The current state of the air defense of the countries of the former Soviet Union republics. Part 10
Russian Federation. Anti-aircraft missile and radio troops
Unlike the United States and the European countries of NATO, a significant number of medium-range and long-range anti-aircraft systems are on combat duty in our country. But compared with Soviet times, their number has been reduced several times. ZRV was assigned the task of ensuring the repulsion of an air attack. The main regular units of these troops were separate divisions, which were reduced to regiments and brigades. Moreover, brigades of mixed composition began to be created in 1960's, they included both divisions armed with medium-range or long-range complexes (C-75 or C-200) and divisions of low-altitude complexes (C-125). The C-200, C-75 and C-125 complexes complemented each other, making it significantly more difficult for the enemy to carry out reconnaissance and electronic warfare, and overlapped the "dead zones".
In the USSR, the ZRK was defended by practically all major industrial and administrative-political cities, as well as nuclear and hydroelectric power stations, transportation hubs, ports and airfields, large military facilities, permanent locations of troops, etc. Positions of the air defense system unfolded both in the extreme south and in the extreme north of our immense country. The level of combat readiness and professional training in the anti-aircraft missile forces, as a rule, was very high. At least once in 2, the calculations took part in real training and control shooting at the range. At the same time, if it was possible to shoot back at a rating lower than “good,” tough conclusions followed, both with regard to the direct command of the anti-aircraft missile division, and with regard to the higher management.
The most northern anti-aircraft missile units in the USSR were: in the European part of the 406-th SRP from the composition of the 4-th ADAP in Novaya Zemlya, and in the Far East 762-th SRP from the composition of the 25-th PDPO Coal Mines, in Chukotka. Both regiments were armed with the most massive S-75 air defense system in the USSR Air Defense Forces. If the withdrawal of the 762 XRUM technology and hoisting began as early as the end of 80, then the conserved positions with launchers on Novaya Zemlya could be observed as early as 2005.
By 1995, most of the C-75 and C-125 SAMs were decommissioned, and the number of long-range C-200s declined. All this was justified by the fact that these complexes were supposedly hopelessly outdated and replaced with the C-300P. The scale of the destruction of the anti-aircraft missile cover system only for the period from 1992 to 1999 year looks like this: the composition of the ZRV decreased by 3 times in 5,8 times, in terms of the number of personnel in 6,8 times.
If we can partly agree with the obsolescence of the C-75, although the few new C-75М4 with the extended range 5YA23, equipped with a television-optical viewfinder with a “Dubler” equipment with remote simulators of the CHP, could still at least XNMX to protect the sky in minor directions or to complement more modern systems, the hasty rejection of C-10 and C-125 was completely unjustified. The following circumstances were not taken into account when writing off “hundred twelve”: The C-200P was designed to replace the stationary C-300 and single-channel C-25, the three-hundred-rocket is significantly heavier and more expensive, the full replacement of the C-75 and C-125PS is too much wasteful. The experience of combat operations in Iraq and Yugoslavia showed that increasing the density of anti-aircraft defense is required, if purchases of C-300Ps stopped, and C-300 is removed from service, then the saturation of anti-aircraft defense systems has dropped, according to the logic of C-125P, the most important objects, and C-300 secondary or cover positions C-125П. As subsequent events showed, the latest modifications of the C-300 had a huge modernization potential. For export deliveries in our country, a modernized version has been created on the Pechera-125M C-125 mobile chassis with combat effectiveness increased several times.
As for the S-200 SAM, the following shortcomings were blamed on him: the bulkiness, the difficulty of relocating and equipping firing positions, which made this complex virtually stationary and the need to refuel SAM with fuel and oxidizer. But at the same time, the “two hundred” had significant advantages: a long launch range of 240 km for the S-200V and 300 km for the S-200D, and the ability to work on production aircraft of active noise interference. Thanks to the use of anti-aircraft missiles with a semi-active seeker as part of the S-200 anti-aircraft missile system, the radio interference previously used to blind the S-75 and S-125 became ineffective against it. After adopting the S-200 air defense system aviation The United States and NATO have become more respectful of the inviolability of the air borders of the USSR. Often, taking on a radar tracking target illumination (ROC) of an approaching Orion or CR-135 was enough for a potential intruder to rush hastily.
For comparison: the C-300PS range, which until recently formed the basis of the ZRV, is 90 km, only in 2000-s for relatively few C-300PM the missiles with the launch range 200 km began to arrive. So far, the C-400 SAMs use the 48H6М and 48Н6ДМ SAMs, originally created for the C-300М.
It is worth recalling that originally the C-300PT with the radio command solid-fuel missile 5В55К, put into service in the 1978 year, was intended to replace the single-channel SAM C-75. In the C-300PT ZRS, launchers with four anti-aircraft missiles in transport-launch containers (TPK) were placed on trailers towed by tractors. The affected area of the first C-300PT variant was 5 — 47 km, which was even smaller than the C-75М3 SAMs with the 5Я23 SAMs. Subsequently, new 5ВХNUMXР type missiles with an increased launch range and semi-active seeker were introduced into the anti-aircraft missile system. In 55, a new version of the anti-aircraft system - C-1983PS. Its main difference was the placement of launchers on MAZ-300 self-propelled chassis. Due to this, it was possible to achieve a record short deployment time - 543 minutes.
It was C-300PS that for many years became the basis of anti-missile forces. The S-300PS missiles have become the most widespread in the C-300P family, their production in the 80s has been carried out at an accelerated pace. C-300PS and even more advanced C-300PM with high noise immunity and improved combat performance should have replaced the first-generation C-1 complexes in the 1: 75 ratio. This would allow the USSR’s most powerful air defense system in the world to reach a qualitatively new level. Unfortunately, these plans were not destined to be realized.
C-300PM tests ended in 1989, and the collapse of the USSR had a negative impact on the production of this anti-aircraft system. Thanks to the introduction of the 48H6 rocket and the increase in power of the multi-function radar, the target destruction range increased to 150 km. Officially, the C-300PM was adopted in 1993, the supply of this complex to the Russian armed forces continued until the middle of the 90-s. After 1996, the air defense systems of the C-300P family were built only for export. Part of the C-300PS has undergone a refurbishment, which allowed them to extend their service life, and the C-300PM were upgraded to the C-300ММ1 / ПМ2 level. For these modifications, new missiles with a launch range of up to 250 km have been adopted.
From 1994 to 2007, despite loud statements about the "revival" of the army, our air defense forces did not receive a single long-range anti-aircraft system. Moreover, due to the limiting wear and lack of standardized missiles, they were written off or transferred to the C-300PT and C-300PS storage bases built in the 80s. For this reason, many strategic facilities remained without anti-aircraft cover. Such as nuclear and hydroelectric power stations, airfield bases of strategic bombers and objects of the Strategic Missile Forces. “Holes” between air defense facilities beyond the Urals are several thousand kilometers, and anyone and anything can fly into them. However, not only in Siberia and the Far East, but throughout the whole country, a huge number of critically important objects of industry and infrastructure are not covered by any means of air defense. Modeling based on the results of real ground firing under the conditions of complicated jamming conditions showed that our long-range anti-aircraft systems, while protecting concealed objects, are capable of intercepting 70-80% of air attack weapons. It should be borne in mind that beyond the Urals we have significant gaps in the air defense system, especially from the north.
New widely advertised anti-aircraft missile system C-400 by and large is just beginning to massively come into service. The rate of C-400 supplies to the troops is not bad, but for the time being it is only about replacing the C-300PS to be written off. As of September 2016, the 14 srp had 29 srn in the RF AUC of the Russian Federation. All in all, according to data taken from "open sources" in videoconferencing, there is an 38 srp, including 105 srn. At the same time, some units are in the process of re-equipment or reorganization and are not combat ready. During the period of “Serdyukovschiny”, an increase in anti-aircraft missile regiments occurred in the united air force and air defense system due to the transfer of several brigades armed with C-300В and Buk air defense systems and air defense missile systems and integration with EKR from ground forces. The withdrawal of long-range and medium-range anti-aircraft systems significantly worsened the capabilities of the air defense of the SV.
The long-range troop anti-aircraft system C-300В and its subsequent modifications are mainly designed to protect troop concentrations and headquarters from tactical and tactical missiles. The C-300В SRS mounted on a tracked chassis significantly surpasses the C-300P of all modifications in cross-country terrain, but in the fight against air attack means it is inferior in fire performance and reload rate of the ammunition.
Among the townsfolk, the ZRS X-NUMXP and C-300 are considered to be “super-weapons” capable of equally successful struggle with both aerodynamic and ballistic targets. And the number of anti-aircraft complexes available in the Russian Aerospace Forces abound enough to “in case of anything” beat all enemy airplanes and missiles. It has also been heard that they do not cause anything but a grin of assertion that in the “granaries of the motherland” there is a huge amount of “hidden” or “sleeping” anti-aircraft complexes hidden under the ground or in the deaf, distant taiga corners. And despite the fact that for the issuance of target designation to any anti-aircraft complexes, radar reconnaissance of the air situation and communication centers are needed. As well as residential townships with the appropriate infrastructure for the accommodation of military personnel and their families, unless of course the officers who serve on these “hidden” anti-aircraft systems are not monks and do not live in dugouts and caves, getting their food by hunting and gathering. The conscript servicemen, on the basis of conspiracy theories of supporters of “underground” air defense missile systems, cannot be there, since they will “declassify” the places of deployment after retirement, and they are unlikely to agree to live in caves for a long time. But seriously, I think that most readers need not be reminded that modern reconnaissance spacecraft are capable of conducting electronic reconnaissance and taking high-resolution pictures. The positions of all medium-range and long-range anti-aircraft systems are well-known and are rapidly exposed in peacetime, even in commercial satellite imagery. Naturally, after the onset of the “special period”, the anti-aircraft systems are relocated to reserve positions as soon as possible. At the same time, special technical and organizational measures are carried out, but this is a completely different one. story and the story is beyond the scope of this publication.
Satellite image of Google Earth: C-300PS position near the village of Verkhnyaya Ekon near Komsomolsk-on-Amur
Well, the anti-aircraft systems in the middle of the deaf taiga themselves are not needed by anyone, only in the Soviet Union could they afford to build positions of the air defense missile system on the path of the supposed flight of enemy aircraft, although even then most of the anti-aircraft complexes protected specific objects. But unlike the USSR, our air defense has a pronounced focal character. And the best covered city of Moscow and the Moscow region.
The C-300P and C-400 SAMs are often associated only with launchers, from which effective missiles are launched at the test site. In fact, the system includes about two dozen multi-ton machines for various purposes: command and control stations, radar detection and guidance, launchers, antenna posts, transport-loading machines and mobile diesel generators. In addition to the undeniable merits of C-300P and C-400, they also have weak points. The main drawback, which will inevitably manifest itself in the case of participation in repelling massive air raids of enemy air attack weapons, is a long reload time. With a high fire performance of ZRS-300P and C-400 in a real combat situation, a situation may arise when all the ammunition in the launchers will be used up. Even if there are spare missiles and transport-charging vehicles on the starting position, a lot of time is required to replenish the ammunition. Therefore, it is very important that the anti-aircraft systems mutually cover and complement each other, which is not always possible to implement in practice.
With the weight of the main launcher 5P85С ЗРС C-300ПС on the MAZ-543М chassis with four missiles of more than 42 tons and with a length of 13 and a width of 3,8 meter, its passability on weak soils and rough terrain is very limited. Most of the C-300PM launchers and almost all C-400 are made in the trailed version, which, of course, further reduces mobility.
About half of the troops in the air defense system are C-300PS whose age is approaching a critical one. Many of them can be considered effective only conditionally. It is common practice to carry combat duty in an abbreviated composition of military equipment. Most of the 5B55Р / 5В55РМ ЗРС С-300ПР ЗРМ is out of service life and their reserves are limited. This circumstance is confirmed by the fact that during the transfer of five C-300PS from the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation to Kazakhstan, the entire 170-SAM was delivered to them.
Immediate remedial action is required. But the pace of admission to the C-400 troops does not yet allow replacing all the old equipment to be written off. In total, it is planned to acquire 2020 C-56 divisions before 400. We have to admit that building an air defense system based on C-400 is difficult to implement due to excessive cost. The statements of some of our high-ranking officials and the military, that the C-400 anti-aircraft system is three times more efficient than the C-300PM, therefore, it needs to be three times less cunning. However, at the same time they prefer to remain silent that the means of air attack of the likely "partners" also do not stand still. In addition, it is physically impossible to destroy a single anti-aircraft missile with a conventional warhead of more than one air target. Shooting at the landfills under the conditions of complicated jamming conditions has repeatedly demonstrated that the real probability of hitting a single missile with the C-300P ground-to-ground missile system is 0,7-0,8. To guarantee the defeat of a “difficult” target, you need to launch 2-3 SAM on it. Of course, the C-400 with the new missile surpasses any C-300P modification in range, altitude and noise immunity, but it is guaranteed to knock down one modern combat aircraft with one missile even with its own strength. In addition, no quality cancels the quantity, it is impossible to hit more air targets than there are anti-aircraft missiles ready for launch. In other words, if the ready-to-use ammunition is used up, then any, even the most modern and effective anti-aircraft system becomes nothing more than a pile of expensive metal and it is absolutely not important how many times it is more effective. The readers are also misled by publications where it is stated that the C-400 ground-to-ground missile system is capable of hitting targets at a distance of 400 km. There is no confirmation that the long-range missile 40H6E was adopted and goes into combat units. Beginning with the 2007 year, high-ranking military officials and officials in charge of the military-industrial complex annually declared that the new long-range missile defense system is ending tests and is about to be put into service, however, "it's still there." In general, advertising brochures, which indicate the maximum range of destruction should be treated with great caution. The specified maximum launch range, as a rule, can be reached at medium altitudes only for large low-speed targets, such as military transport aircraft, AEW aircraft or B-52H strategic bombers. The actual launch range for tactical or carrier-based aircraft is usually 2 / 3 from the maximum range.
The hope that with the help of the C-500 still not adopted for use, it will be possible to close all the holes in the air defense system is absolutely unjustified. If you believe the statements of representatives of the Ministry of Defense and Industry, then the main purpose of the C-500 will be missile defense and the fight against low-orbit spacecraft. Apparently, it will be a very expensive system with heavy missiles. At first, it is planned to build the entire 10 C-500 ZRS. According to National Interest, C-500 is an analogue of THAAD integrated into a “unified network” with C-400, C-300ВМ4 and C-350 systems forming a comprehensive air defense and missile defense system.
Great hopes in terms of strengthening our air defense system are pinned on the relatively inexpensive medium-range C-350 Vityaz. It is predicted that the completion of the tests and the official adoption of the new C-350 air defense system, which was created to replace the C-300PS, will take place in the 2016 year. Approximately two more years will be required for organizing the production and training of calculations. In the future, C-350 should be the basis of the ZRV VKS.
Compared with the C-300PS, the C-350 ADMS will have a greater fire performance and an increased combat readiness of the missiles. It is known that one launcher of the Vityaz complex will be able to deploy 12 missiles against 4 on C-300PS. Also, the air defense system will have a larger number of target channels, which will allow to fire more targets at the same time.
The control of the airspace, the detection of the means of air attack and the provision of information about the enemy to the anti-aircraft missile forces and fighter aircraft are provided by radio-technical troops. In Soviet times, the largest unit in the PTB was the brigade, combining separate radar and radio battalions and companies. By 1990, air defense RTV reached the highest level of development. At that time, the combat force consisted of more than 60 radio engineering brigades and regiments; more than 1000 radio engineering units were deployed in combat positions scattered throughout practically the entire territory of the USSR. With the exception of parts of Eastern Siberia, there was a continuous radar field over the entire territory of the USSR. Special attention was paid to the control of polar latitudes. Radar posts were located on Novaya Zemlya, Franz Josef Land, north-east of the European part of the USSR and on Yamal. The northernmost radar stations were located on Franz Josef Land, and in the second half of the 80s, a “point” was deployed on Victoria Island, located between Franz Josef Land and Spitsbergen. The RLP in Franz Josef Land and Victoria Island were the most northerly military units of the Soviet Union.
By the end of 90, during the "reform" of the armed forces of RTV suffered heavy losses. The number of units was reduced in 3 times (from 63 to 21), units in 4,5 times (from 1000 to 226), personnel in 5 times. The radar field has shrunk from 72 million square meters. km to 3. The control of the airspace to the north, which was most vulnerable to long-range bomber and cruise missiles, was virtually stopped by the cavity. Due to the shortage of diesel fuel for the DSA and the lack of spare parts, the duty on many radar stations was carried out irregularly. Now only zone radar monitoring of a part of the country's territory is being conducted, which, in general, reflects the general state of the Russian air defense system.
The situation began to gradually straighten out after the change of leadership of the Defense Ministry of the Russian Federation. The radar began to be delivered to the troops in notable volumes: Gamma-DE, Sky-SVU, Gamma-С1Е, Opponent-GE, Caste-2Е2, 96Л6Е. Simultaneously with the delivery of new stations, a refurbishment and modernization of at least 30% of the existing PTB equipment is envisaged.
As in Soviet times, special attention is paid to the Arctic. Five stationary radar facilities and aviation guidance points are planned to be built on the Srednyaya Zemlya Earth Island, Alexandra Earth Island, Franz Josef Land Archipelago, Wrangel Island and Cape Schmidt in the Chukotka Autonomous Region and in the village of Rogachev on the South Island of Novaya Zemlya Archipelago. At each of these points, an air defense radar and an automated air control station will appear. Traffic information in the airspace over the Arctic coast will be transmitted to the air defense defense center in the Moscow region.
In the village of Rogachevo of the South island of the Novaya Zemlya archipelago, the current Amderma-2 airfield is located. According to plans, the MiG-31 interceptor air group will be located there. At the end of 2015, an anti-aircraft missile regiment armed with the S-300PM air defense system was formed on Novaya Zemlya. This regiment became the first full-fledged military unit of the North fleetformed on the islands of the Arctic Ocean.
In Russian society, diametrically opposed opinions can be met regarding the combat effectiveness of the domestic air defense system. In general, the domestic media for the most part, voluntarily or unwittingly, create a distorted view of our capabilities with regard to providing air defense. This is often reflected in the comments of individual visitors to the Military Review website. So some time ago, one of the participants in the discussion quite seriously argued that the “outdated” C-300PS air defense systems are no longer in service with the Russian Federation Air Force, because Concern VKO Almaz-Antey AO no longer extends the service life of the 5BXNNXXP / 55B5РМ SAM and With the help of radar SPRN "Voronezh-VP" you can control the airspace over the United States. A ZRV VKS armed only with the latest C-55 and upgraded C-400PM300. Moreover, after reading the two final parts of the cycle, some readers may think that the author deliberately diminishes our possibilities. I foresee comments like: “Hey, uso is lost ...” or “You can crawl to the cemetery ...” Of course, those who think that everything is gone can crawl, but the purpose of this publication was to inform the thinking part of readers about the true capabilities of the Russian air defense and about the prospects for its improvement.
When writing the cycle “The current state of air defense of the countries of the former Soviet Union republics”, the author used only “open” sources of information, which often contradict each other. In this regard, inevitable all sorts of inaccuracies and overlays. Therefore, thanks in advance for competent criticism and clarification.
- Linnik Sergey
- The current state of the air defense of the countries of the former Soviet Union republics. Part 1
The current state of the air defense of the countries of the former Soviet Union republics. Part 2
The current state of the air defense of the countries of the former Soviet Union republics. Part 3
The current state of the air defense of the countries of the former Soviet Union republics. Part 4
The current state of the air defense of the countries of the former Soviet Union republics. Part 5
The current state of the air defense of the countries of the former Soviet Union republics. Part 6
The current state of the air defense of the countries of the former Soviet Union republics. Part 8
The current state of the air defense of the countries of the former Soviet Union republics. Part 7
The current state of the air defense of the countries of the former Soviet Union republics. Part 9
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