordinary Japanese. In the aristocracy it is clear that popes are clearly Caucasians. Nobody wants to dig, the story is dark there. Believe me, ordinary Japanese, no offense will be told to them - this is a small, monkey-like people. But the polished Hari of the aristocracy is another.

            Let's talk about chariots. The most important thing is not the pictures, but the composition of the harness - horror of what surprises will be, and the arrangement of the chariot. Especially as the four dragged the chariot to one and it did not take off ...
            1. kalibr
              2 November 2016 19: 19
              0
              And that's what there is! You cannot jump higher than yourself and sources!
            2. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 2 November 2016 21: 30
              0
              And you can’t admit that this quadrangle was no larger than zebras or tarpans, it was not for nothing that the Egyptians had cavalry, didn’t have time to breed a breed capable of carrying a person?
              1. 2-0
                2-0 2 November 2016 23: 08
                0
                I don’t know anything. In "Ben-Hur" and "Alexander" there are normal horses. Drive the serpentine chariots along the testicles !!!!
                1. rasteer
                  rasteer 3 November 2016 06: 56
                  0
                  Hi i cry wassat In the days of Alexander and Rome, there was no Hollywood, and there was no one to invent the wonders of technical thought. You still remember "Asterix at the Olympic Games" with Schumacher. laughing
            3. Severomor
              Severomor 3 November 2016 10: 31
              0
              Quote: 2-0
              Let's talk about chariots. The most important thing is not the pictures, but the composition of the harness - horror of what surprises will be, and the arrangement of the chariot. Especially as the four dragged the chariot to one and it did not take off ...

              Maybe it's better to immediately erect a monument to the "Unknown Nomad" and we will remember it if we cannot explain something)))
          2. Operator
            Operator 2 November 2016 21: 24
            0
            The Chinese and Japanese are different genetically peoples:
            the former are homogeneous in the dominant haplogroup O (90%), the latter are heterogeneous in the dominant haplogroup D (38%) and O (35%).

            Therefore, some of the Japanese are closer to Europoids (D, related to North African E), and part to the Mongoloids (O, related to Mongolian C).
        2. rasteer
          rasteer 2 November 2016 20: 39
          0
          And where were you in Japan that you saw small scary macaques? It was Japan itself, people like people growing like Europeans from 1,6m to 2m. Only the elderly look small before the war and immediately after it were born. Actually a significant improvement in nutrition has done its job.
          Again, it is possible that external differences in the photo of samurai and ordinary Japanese are connected with the difference in the quality of food. Yes, the Japanese really differ from the same Koreans and especially the peoples of northern China and Mongolia. Here, isolation and mixing with the Ainu, the first inhabitants of the islands, probably played a role. However, in comparison with the northern peoples such as the Chukchi, the difference is not so noticeable.
          1. rasteer
            rasteer 2 November 2016 20: 48
            +1
            As for the material for the axis of the chariot, I won’t say exactly, but the hubs were made of bronze, which, in general, is logical, bronze plain bearings are still in use.
            Here is a photo from the Athens Museum building is a clear reconstruction. but the bronze details are real.
            1. 2-0
              2-0 2 November 2016 22: 55
              0
              ABOUT! And the axis is round so that it doesn’t block in the hubs, then the dog rummaged ... Speed ​​isn’t cart-like - a breakthrough of the battle order of the phalanx or legion - no wedges and turns.
              1. 2-0
                2-0 3 November 2016 17: 10
                0
                YoYo, forgot! WHEELS !!! with knitting needles, ties, rims. Vyacheslav - do not forget the wheel device !!!
          2. The comment was deleted.
          3. 2-0
            2-0 2 November 2016 22: 58
            0
            And I will not argue with you "rasteer". Food and lifestyle are great things.
            I would only advise you to watch old Japanese films and chronicles. Yes, even the same Kurosawa - "Seven Samurai". Taking into account that you correctly noted about old people.

            Vice Admiral Misu Russian-Japanese .... Typical Japanese, right? Low sloping forehead, narrowish eyes, small vegetation on the erysipelas, cheekbones, all the same, right? And such faces in the generals of Japan at the beginning of the 20th century. - a dime a dozen.
            1. rasteer
              rasteer 3 November 2016 07: 09
              0
              I will give you two photos in one photo of the samurai on the other are koryak and they show that the Caucasian type of face is present along with the Asian one.

              1. 2-0
                2-0 3 November 2016 11: 35
                0
                So what’s the conclusion?
                Moreover, Koryak is not an indicator - geologists, geographers ...
                1. rasteer
                  rasteer 3 November 2016 13: 13
                  0
                  The conclusion is not the face colors the person, but the person's face laughing
                  But seriously. Here, somewhere, the Operator wrote about his favorite gallogroups, and for some time it converges. Japanese as a nation is a mixture of Europeans, Chinese, and manchurians. Thanks to the long isolation, the Japanese came out of this mixture.
                  1. 2-0
                    2-0 3 November 2016 15: 49
                    0
                    Yeah, tell the Japanese that. They’ll earn a damn ... What kind of Europeans are Chinese? According to all the books, it was a puppeted nation that boldly beat off Khubilai and further developed exclusively original. Why, then, are there such interesting faces?
        3. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 2 November 2016 21: 47
          +1
          The second paragraph is good !!! No, except for jokes! Let's stir up something military-historical in the spirit of Jan or, to the extreme, Sabatini? Vyacheslav, let’s call the consultants ... smile
  7. 2-0
    2-0 2 November 2016 23: 11
    0


    Oh Minister! Typical Japanese ... face! Especially the frontal part and the superciliary arches.
  8. 2-0
    2-0 2 November 2016 23: 14
    0


    Mother, mother - Marshal !!!
    1. rasteer
      rasteer 3 November 2016 07: 18
      0
      Such drawings do not reflect reality. Moreover, Oyama had a face injury; one eye was wide open
  9. 2-0
    2-0 2 November 2016 23: 19
    0


    Well, in conclusion - the unforgettable Togo, slightly young. Typical Japanese !!!!!!!!
  10. avaks111
    avaks111 4 February 2017 07: 01
    0
    Are jewelry manufacturing technologies too high for the 4th century BC?