Military Review

Convertible CV-22 Osprey USAF

46
Convertible planes are aircraft that are capable of vertical take-off and landing (as helicopters do) and long-term high-speed horizontal flight, typical of conventional aircraft. Since aircraft of this type are not fully neither helicopters nor airplanes, this also affects their appearance. As a result, the configuration of such aircraft can take the most unexpected form. In addition, since aircraft of this type are characterized by two sharply different flight modes, when designing them, one has to constantly make compromises.


Convertible CV-22 Osprey USAF


DESIGN.

The VTOL aircraft is made according to the high-wing scheme with a straight wing, two-tail plumage, two gas turbine engines and two turning screws in gondolas at the ends of the wing.

A semi-monocoque fuselage with a rectangular cross-section. The length of the fuselage 17.47. The design is completely made of KM (mass of the fuselage 1500kg). The side fairings are used to clean the main landing gear and place additional fuel tanks and air conditioning equipment. In front of the fuselage is a three-seat cockpit, in which armored ejection seats are installed, capable of withstanding bullets hit with 12.7mm caliber and 50g overload in the longitudinal direction and 14.5g - in the vertical direction. On the right side of the fuselage in the front is a two-piece front door; the upper section opens up and into the cabin, while the lower section opens down to the outside and has a built-in ladder. In the 7.37 x 1.53 x 1.3м cab, the 24.3x3 can fit on the seats along the 24 sides of the paratrooper with weapons or 12 wounded on stretchers with accompanying nurses.

The wing is highly located, with a small angle of the backward sweep of the caisson type with two spars and a constant chord equal to 2.54. Almost completely made of graphite-epoxy KM. Top and bottom panels of the monolithic construction. Three-section socks of the wing consoles are made of aluminum alloy with honeycomb filler "Nomex". The wing is mounted on a circular support with a diameter of 2.3м, made of stainless steel and providing the wing rotation along the fuselage when placing VTOL aircraft on the deck of an aircraft carrier.



Rotary screws with three trapezoidal blades. The root chord of the blade 0.87, end - 0.56. Twist the blades 45 °. The blades are made of carbon and fiberglass. In the design of the hinge blades are used elastomeric bearings. The screws have braking systems and folding blades. The screws are connected to each other by a synchronizing shaft, laid inside the wing. Rotation of the nacelles is carried out using a hydraulic drive with a screw mechanism.

The two-fin plumage is completely made of graphite-epoxy material. The stabilizer (span 5.61m, area 8.22м2) is mounted above the fuselage tailpiece. The total area of ​​the two vertical keels 12.45m2.

Chassis tricycle, retractable, with twin wheels. Nose support retracts back into the compartment under the front of the fuselage. The main supports are removed in the side fairings. The chassis design is designed for landing with a vertical speed 4.5m / s. The wheels of the main supports have disc carbon brakes. Track chassis 4.62м.

The power plant consists of two Allison T406-AD-400 GTEs installed in pivoting gondolas at the ends of the wing, along with screws. The turbine GTE has a 14-speed axial compressor, an annular combustion chamber, a two-stage gas generator turbine and a two-stage power turbine. Air consumption 16.1kg / s, the degree of pressure increase 14, the specific fuel consumption at the mode of maximum continuous power 0.19kg / hp-h. The engine has a gearbox and a FADEC control system. Engine length (without gear) 1.96m, width - 0.67m, height - 0.86m. Dry weight 440kg engine.



The fuel system has 13 tank compartments with a capacity of 8645. In each side of the fuselage fairing in the front there is one tank compartment; There is an additional tank in the right side fairing. In the caissons of the wing consoles are 10 tanks-compartments: a pair of external tanks serves as a consumable. On the toe of the right wing of the wing there is a fuel filling nozzle under pressure; On the upper surface of each console there is one neck of the gravity filling system. On the side in the lower part of the nose section of the fuselage there is an attachment unit for the refueling rod in flight. For ferry flights in the cargo compartment, it is possible to install two additional fuel tanks with a total mass of fuel 7235kg.

Control system. For control on helicopter modes, control systems of common and cyclic pitch of turn screws are used. In cruising flight, two external elevons are used for transverse control, for longitudinal control a single-section elevator with an area of ​​4.82m2 is used, and for cruise control - rudders on vertical keels. The control surfaces are driven using hydraulic boosters and a three-redundant electrical remote control system.

The wing mechanization consists of four sections of elevons, the outer pair of which is used for transverse control. Area of ​​elevons 4.12m2. The drive of the elevons is carried out with the help of EDSU and hydraulic boosters.



The on-board equipment includes two independent and one spare hydraulic system with a working pressure 350кг / см2. The electrical system includes two alternators (40кВа), two direct generators (50 / 60кВа), rectifiers, converters, rechargeable battery with a capacity of 15 Ah. Wing socks and vertical keels have an anti-icing system with inflatable protectors. Frontal glazing, front edges of engine air intakes, blades and coca screws have electric heating.

Electronic equipment consists of the TACAN navigation system, VOR / ILS systems, VHF and HF radio communication equipment, the identification system, etc. Information from TACAN, VOR / ILS, radio altimeter, vertical alignment is displayed on four color displays. The cab has a fifth display - to display a map of the area. The AN / ARO-174 radar is used to support flights following the terrain, two AN / AYK-14 computers are installed on the plane to handle the combat mission, the crew is provided with the use of piloting systems at night and night vision goggles; for warning of an air-to-air missile attack there is an AN / AAR-47 system.

Armament depends on the variant of VTOL. There are places for mounting in the cockpit machine gun caliber 7.62 and 12.7mm, and under the nose of the fuselage - turrets with guns. There are also units for the suspension of anti-submarine torpedoes, anti-ship guided missiles and air-to-air missiles.

Technical data VTVP V-22 "Osprey"

Power point: 2 x GTD Allison T406-AD-400 4585 kW power, turning screw diameter: 14.02 m, length with folded wing and screws: 19.09 m, height on the ground with gondolas in vertical position: 6.35 m, height with folded wing and screws: 5.61 m, maximum width with rotating screws: 25.78 m, wingspan (excluding nacelles): 14.02 m, take-off weight: 27440 kg, empty curb weight: 13995kg, fuel capacity: 6215 kg, cruising speed in helicopter mode: 185 km / h, cruising speed in airplane mode: 555 km / h, static ceiling without impact Earth: 915 m range with a vertical take-off with a takeoff weight and payload 21150kg kg 5445: 2225 km, during takeoff short takeoff with takeoff weight and payload 24950kg kg 9070: 3340 km payload: 9070 kg.
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  1. xetai9977
    xetai9977 5 October 2013 08: 51 New
    10
    A tiltrotor is a new type of technology, and of course, is not without its “childhood illnesses." But it seems he proved his right to life, since they began to build it in series.
    1. Xroft
      Xroft 5 October 2013 09: 29 New
      +1
      But it’s definitely not for the money like that of amers .... given that it is quite easy to destroy it.
      1. Algor73
        Algor73 6 October 2013 20: 57 New
        +1
        It’s pretty easy to destroy everything, it's not a tank, but a BTA
    2. novobranets
      novobranets 5 October 2013 15: 26 New
      +4
      Quote: xetai9977
      Sailing plane - a new type of technology

      A conceptually new type of aircraft, when "childhood illnesses" will be cured, will surely be in demand. If you add exchange rate weapons to clear the landing site, it will be worse. I think this idea has a future.
      1. novobranets
        novobranets 5 October 2013 15: 30 New
        +3
        PS Good quality, low acoustic visibility, helicopter-16km, tiltrotor-3km.
      2. duke
        duke 6 October 2013 21: 50 New
        +1
        In my opinion, the gyroplane is a more reliable design, all these rotary nacelles somehow do not add reliability. The meaning of this toy is to climb a helicopter and then move on a plane ... for this you can work on the idea of ​​a gyroplane ...
        1. studentmati
          studentmati 7 October 2013 00: 01 New
          0
          Quote: duke
          In my opinion, the gyroplane is a more reliable design, all these rotary nacelles somehow do not add reliability. The meaning of this toy is to climb a helicopter and then move on a plane ... for this you can work on the idea of ​​a gyroplane ...


          I support! And many times cheaper!
    3. Igor39
      Igor39 7 October 2013 08: 05 New
      0
      It was cut in the American way, I won’t be surprised if in a few years they prove its inefficiency.
      1. Witold
        Witold 12 October 2013 12: 41 New
        0
        You have cuts, and there each company designs a new one at its own peril and risk, and at its own expense without the participation of the state.
        1. Vais
          Vais 9 October 2015 07: 09 New
          +1
          Three times “ha” to your liberal naivety. You can hang these tales about an honest western market on the ears of others. Orders there and contracts are received not by a company working "at your own peril and risk", but by a narrow circle of lure corporations, whose retired Pentagon generals are sitting on the boards of directors, quite by accident. Naturally, not for free, but for such kickbacks that our homegrown bureaucrats never dreamed of. Therefore, all the slag, like a stealth, under the guise of breakthrough technologies and under astronomical amounts is swelled into the army. And the taxpayer can feed a beautiful bullshit like the next blockbuster or even a clip about a new miracle weapon. Money is mastered
  2. nazgul-ishe
    nazgul-ishe 5 October 2013 08: 56 New
    0
    Performance is not much better than helicopter or is it a challenge for the future.
    1. Greyfox
      Greyfox 5 October 2013 09: 15 New
      10
      Actually, the performance is better than helicopter. Although the development and refinement took a lot of time, but the US Marine Corps received a good car.
      Osprey makes it much more effective to carry out the range of tasks assigned to the US armed forces that has been expanding in recent years. Compared with the CH-46 helicopter, it has a much larger scope. The main thing is a high cruising speed, about 520 km per hour, and the ability to refuel in the air - provides quick transfers to areas of application that are thousands of kilometers away from the base. This has already been tested in practice. MV-22 were involved in combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, in rescue operations in Haiti.

      I do not know if it makes sense in such a machine in our land power, but on the decks of the Mistral it would not be superfluous. It is always good to have a long arm.
      1. Greyfox
        Greyfox 5 October 2013 09: 31 New
        +5
        And about the replacement of helicopters with tiltrotor
        The last of the heavy transport helicopters of the CH-46E Sea Knight of the 262th US Marine Corps squadron flew from KPM Futenma Air Station to Camp Kinser (both bases are in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan) awaiting a decision to withdraw from combat, reports dvidshub.net 30 August. These helicopters are replaced in a one-to-one ratio with MV-22 Osprey tiltrotoplanes, which can fly twice as fast, carry twice as much cargo and fly four times as long as the CH-46Е.
  3. vitek1233
    vitek1233 5 October 2013 09: 40 New
    +3
    Good target
    1. Turtles
      Turtles 5 October 2013 14: 12 New
      +5
      Large helicopters are also a good target, and fly twice as slow.
    2. xetai9977
      xetai9977 5 October 2013 20: 30 New
      12
      If tiltrotor planes are considered only as a good target, then what about military transport aircraft, they are a much larger target. Should they not be built either? It is necessary to be serious about technology, and not to groan an obviously good instance.
  4. iwind
    iwind 5 October 2013 10: 34 New
    +5
    MV-22 Osprey, thanks to the high speed range for the Marine Corps, it is almost perfect. Sometimes speed
    reinforced delivery or the evacuation of the wounded is critical, and every minute is worth life.
    Now they also make a helicopter from Osprey to a tanker, that is, it will be able to refuel the F-35B, which will be based on UDC.


  5. Andriuha077
    Andriuha077 5 October 2013 11: 27 New
    0
    Something else:
    http://warfiles.ru/show-35066-transformer-ot-lockheed-martin-skunk-works-ssha-20
    15.html
    Osprey is out of date, it was written off.
    1. studentmati
      studentmati 7 October 2013 00: 05 New
      -2
      Quote: Andriuha077
      Osprey is out of date, it was written off.


      Most likely not outdated, but simply did not take place. And in order not to throw it away, they start to promote and go out to suckers. The car is very expensive to maintain and operate.
  6. Coward
    Coward 5 October 2013 12: 16 New
    +1
    I wonder why only the nacelle was made rotary, but the whole wing?
    Specialists clarify, please.
    1. Andriuha077
      Andriuha077 5 October 2013 12: 49 New
      +2
      It is not very convenient to twist in two planes:
      1. Argon
        Argon 5 October 2013 13: 37 New
        +7
        For the TRUS: There were such designs, and even with four and six engines. However, the most critical for the tiltrotor is the phase of the regime change, more precisely, balancing-stabilizing the device along all three axes. Not the last role is played by the device’s centering, or rather the range of movement of the center of gravity structures (the amount of fuel on board, weight and location of the cargo). In order to "narrow" this range, and therefore to facilitate the stabilization task, the structure itself should have minimal "moving masses" in the mode. In Soviet projects (mid-to-late 80s) for example, only the screws turned (there were hinges on the drive shafts), and the engines were not movable.
        1. Coward
          Coward 5 October 2013 15: 19 New
          +1
          Thank. I did not think about the centering of the masses. hi
  7. vitek1233
    vitek1233 5 October 2013 12: 31 New
    -1
    Very expensive toy. I do not think that this device has a great future. And once again I write the PURPOSE PERFECT
    1. Turtles
      Turtles 5 October 2013 14: 28 New
      +5
      Americans are developing a 3rd generation tiltrotor
      http://www.newsfiber.com/p/s/m?msg=hzswavi1pEk%3D
      Currently, the United States is the only country in the world in whose arsenal the army has convertiplanes. The U.S. Navy and Marine Corps are armed with the Bell V-22 Osprey tiltrotor. In the near future he may have an alternative. We are talking about a tiltrotor, which received the designation Bell V-280 Valor ("Valor"). The project of this aircraft was presented to the general public on April 10, 2013. With the new V-280 project, the company is going to take part in a tender announced by the U.S. Army for the creation of a medium multi-purpose tiltrotor or helicopter, which will replace the fleet of obsolete UH-2030 Black Hawk helicopters in the 60s. A flying prototype of a promising aircraft will tentatively have to fly into the sky in 2017. It is worth noting that to replace the UH-60 Blackhawk, as well as the combat Boeing AH-64 Apache, which are in service with the US Army, the V-280 Valor is not the only option under consideration. Its possible competitors are already called a helicopter with coaxial screws AVX Aircraft, a joint development of Boeing and Sikorsky, built on the basis of the experimental X-2 and a certain aircraft under the acronym EADS, details of which are still almost unknown. However, if Bell succeeds, the V-280 Valor will be able to replace about 4 thousand attack helicopters AH-64 Apache and multipurpose UH-60 Blackhawk. A tiltrotor has the following advantages over these machines: high speed, increased flight range, machine efficiency, according to the manufacturer, is 2 times higher than helicopters and their hybrids. The US military has not yet made formal requirements for advanced convertiplanes and helicopters. At the same time, they nevertheless announced that the new aircraft in their flight range, speed, carrying capacity, fuel efficiency and ability to hover in the air should surpass all existing rotary-wing aircraft. It is assumed that the new machine will be able to hang at a height of at least 3000 meters, as well as fly at a cruising speed at a height of at least 9100 meters. Moreover, the development of such machines will require the creation of universal engines adapted to perform a variety of tasks, as well as a support system ...

      So that these machines have a future.
    2. StolzSS
      StolzSS 5 October 2013 15: 25 New
      +1
      The future of these devices is definitely large, but the phrase (Armament depends on the VTOL variant. There are places for fastening in the cockpit of machine guns with a caliber of 7.62 and 12.7 mm, and under the bow of the fuselage there are turrets with guns. There are also units for suspending anti-submarine torpedoes, anti-ship guided missiles and air-to-air missiles.) about mounting machine guns and turrets with guns struck ha ha))) This is idiocy from such an expensive and vulnerable unit chasing infantry fool
    3. AVV
      AVV 5 October 2013 19: 26 New
      -3
      If this thing were so good, then in Russia they would have put it on the stream long ago, so it’s not all clear! Price, quality, combat effectiveness, carrying capacity? I am silent about the future!
      1. Turtles
        Turtles 5 October 2013 19: 42 New
        +7
        If everything that had a good application in Russia, we would have communism.
    4. Slavs69
      Slavs69 5 October 2013 22: 06 New
      +1
      Are there any loss statistics for convertiplanes?
      1. Turtles
        Turtles 6 October 2013 13: 11 New
        0
        April 9, 2010 - Osprey CV-22B (ser. Number 06-0031, 8th Special Operations Squadron, 1st Special Operations Air Force Wing, US Air Force) - Afghanistan [12] [13]
        the tiltrotor crashed 11 km from the city of Kalat in the province of Zabul, performing a combat mission. The cause of the fall was a technical malfunction. Major Randall Voyas, master sergeant James Lucky, Corporal Michael Yankevich and a civilian were killed, several people were injured. On April 11, 2012, in the south of Morocco, the V-22 Osprey convertiplane crashed with American Marines on board. As a result of the crash, two people were killed and two were injured. The disaster occurred during the joint military exercises of the United States and Morocco, "African Lion." [14]
        June 13, 2012 - Osprey MV-22B (1st Air Force Special Operations Air Force Wing) - Florida
        the tiltrotor crashed at 16.45 during a training flight. Five crew members were injured. [15] June 21, 2013 - The Osprey MV-22B (Ser. No. 166735, 365th Squadron of the United States Naval Weapons Medium Tilt Convertibles) - completely destroyed by fire, in an unnamed place on the Atlantic coast of the United States, as a result of grass ignition at the landing site. The fire subsequently spread from the grass to the fuselage. No injuries were reported. [16] [17]
        August 26, 2013 - The Osprey MV-22B (Ser. No. 168241, 163rd Squadron of the United States Naval Weapons Medium Convertible Planes) - Nevada - was destroyed in a fire after a hard landing near the Creech air base in Indiana Springs, during a training flight. A crew of 4 was not injured and managed to leave the aircraft before it caught fire. [16] [17]
        http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/MV-22_Osprey
  8. nazgul-ishe
    nazgul-ishe 5 October 2013 15: 49 New
    0
    Quote: iwind

    2








    iwind

    Today, 10: 34
    MV-22 Osprey, thanks to the high speed range for the Marine Corps, it is almost perfect. Sometimes backed up delivery speeds or the evacuation of the wounded is critical, and every minute is worth life. Now they also make a helicopter from Osprey to a tanker, that is, it will be able to refuel the F-35B, which will be based on UDC.


    So they just work out a new type of vehicle for the marine corps?
    1. iwind
      iwind 6 October 2013 12: 12 New
      +2
      They do not even work out, but use it. And for whom is he done ...
      Look at the number of ordered Osprey 50s for the U.S. Air Force, 48 MV-22s for the Navy, 360 MV-22s for the Marine Corps (ILC) (now around 140 are in operation) in the USA.
      For the ground forces, a lot of its characteristics are either excessive or insufficient, and they keep small quantities for some specials. operations, and the price ...
      But for the Marine Corps, what is needed.
  9. Zomanus
    Zomanus 5 October 2013 16: 11 New
    +5
    Good car. On the Mistrals would have found its place.
    1. studentmati
      studentmati 7 October 2013 00: 12 New
      -1
      Quote: Zomanus
      On the Mistrals would have found its place.


      A French ship, an American convertiplane ... Then let the crew recruit suppliers of guest workers from countries. And for what ideals will such a compote fight under the Russian flag?
  10. Bibliographer
    Bibliographer 6 October 2013 00: 48 New
    0
    Good car against the Papuans! Arrived, fired, flew away! A bit like a super pepelats F-22! "Hold me seven, but six will not hold, and then I will give!" Wildly complex, and therefore capricious, and expensive, both in production and, especially, in operation! So it is suitable only, at best, for targeted police operations! For the army is not suitable by definition!
    1. mikkado31
      mikkado31 8 October 2013 19: 49 New
      +1
      You are clearly not in the subject. Normal device. Like any other new type of technology, it is not without drawbacks. They are disposable.
  11. scientist
    scientist 6 October 2013 13: 34 New
    +1
    As soon as I began to read the article, I immediately thought about the problem of centering and maneuvering the convertiplane. Most likely this is the weakest point.
    Aerodynamically, the convertiplanes resemble ekranoplanes, what are the truncated wings, the same low speed for lifting.
    I think it would be interesting to see what happens if you combine the technical solutions of a helicopter or airplane with vertical take-off, which can take off from any sites, but at the same time have high fuel consumption with technical solutions used for ekranoplanes, which are by far the most economical known methods of fast delivery cargo and weapons.
    1. ramsi
      ramsi 6 October 2013 13: 56 New
      0
      if you use two wings and four motors - everything seems pretty good
      1. studentmati
        studentmati 7 October 2013 00: 16 New
        0
        Quote: ramsi
        if you use two wings and four motors - everything seems pretty good


        How's that?
        1. Alex 241
          Alex 241 7 October 2013 00: 25 New
          +1
          Hi Sash, it turns out a biplane, but I wonder what kind of unfolding moments there will be. Yes, and even the slightest imbalance in traction, in principle, which makes Osprey sick.
          1. studentmati
            studentmati 7 October 2013 00: 36 New
            0
            Hi Sasha. So I got thoughtful? Can Igor further explain his idea?
            1. ramsi
              ramsi 7 October 2013 05: 48 New
              0
              not a biplane, but two ordinary narrow wings, one by one, on opposite sides of the center of gravity. (Maybe even make one pair pulling and the other pushing.) And if you still raise the wings like our flying boat, then, coupled with the reduced diameter of the propellers, you look - and can sit down in an airplane
              1. ramsi
                ramsi 7 October 2013 12: 16 New
                0
                Although the screws with multidirectional traction is unlikely, even with a reverse, it's a pity. However, it should work out all the same. 4 motors with a center of gravity - diagonally between them - are much more stable when flying in a helicopter, and also in transition modes
  12. Technologist
    Technologist 6 October 2013 15: 25 New
    +1
    An interesting machine in terms of engineering.
  13. In the reeds
    In the reeds 6 October 2013 23: 46 New
    +2
    Quote: xetai9977
    If tiltrotor planes are considered only as a good target, then what about military transport aircraft, they are a much larger target. Should they not be built either? It is necessary to be serious about technology, and not to groan an obviously good instance.

    They are very interested in our Air Force. Intend to buy several
    1. gusar007
      gusar007 7 October 2013 04: 29 New
      0
      It’s interesting, but how much will it satisfy the requirements of the Air Force, is it not very bulky?
  14. gusar007
    gusar007 7 October 2013 04: 22 New
    0
    And here is how she is in those. operation? Plus, these rotary nacelles, I think, are quite difficult to maintain.
  15. basil200
    basil200 7 October 2013 08: 44 New
    0
    What will happen to him if part of the blade of one screw flies off? This is an example.
  16. mikkado31
    mikkado31 8 October 2013 19: 46 New
    0
    Quote: novobranets
    Quote: xetai9977
    Sailing plane - a new type of technology

    A conceptually new type of aircraft, when "childhood illnesses" will be cured, will surely be in demand. If you add exchange rate weapons to clear the landing site, it will be worse. I think this idea has a future.

    That's right. Imagine the AC-130 with only vertical take-off. Killer thing.
  17. Flyers
    Flyers 15 October 2013 20: 06 New
    +1
    I think that this thing is not interchangeable for the ground forces and support for the landing. It is necessary to add modifications with various weapons, get rid of the shortcomings and the car beast. It would be necessary in Russia to think about the construction of something like that.
  18. Severok
    Severok 15 October 2013 21: 18 New
    0
    If anyone does not know, the Russian name for "tiltrotor" is a rotorcraft, proposed by designer Kamov. The first convertiplanes were created in the USSR by design bureaus of Mil and Kamov.