Love in the front line
A WOMAN ON SHIP IS NOT ALWAYS FOR DISAPPEARANCE
From an early age, I am tormented when venerable ladies take the first row in the anniversary photographs of Black Sea sailors. Alas, women in the crews of the ships of the Black Sea fleet spawn did not happen. But in the Caspian and the Volga, everything was different. In 1941, 67 women took part in the Caspflot teams, 1942 in 44, and 1943 in 129. These were mainly the wives of sailors and immigrants from families of sailors. For them, the difficulties of marine life were not news, and they boldly went to work as sailors, stokers and machinists. In the "Caspflot" during the war years they rose to the post of assistant captain Slovokhotova and Rapoport, became navigators of the Komsomol Savitskaya, Kolodai, Izmaylova and Kozlov.
Most women served in the "Reydtanker." For 1942 – 1943, the shipping company took on its ships 260 women for the positions of the rank and file and 85 women for the positions of the command staff.
But hundreds of photos of the Black Sea front ladies were published, and I did not see sailors from the Caspian Sea. In the Volga military flotilla there were minesweepers, in the teams of which there were only women. Many hundreds of women served on the transport ships of the river flotilla of the North from the Pechora to the Kolyma and Indigirka. But for some reason, almost no one writes about them.
According to the order of the People's Commissariat of Defense No. 0099 from October 8 of 1941, three female air regiments were formed: the 586 fighter on the Yak-1, the 587 bomber on the Pe-2 (from the 1943 on the 125 of the Guards) and the 588 b light bombing on Y-2 (February 8 1943, converted to 46-th Guards Taman regiment).
Needless to say that badly belligerent units never became guards.
Nevertheless, a book appeared in 2005, in which a certain “sweet couple” claimed that the orders in the 46 Guards regiment “were given through the bed”.
The best answer is the number of sorties of pilots of the 46 regiment who received the title of Hero of the Soviet Union: Senior Lieutenant R.Ye. Aronova - 960; Senior Lieutenant E.A. Zhigulenko - 968; Senior Lieutenant N.F. Meklin - 980; Senior Lieutenant E.V. Ryabova - 890; Senior Lieutenant N.F. Sebrova - 1004 departure. For comparison: three times the heroes Kozhedub and Pokryshkin made 330 and 650 sorties, respectively. Of course, fighter pilots have their own specifics. But, in my opinion, pilots who made combat sorties on 800 – 1000 deserve even greater awards.
But about whom, in the rear and at the front, did numerous scabrous chasatas sing? The answer is simple - about the so-called PPL, that is, field-field wives.
PPH in 1941 – 1945 became the norm in the Red Army. I foresee the indignation of “kvass patriots” - this is supposedly slander! Well, remember September 1941 of the year. The enemy rushes to Moscow and Leningrad, and the commander of the Leningrad Front, Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov, is very concerned about the proliferation of the RAP.
Order of the troops of the Leningrad Front No. 0055
mountains Leningrad 22 September 1941
In the headquarters and at the command posts of the commanders of divisions, regiments there are many women under the guise of serving, seconded, etc. A number of commanders, having lost the face of the Communists, simply cohabit ...
Under the responsibility of the Military Councils of armies, commanders and commissioners of individual units to 23.09.41, remove all women from the headquarters and command posts. A limited number of typists should be left only in agreement with the Special Department. ”
It is curious that Comrade Zhukov himself in the fall of 1941 of the year had PPG - Lidiya Vladimirovna Zakharova (military rank - senior lieutenant, position - Zhukov's personal nurse). Throughout the war she followed him relentlessly. Zhukov conferred on her the rank of senior lieutenant, although she was not entitled to an officer's rank as a nurse. It was awarded 10 military orders, including the Order of the Red Banner and the Order of the Red Star.
However, the actions of Zhukov did not fall under his order. There it was precisely stipulated who is supposed to have PPG, and who does not. The order referred to the command posts of the division commanders and below. Consequently, the commanders of the corps, armies and fronts to have PJV order was not forbidden.
But did PPH appear in 1941 in the Red Army? The answer is no.
Practically all known commanders of the Middle Ages and the New Age had one or several PJL. The same Peter the Great had several dozen of them.
Maria Valevskaya, the wife of 70-year-old chamberlain Anestasia Valevsky, became the most famous PPH of the early XIX century.
Most historians believe that on January 17, the Polish magnates literally slipped 1807-year-old Maria to the emperor Napoleon on January 21. The novel, with long interruptions, lasted until June 28 1815.
Napoleon did not hide his PJR, and in the army she was openly called the "Polish Emperor's Wife". Nevertheless, the hopes of the lords did not materialize, Marysia had no influence on either Napoleon’s policy or military plans.
In the meantime, Napoleon indulged with chamberlain Maryseus, his future opponent Kutuzov amused himself in Bucharest with 14-year-old boyar Alexandra (Luxander) Guliano. Of course, Mikhail Illarionovich did not know that in 2003, wise Duma members would increase the “age of consent” from 14 to 16 years. I note that the father of the beautiful Alexandra, the Wallachian boyar Konstantin Filipesko, was clearly not a blunder. Since 1806, there has been a war between Russia and Turkey, and the boyar slipped an 11-year-old daughter to Corps Commander General Mikhail Miloradovich. The brave crest became interested in Alexandra and even promised to marry.
On this occasion, General Bagration 29 of December 1809 of the year rolled the slander to the Minister of War Arakcheev: “... He shouted and wrote - I will give an example to everyone to serve and obey, etc., it turned out that he did not want to part with mamzel Filipesko, who ears in love. His love is God with him, let him have fun, but her father is our first enemy, and he plays the first role in Wallachia ... Our friend is in love with madness, and there is no way to get along with him. ”
Apparently, the letter had the desired effect, and in April 1810 of the year Miloradovich turned around from the active army and was sent to governorate to Kiev. Well, 13-year-old Luxander was immediately married to boyar Nicolae Guliano.
1 April 1811 Kutuzov arrived in Bucharest and took command of the Danube army. The gentlemen of the boyars took the opportunity and introduced Michael Illarionovich to Luxandra. Nicolae Guliano, of course, did not mind.
As an eyewitness wrote, a Frenchman in the Russian service, Langeron: “Kutuzov liked her very much, and he, well knowing the customs of the Vlachs, ordered her husband to deliver her to him, which he did. The next day, Kutuzov introduced us to his beloved and introduced her into society. ”
Luxander brought something like a sovereign court under the commander-in-chief, arranged balls, dinner parties. And her husband engaged in supplying the Russian army with fodder. Well, thanks to the competent command of Kutuzov, the Russian troops smashed the Turks, as they say, "on foreign territory and with little blood." October 25 1811 of the thousand Turks dying from starvation 12 surrendered on the bank of the Danube under Ruschuk, 2 thousand human and 8 thousand horse corpses were found in the Turkish camp.
Diplomats of Napoleon tried their best to make the Sultan continue the war. But hunger and, let's not be guileful, the huge bribes given by Kutuzov Turkish pashas played their part. 16 May 1812 Turkey ratified the Bucharest Treaty. Under this agreement, the Prut and Dniester rivers, that is, Bessarabia with the fortresses of Khotyn, Bendery, Akkerman, Kiliya and Izmail, were included in Russia.
Thus, the first defeat to Napoleon Kutuzov inflicted five weeks before the crossing of the Berezina by the Great Army, lying on the couch with 14-year-old Luxander.
All the heroes of the Civil War, including Mikhail Tukhachevsky, Vasily Chapaev, etc., had PPLs. We are best known for three AOs, which are included in dozens of books, films and performances.
Thus, in the series “The Adjutant of His Excellency,” released on the screens in 1969, the girlfriend of the Soviet intelligence officer Koltsova (played by Yury Solomin) launched Tanya Schukina (Tatiana Ivanitskaya). And their relationship was purely platonic.
In fact, the commander of the Volunteer Army, Lieutenant-General May-Mayevsky and his gallant adjutant Pavel Makarov had Zhmudsky sisters from the family of a wealthy Kharkiv merchant as a PPG. After spending time with the sisters, the drunken general and the adjutant often drove to the front line by car and lifted the soldiers into a mental attack. Always well and always without a scratch.
Later, the Zhmudskiy sisters drove off to Belgium, and from there to the USA. Wrangel expelled from the army of May-Mayevsky, and Makarov was sent to prison. The brave adjutant fled. Until mid-November 1920, in the Crimean Mountains, partisans in the army of A. Mokrousov. Well, 20 years later, he did the same thing under the command of the same Mokrousov, but not against Baron Wrangel, but against Colonel General Manstein.
In 1930 – 1960-s in the USSR there were two dozen films and performances, where the main character was a woman commissar in a leather jacket and with a revolver. Alas, her prototype Larisa Reisner preferred the most expensive fur coats, dresses and diamond jewelry, and Mauser - a graceful Browning.
In 1916, 21-year-old Larisa started a stormy affair with the poet Gumilyov. Well, in August, 1918, in Sviyazhsk, it became the metress of Trotsky himself. Lev Davydovich publicly called her "Valkyrie of the revolution with the appearance of the ancient goddess." Larisa and Leo corresponded at least until 1922 of the year.
Leaving Sviyazhsk, Trotsky handed over to Larissa Fyodor to Raskolnikov, whom he made commander of the Volga flotilla. Larisa went to serve in the political management of the flotilla and occupied the cabin of Empress Alexandra Feodorovna on the royal river yacht "Mezhen".
On the Mezhen, Reisner along with the flotilla promoted to Astrakhan, and then Reisner, according to the plan, was supposed to go across the Caspian Sea to Petrovsk on Kursk transport together with the Volga-Caspian flotilla under its jurisdiction. But Lyalya loved exotics and decided to go on the destroyer Active. The destroyer commander, Isakov, was summoned to the Reisner mansion, to whom Lala naughtyly declared: “That's what, captain! I decided to go to Petrovsk with you on the destroyer! ”
However, the midshipman resolutely refused for a very good reason: "In the head of the officer compartment - one point." So Lyalya had to go to Petrovsk on the Kursk.
In June 1920, Trotsky appointed Raskolnikov commander of the Baltic Fleet. From Astrakhan to Petrograd two days by train. But Fyodor and Lyalya were traveling for a whole month to Yaroslavl on the yacht "Low Spring".
In Kronstadt, Lyalya took several positions at once in the political department of the Baltic Fleet. Reisner's toilets were not just beautiful, but defiantly luxurious. When famine reigned in Petrograd in 1919, one of her acquaintances met Larisa “a twenty-two-year-old, scented and discharged, coyly calling herself“ comorsi ”—the commander of the naval forces. Blue fur coat, purple dress, like glove smells fragrant Gerlenovskim "Foil Aroma."
At the New Year's Eve Ball at 1921 House of Arts, Reisner appeared in a super-original ball gown. It turned out that the outfit was sewn according to Leon Bakst's drawings for the ballet “Carnival” to the music of Schumann. At the direction of Larisa Mikhailovna, the dress was confiscated from the dressing rooms of the Mariinsky Theater.
Poet Vsevolod Rozhdestvensky recalled that when he came to Larisa Reisner in the apartment of the former Navy minister Grigorovich, which she occupied, he was struck by the abundance of objects and utensils - carpets, paintings, exotic fabrics, bronze buddhas, majolica dishes, English books, bottles of French perfume.
The political department of the Baltic Fleet ordered the creation of a theater named after Raskolnikov. Raskolnikov abandoned all official business and engaged in propaganda in the fleet of the ideas of Trotsky, in every way he discredited the party leaders - opponents of Lev Davydovich. Larisa and her father, Professor Michael Reisner, actively helped him in this.
As a result, the Revolutionary Military Council had to remove Fedya and Lyalya from Kronstadt. And in time. A few days later the Kronstadt mutiny began, to the emergence of which Raskolnikov and Reisner made a considerable contribution.
Well, Nina Nechvolodova became the third PPG, which entered literature and cinema. At the end of 1919, the 20-year-old "Junker Nechvolodov" became the orderly of the white general Yakov Slaschov. In March, the 1920 of the Reds tried to break into the Crimea through Perekop. On March 22, Lieutenant-General Slashchev led a psychic attack on the 300 Junkers of the Konstantinovsky School on the Chongarsky Bridge. Next to the general was the "Junker Nechvolodov." Juncker went on the attack in tight formation, in step with the orchestra. Nechvolodov was wounded, but did not leave the line. Reds fled.
Jealous of the successes of Slashchev, Wrangel drove him out of the army. At the end of November 1921, Slashchev and Nina returned to the USSR. The general was appointed to command the “Shot” courses, and Nina supervised the theater created at the courses. Through the theater, Nechvolodova met Mikhail Bulgakov and his wife.
In 1925, the Red Cinema group shot the Wrangel film. In it, Slashchev was a consultant, and together with Nina they played in the film themselves. 11 January 1929, Slashchev was killed in his apartment by a Trotskyite Lazarus Kollenberg.
How was the fate of Nina, is unknown. In any case, I found out that in 1937, the feature film “Youth” came out, telling about the events of 1920 in the Crimea. The author of the film script was Nina Nechvolodova.
Well, in 1970, the film “Running” was released, based on the work of Mikhail Bulgakov. Bulgakov failed to translate the features of Slashchov in one image and presented him to two generals - a graduate of the Academy of the General Staff Khludov and a desperate grunt and a drunkard of General Black. Well, Nina Nechvolodova became the prototype of Lyuska, the marching wife of General Black.
PUNISHMENT NOT FOLLOWED
Since June 1941, PPG have become the norm for most of the Red Army commanders. After the war, about half of the generals and marshals returned from the PJL to their legal spouses, such as Marshal Malinovsky from Raisa Halperina, Marshal Rokossovsky from Galina Talanova, Marshal Zhukov from Lydia Zakharova, etc. Well, the other half of the generals entered into a legal marriage with the PJV. So, Marshal Katukov married Yekaterina Lebedeva, General Batov - Nina, whom he called Vasilko (for unknown reasons, her maiden name does not appear in numerous materials devoted to her and the general).
However, even abandoned PPV did not remain in stock. Many children born out of wedlock received the names of famous commanders. The chest of all without exception PPG decorated the iconostasis of orders and medals. For some reason, the commanding fathers often gave their metress orders of the Red Star. Perhaps due to the fact that the name of the order rhymed well in the ditties with a different word?
Any secretary of the provincial party committee after a call from Marshal Marshal or even his adjutant was in a hurry to allocate the apartment of the former PJL. All illegitimate children of generals and marshals made a brilliant career.
For communication with one or even several VLPs, none of the top military leaders was punished. Let us recall once again Zhukov’s order, which should be punished up to and including the division commander. The story of complaints about Marshal Rokossovsky, who abused ties with ladies, not only with the “sparrow” Galina Talanova, but also with many others, including artist Valentina Serova, is widely known. When asked what to do with the marshal, Stalin replied: "We will envy Comrade Rokossovsky."
As far as I know, only two metressses of Lieutenant-General Andrei Vlasov were unlucky of all PPWs. The first PCR, military physician Agnes Podmazenko, became pregnant and in January 1942 was sent to the rear. There she gave birth to a son, Andrew, but soon 5 years collapsed "for contacting a traitor to the Motherland." It is curious that the legitimate spouse Anna Mikhailovna Vlasova received 8 years "on the horns"!
The second AOJ - cook Maria Voronova - was captured along with Vlasov. The Germans sent her to a concentration camp. Maria fled from there and tried to contact Vlasov, but he already had a flirt with Agenheld Bindenberg, Himmler’s sister-in-law.
As you can see, PPL have a long history, and, of course, the question arises whether to fight them? Why a civilian engineer or businessman can live a civil marriage for decades and beat the face of anyone who will climb into his personal life? But an officer cannot live in a service apartment with a common-law wife in a military camp, and any boss who has at least a dozen mistresses has the right to demand that the officer "legitimize his relationship."
Is a legal marriage always a blessing for the officer and for the combat capability of the unit? A typical example: in the middle of November 1990, the 57 th Guards Fighter Wing was redeployed to Norilsk from the airfield Besovets near Petrozavodsk. This flight "caused protests and appeals to the authorities and the media from the wives of servicemen." And in 2014, the pilots' unwillingness to relocate to the polar airfields was primarily associated with the opinion of their wives.
Fighter regiment is just 30 pilots. The state will not be poorer if in Tiksi and in Belushi Guba pilots will receive a double salary and long service in two years. In the military camp next to the airfield it is worthwhile to place about fifty young female military personnel (radar operators, electrical engineers, telecommunications operators, staff of canteens, etc.). The rhetorical question: will a qualified pilot be able to serve for three years at this airfield without the Bolshoi Theater and “cackling hens”?
As far as favoritism and corruption in the army is concerned, then legal wives always give odds to the PJR. So, in my opinion, both categories of wives of officers should have equal rights, and their status should be determined by the officer himself and no one else. Moreover, the activities of those and others should not reduce the combat capability of a military unit. No one is allowed to arrange a night scandal because of socks thrown on the floor or talking to the barmaid of a rocket officer who is on combat duty, or an interceptor pilot on the eve of departure.
Well, all the awards of lawful wives and PJL or their appointment to economic positions related to the distribution of wealth, should be compared to ordinary women three times in comparison with ordinary women.
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