Military Review

Brief history of pistol-carbines. Part of 5. Stechkin automatic pistol (APS)

41
After the end of World War II, the popularity of pistols with attached butts quickly waned. This was mainly due to the wide distribution of submachine guns and the appearance of their compact models, which were usually more effective in combat and cheaper in mass production. Apparently, one of the last mass pistol-carbines, which possessed a holster-butt, was the Soviet Stechkin automatic pistol (APS), which was put into service in 1951 year.


The fate of this pistol by outstanding Russian designer Igor Yakovlevich Stechkin was an illustration of the sunset of this concept, which flourished in lush color in the first half of the 20th century. In terms of firepower, the APS pistol was significantly inferior to submachine guns and submachine guns, it was quite expensive to manufacture, and its massive holster-butt only interfered with the fighter in critical situations, for example, when it was necessary to quickly leave a tank or other equipment. At the same time the gun was nevertheless quite successful and still retains a certain popularity. Here it is only used and used for the most part without the butt, with which it was originally designed.

The Stechkin pistol was adopted by the Soviet Army in 1951 year. It was an automatic pistol with the possibility of firing bursts. The development of the gun was carried out from the 1948 year, the work was led by a young design engineer Igor Stechkin, who joined the CDB-18 in the same year. The first prototype was ready in 1949 year. After carrying out factory tests, then carried out modifications and subsequent military tests, the gun was put into service under the designation APS (Stechkin automatic pistol).



For his creation, a designer gunsmith was presented to the Stalin Prize. From a pistol it was possible to fire both in bursts and single shots. Firstly weapon intended for arming the officers, sergeants and soldiers of combat vehicle crews and individual army specialties who were not relied upon to issue a SKS carbine or AK assault rifle. At the same time, it was justly believed that a PM pistol for the purpose of their self-defense in the event of a possible clash with the enemy would not be enough.

Automatic gun APS works according to the scheme using recoil with the free course of the shutter. The pistol was completed with wooden, and later with a plastic holster-butt, which was needed not only for more accurate shooting over long distances, but also for storing weapons. Also, the presence of the butt allowed to conduct automatic fire, reducing dispersion when firing bursts. In order to conduct more or less heap fire in automatic shooting mode, the shooter had to hold the weapon with both hands and fire only in short bursts. This was necessary, as the weapon strongly led up already after the third shot. Automatic pistol fire while holding with one hand to achieve acceptable dispersion was possible only at a distance of 5 meters. In the pistol grip there was a mechanism for slowing down the rate of fire, which also served as the self-timer function. The maximum rate of fire was 700-750 shots per minute, the practical or combat rate of fire was almost 10 times less.

In the APS, a rather rare solution for pistols was used - a magazine with a two-row cartridge output. The cartridges themselves are arranged in it in two rows in a checkerboard pattern. Such a system requires the correct combination of all elements of the system, such as the shape of the magazine and the bevel angle of the chamber, as well as the high precision of their manufacture. At the same time, the very form of the cartridge 9x18 mm was a rather big obstacle. Igor Yakovlevich Stechkin spent enough effort on the design and bringing to smooth operation of parts related to the supply of cartridges. The result of his work was that he managed to achieve reliable operation of the gun even in extreme conditions of operation. Even nowadays, the largest American and European manufacturers of short-barreled weapons are trying to use shops that are more reliable in supplying cartridges with a single-row output, but are more difficult to manufacture and inconvenient when equipped. The side walls of the store in the MTA have windows. After all cartridges are used up, the magazine feeder raises the slide delay. The process of the slide lag plays the role of a reflector of a spent cartridge case. Magazine latch located at the bottom of the pistol grip.



Stechkin pistol trigger mechanism allows continuous and single fire. Flap fuse at the same time is a switch and fire modes. The pistol fuse has 3 positions “ex.” (Weapon on safety), “one” and “aut.” (Firing single shots and automatic fire, respectively). When the APS is fused, the firing pin is locked, as well as a smooth descent of the trigger (in the event that it was cocked). If the fuse is turned on, it is impossible to retract the bolt to the rearmost position and manually trigger it.

In the handle of a Stechkin pistol, a slowdown rate was mounted, which includes a retarder with a spring and a transmitting lever moving vertically. When the shutter moves back and forth, the moderator takes some of its energy from it, increasing the cycle time of the automation. The appearance of such a mechanism has increased the stability of the pistol when firing bursts, as well as the accuracy of fire. When the shooter is pushing the trigger, the trigger pull raises the uncoupler, which turns the sear, releasing the trigger. When moving the valve releases the disconnector, so it is withdrawn from engagement with the sear.

With automatic shooting mode (auth.), The retarder is able to rise to the highest position, but only when the pistol shutter is locked. Rising up, the moderator with its protrusion raises the trigger pull, and with it the disconnector, which turns the sear. That is, the moderator plays the role of the self-timer. When the trigger is released by the shooter, the trigger thrust stops interacting with the retarder. At the “pr.” Position, the fuse reliably locks the drummer in the rearmost position, locks the trigger by turning the sear, and with its edge engages the bolt with the pistol frame. Due to the interaction of the end of the trigger with the protrusion of the trigger of the weapon can be fired self-platoon.



It should be noted that the concentration of a number of mechanisms in the pistol grip caused the APS center of gravity to move backwards. This could have a negative effect on the accuracy of shooting with one hand, if it were not for the mass and return spring of greater length compared with the Makarov pistol (PM) (a guarantee of smoother operation of the automatic weapon). As a result, the accuracy of shooting a Stechkin pistol with single shots increased significantly. The operation of the trigger mechanism of the Stechkin pistol, like that of the PM, corresponds to the “trigger with a warning”: the shooter feels an emphasis after the preliminary free running of the trigger, after which a short, slightly larger force will be enough for the trigger.

The gun has a sector sight, which is designed for 25, 50, 100 and 200 meters shooting distances, although mostly effective aimed fire can be fired at distances up to 50 meters. The initial speed of a bullet is 340 m / s. Due to the presence of a magazine that holds 20 cartridges, the gun has high firepower. Stechkin automatic pistols of the early series were distinguished by the presence of non-chrome-plated barrels, as well as a slightly different configuration of the retarder and the shape of the slots for fastening the holster-butt. Later, the barrels of the APS began to chrome.

The effective firing range for the MTA is:

- when firing single shots with an attached butt holster - 150 meters;

- when firing bursts with an attached holster-butt - 100 meters;

- when firing single shots without a holster-butt - 50 meters;

- range of direct shot at the chest target - 150 meters.



To carry a Stechkin pistol, a rigid wooden or plastic holster-butt is used, which joins the weapon when it is necessary to conduct continuous fire. The MPS of the early editions were equipped with a wooden holster, which was quickly replaced due to low service strength with a holster made of plastic AG-4. In the lower part of the holster-butt there is a metal tip with guides and a latch, which is necessary for attaching the holster-butt to the weapon. The holster-butt, as well as the first sample of Stechkin’s automatic pistol, was designed as a pistol. FN Browning High Power. It consists of a body, a folding hard lid and a tip with a latch intended for mounting on the handle of the gun. APS is fixed in a holster by means of a spring located on the inside of the cover. Rubbing and a screwdriver are also worn with the weapon. A push-button lid latch and an open grip of the weapon shorten the removal time for the shooter. The holster is transferred on a belt over a shoulder, and spare shops to the gun are transferred in a cartridge pouch.

One of the main advantages of the Stechkin automatic pistol was the low recoil and the rather small toss of weapons when fired. This quality of weapons, in combination with high accuracy, allows the shooter to conduct high-speed shooting with single shots, achieving great accuracy of hits. This advantage of the pistol is especially important in the melee. It also manages to control the flow of ammo Due to its simplicity, the gun is easy to maintain. At the same time, APS has a significant margin of safety. Shooting some samples is about 40 thousands of shots without cracks in the bolt-casing and any serious damage to the gun.

The gun MTA adopted on December 3 1951 of the year. The gun was intended to arm the crews of various combat vehicles, the first numbers of heavy weapons calculations (heavy machine guns and anti-tank grenade launchers, machine guns, artillery guns), as well as individual self-defense weapons of platoon-company officers who were directly involved in the hostilities.



But the use of an automatic pistol in the army showed a number of shortcomings: the large size of the weapon, the inconvenience of wearing a massive holster butt, the impracticality of automatic fire. The pistol grip with a small angle of inclination takes some time to get used to it and is almost not suitable for “intensive” firing from a pistol without thinking. Most officers considered this automatic pistol uncomfortable and excessively large, especially in everyday wear in peacetime conditions. Together with the APS, it was necessary to wear 4 fully equipped magazines (each for 20 cartridges) in pouches, which further aggravated the soldier.

As a result, already in 1958, the production of APS pistols was completed, and in 1960-s, most of the army pistols went to warehouses. Although in service with certain categories of Soviet soldiers (in particular, the machine gunners of the PC and the RPG-7 grenade launchers) they were before the beginning of the 1980-s. After the shortened AKS-74U machine gun was officially adopted by the Soviet Army, the active replacement of APS pistols for this model of the machine gun began. By the beginning of the 1990s in the armed forces of the Soviet Union, Stechkin pistols remained only in the units of military intelligence. In addition to the Soviet Army, the Stechkin pistol was in service with the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the KGB of the USSR.

Tactical and technical characteristics APS:
Caliber - 9 mm.
The cartridge - 9x18 mm PM.
Length - 225 mm, 540 mm (with holster-butt).
Barrel length - 140 mm.
Weight - 1,02 kg (without cartridges), 1,22 kg (curb), 1,78 kg (curb with butt).
The initial speed of the bullet - 340 m / s.
Rate of Fire - 700-750 speaks / min.
Combat rate - 40 / 90 spok. / Min. (single / bursts).
Target range - to 200 m.
Magazine capacity - 20 cartridges.



Information sources:
http://stechkin.info/article/111
http://www.armoury-online.ru/articles/pistols/russia/aps
http://wartools.ru/pistolety/pistolet-stechkina
https://www.all4shooters.com/ru/strelba/kultura/Kratkaya-istoriya-pistoletov-karabinov
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  1. Old26
    Old26 17 October 2016 15: 16 New
    +6
    In the 90s there was an attempt to replace it with Stechkin’s new Pernach pistol, but decided not to change it. A certain amount of it is exploited in law enforcement agencies.
    1. Cat
      Cat 17 October 2016 17: 50 New
      +5
      Shot live from APS three times, compared to PM and PMM song!
      1. Walking
        Walking 18 October 2016 09: 32 New
        +2
        He wore Stechkin for 10 years under his arm, he wanted to stand out by his youth, now of course he lies in a safe, in his office, I take it only for firing. I don’t want to hand over to the warehouse the memory of young years.
        1. marshes
          marshes 18 October 2016 12: 23 New
          0
          Quote: Hiking
          He wore Stechkin for 10 years under his arm, he wanted to stand out by his youth, now of course he lies in a safe, in his office, I take it only for firing. I don’t want to hand over to the warehouse the memory of young years.

          Where is it? In KZ, Stechkin became quite rare as a pistol. Somewhere mostly Gloki, Zigi and Ceseta use it and mostly PM.
          1. redcod
            redcod 19 October 2016 09: 41 New
            0
            There is a Presidential Security Service.
        2. gladcu2
          gladcu2 21 October 2016 15: 06 New
          0
          Walking

          Of course, the author is right that the pistol was not born, stillborn. For everyday carrying heavy, for army weapons of self-defense is not enough. For a period of 90, it was good as an assault. Only because of the large capacity of the store.
          Then alternative assault pistols appeared and Stechkin was completely out of date.

          But!

          But! How, you Persian, noticed. This type of weapon has a new niche, it is a collection and sporting weapon (civilian gunfire in nature). And the price, as well as the value of Stechkin is huge. It's a pity to hand over to the warehouse. It’s better to put up for sale, in old holsters, but in a beautiful package. Moreover, as a reserve weapon, this gun is also not very.
    2. vkl.47
      vkl.47 18 October 2016 15: 04 New
      0
      what can I say a beautiful pistol. he and Tokarevsky are the most handsome. Browning is also good
  2. Skubudu
    Skubudu 17 October 2016 15: 34 New
    +7
    APS ...
    + 10 Strength
    + 100 Charisma
    Personally, my IMHO is the most beautiful and charismatic pistol in the world.
    But in terms of efficiency, alas, it is inferior to modern pistols under 9x19.
    1. Niccola Mack
      Niccola Mack 17 October 2016 16: 36 New
      +3
      There was no “butt” niche for these models - neither Mauser, nor Parabellum, nor Beretta 93R, No matter how good they were.
      APS is no exception, but making films is a godsend.
      And Castro with APS (photo) is a real revolutionary.
    2. Niccola Mack
      Niccola Mack 17 October 2016 21: 18 New
      +4
      And Che is no worse - a thunderstorm of world imperialism!

    3. gladcu2
      gladcu2 21 October 2016 15: 23 New
      +1
      Skubudu

      The fact that he is beautiful is yes. But according to charisma, the first 1911 Colt. Colt’s popularity is higher while conceptual worthlessness. As for the army, Colt is too heavy and has too little ammunition. Nevertheless, thanks to its brutal charisma, it remains popular even in modern armies.
  3. erased
    erased 17 October 2016 15: 35 New
    +5
    APS is a masterpiece that was made with unnecessary performance characteristics. Automatic fire was unnecessary for short-barreled weapons. The barrel length is also too long. Wooden holster is an echo of the past decades. As a result, the scope was reduced to almost zero.
    And if with a barrel length of 120 mm, without automatic fire and a little relief through the use of polymers, then an ideal assault pistol would come out for the SOBR, TsSN FSB. Well, take a cartridge 9x19 Pair. But...
    1. Oden280
      Oden280 17 October 2016 17: 51 New
      +3
      He already works well there. And at short distances (10-15 m.) Only the caliber of the cartridge plays a role.
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. Black Colonel
      Black Colonel 20 October 2016 10: 12 New
      +1
      When designing, there were instances under 7,623x25. I think it would be preferable than under 9x18 (clean in my opinion). But in the Moscow Region no fools make decisions.
  4. self-propelled
    self-propelled 17 October 2016 15: 35 New
    +27

    "deadly toys"
    but look bewitching. good
    1. gladcu2
      gladcu2 21 October 2016 15: 45 New
      +1
      self-propelled

      This photo is historically a masterpiece. It’s a pity if it disappears. She would be in the state collection.
      1. self-propelled
        self-propelled 30 October 2016 16: 46 New
        0
        Quote: gladcu2
        This photo is historically a masterpiece. It’s a pity if it disappears. She would be in the state collection

        I hope it does not disappear. I love weapons ...
  5. rudolff
    rudolff 17 October 2016 18: 02 New
    +2
    There was another option with a silencer and a light metal “butt”.
    1. Lopatov
      Lopatov 17 October 2016 21: 07 New
      +3
      Quote: rudolff
      There was another option with a silencer and a light metal “butt”.

      APB is the correct name, APPS is incorrect, but very, very common
      Actually, it was he, and not the APS, "who remained in service with the units of military intelligence. Most likely, until now.

  6. demiurg
    demiurg 17 October 2016 18: 03 New
    +2
    When I shot with APS bursts, it was scary when the shutter near my eye was winding.
    But to shoot alone is a pleasure. PM, PSM, Nagan, TT did not even stand close.
  7. beeper
    beeper 17 October 2016 18: 25 New
    +5
    I liked Stechkin at first glance at the picture in Technics-Youth of the 60s, I agree with other commentators, a very charismatic and elegant domestic pistol!
    The USM design is also interesting, as is the story of the creation of the gun itself. In the textbook "TRIZ for gunsmiths", on the example of APS, the process of working out the reliable supply of a "peculiar" PeM cartridge was described ...
    Nikolai Fedorovich Makarov was a mentor to the young designer — this contributed a lot to the successful design and development of the debut military “short barrel” Igor Yakovlevich Stechkin.
    I believe that an automatic fire mode (and "triples" too) from a combat pistol is not needed - providing this function unnecessarily complicates the design with completely dubious "benefits". But the attached, compact folding butt can be useful (sometimes) for samples under a powerful pistol cartridge.
    The APS machine is beautiful (like the "artillery" "Luger" or "Browning" HP) ... "Pontovaya", but if you had to choose, from all over the world, a gun for everyday self-defense, you would definitely choose PM, up to " perestroika assembly.
    1. gladcu2
      gladcu2 21 October 2016 16: 03 New
      0
      beeper

      At the expense of domestic charisma I agree.

      Only a luger with a long barrel was not in service with artillerymen, but with naval officers.
      1. beeper
        beeper 22 October 2016 11: 00 New
        +2
        Marine "Luger" was created earlier, in 1904, the barrel is 150 mm long, but I prefer the "artillery" -Lange P-08, with a barrel length of 200 mm wink ! Sincerely.
  8. mr.redpartizan
    mr.redpartizan 17 October 2016 21: 43 New
    0
    APS is a very beautiful pistol, but the concept of a carbine pistol was initially flawed due to the use of a low-power cartridge. The 9x18 mm cartridge is much inferior in power to the 9x19 mm PAIR, making effective fire beyond 100 m impossible. Today, even 9x19 mm does not guarantee the defeat of the enemy in body armor, like the vast majority of pistol ammunition. A classic army pistol has a mass of about 1 kg without cartridges and rather large dimensions, but is practically useless in battle. Only some samples, for example CP-1 or Five-Seven, are able to penetrate body armor within their sighting range.
    1. gladcu2
      gladcu2 21 October 2016 16: 21 New
      0
      redpartisan

      So Stechkin was not intended for shooting targets in bulletproof vests and at a distance of over 100 m.
      Destination is a weapon of defense of the crews of military equipment.
      Now Stechkin is outdated, as military technology has stepped forward.
  9. mr.redpartizan
    mr.redpartizan 17 October 2016 21: 51 New
    0
    Compact PPs like AEK-919K, PP-2000 or German MP-7 have much higher efficiency than automatic pistols, due to greater stability when firing in bursts and greater bullet speed.
    1. gladcu2
      gladcu2 21 October 2016 16: 26 New
      +2
      Redpartisan

      The PP described by you is a police and civilian weapon.
      Stechkin's place, took the AK-74U. Since the most suitable according to modern requirements. And keep in mind that this machine is sharpened under a single cartridge. The army does not need to puzzle over where to get all kinds of parabelumny cartridges.
  10. murriou
    murriou 18 October 2016 06: 17 New
    +4
    It would be worth adding that Kalashnikov had an alternative development with very close TTX, but the Stechkin option turned out to be more successful.

    This is also to the cries regularly raised by various freaks, as though Kalashnikov was "the author of one machine gun, and then made with the wrong hands."

    In reality, Mikhail Timofeevich had behind him, in addition to AK / AKM / RPK, etc., the experience of creating a wide variety of weapons, some of which went into service and into mass production, the rest were also good, but it was better.
    Including a self-loading rifle, a submachine gun, a light machine gun (NOT RPK!) Chambered for Mosin, a single PK / PKT / PKM machine gun, and I'm still not sure I missed anything.
    1. gladcu2
      gladcu2 21 October 2016 16: 40 New
      0
      murriou

      Weapon designers in the USSR did not have the opportunity to show their skills.

      In the USSR there was no civilian arms market.

      All the products of the designers were created as army and police, as a continuation of the army. And even in police low-powered sniper rifles there was no need. Because in the USSR there were practically no armed attacks when these rifles might be needed.

      And of course it is clear that with the advent of liberal freedom. This is when the state ceased to show excessive concern for citizens. More precisely, it delegated its obligations to citizens, then the need arises for a civilian arms market. And the former Soviet designers produced many samples.

      Moreover, the samples are often not successful. Because in the army they are not needed. And the newly created civilian market has not yet defined its needs. Because there were no clear laws governing this market.

      Over in the USA, Obama is still threatening to change the legislation on small arms. Probably because soon manufacturers will make new designs that citizens will want to purchase, due to changes in legislation.

      By the way and on occasion, here is the difference between a socialist and a capitalist state. And that is why US citizens have a constitutional right to purchase and store weapons.
  11. this
    this 18 October 2016 09: 14 New
    +1
    In live APS it is much more beautiful than in the picture, and it sits in the palms as an extension of the hand, it is a pleasure to watch the fly, it seems to freeze. Taking it at least once in your hands, this memory will never leave you, if weapons are allowed in Russia, then I will definitely buy it.
    1. Skubudu
      Skubudu 18 October 2016 11: 08 New
      +2
      Quote: tohoto
      In live APS it is much more beautiful than in the picture, and it sits in the palms as an extension of the hand, it is a pleasure to watch the fly, it seems to freeze. Taking it at least once in your hands, this memory will never leave you, if weapons are allowed in Russia, then I will definitely buy it.

      If the short-barrel is ever allowed, for the civil market, Stechkin unfortunately is “castrated”, they will remove the retarder lever and cut off its axis, and remove the details of the auto fire.
      1. Michael_Zverev
        Michael_Zverev 19 October 2016 19: 07 New
        +1
        And the capacity of the store will be reduced by half.
        1. gladcu2
          gladcu2 21 October 2016 16: 46 New
          0
          Well, right.

          The army pistol will be cut to civilian level. And thus having lost his army quality, he will never again be a civilian.

          Better call Stechkin a hunting rifle. Adding him a non-removable, hard-welded silencer to lengthen the barrel. Special stores for 5 rounds. Then citizens will be able to legally acquire it, like. COLLECTION WEAPON.
    2. gladcu2
      gladcu2 21 October 2016 16: 59 New
      +1
      this

      If capitalism and a liberal ideology are abandoned in Russia, then arms laws will be more lenient.

      But it seems to me that in Russia they will change the economic system, closer to socialism. Since for a country with such territories, the only way to maintain sovereignty is to switch to a different economic quality. With a powerful domestic market and national ideology.

      Therefore, with laws on weapons, they will probably be pulled for a long time until they are finally decided.
      1. this
        this 14 January 2017 09: 21 New
        0
        In the states, they are very fond of liberals, especially gunsmiths because of their attempt to impose a ban on weapons.
  12. vvnab
    vvnab 18 October 2016 12: 18 New
    0
    Quote: erased
    APS is a masterpiece that was made with unnecessary performance characteristics. Automatic fire was unnecessary for short-barreled weapons. The barrel length is also too long. Wooden holster is an echo of the past decades. As a result, the scope was reduced to almost zero.
    And if with a barrel length of 120 mm, without automatic fire and a little relief through the use of polymers, then an ideal assault pistol would come out for the SOBR, TsSN FSB. Well, take a cartridge 9x19 Pair. But...

    OTs-27, no?
    https://topwar.ru/51414-pistolet-oc-27-berdysh.ht
    ml
  13. Black Colonel
    Black Colonel 20 October 2016 10: 16 New
    0
    A friend told me that in Afghanistan from APS with a wire butt and a silencer at 50 m they got into a tin can.
    1. gladcu2
      gladcu2 21 October 2016 17: 03 New
      0
      Black Colonel

      laughing

      Why not get into a tin can from 10 times laughing

      It is important to get from the first, maximum from the second. But this is for experienced shooters of athletes, not ordinary soldiers. drinks
  14. Michael_Zverev
    Michael_Zverev 26 October 2016 05: 47 New
    0
    Quote: gladcu2

    Better call Stechkin a hunting rifle. Adding him a non-removable, hard-welded silencer to lengthen the barrel. Special stores for 5 rounds. Then citizens will be able to legally acquire it, like. COLLECTION WEAPON.
    Mufflers to civilians are prohibited in any case, and why only five rounds? The law allows up to 10.