In the example fleet the radical rearmament of the PLA is especially noticeable, since this type of aircraft is the most technologically complex, its construction takes longer than the ground forces and aviation.
Back in the middle of the 90's, the PLA Navy consisted of a mass of extremely outdated ships and boats, the latter predominating - the Chinese fleet was essentially coastal. Numerous submarines differed primitive weapons and very high noise.
Sharks of the Pacific
Over the past decade, the fleet of the Celestial Empire has gone the way that the US needed at least 30 years, and even managed to get around Russia and Europe in this record-breaking short period, both qualitatively and quantitatively.
The PLA Navy is organizationally divided into three fleets - Northern, Eastern and Southern (hereinafter - the Northern Fleet, the Eastern Fleet and the Southern Fleet) with headquarters in Qingdao, Ningbo and Zhanjiang respectively. Geographical structuring looks somewhat artificial, since, unlike the United States and the Russian Federation, China has one continuous coast. However, since it is quite extensive, the division into three, obviously, facilitates the management of the Navy. At the beginning of 2016, fleets were included in the same-name commands - Northern, Eastern and Southern, created during the reform instead of former districts.
For a long time, the naval component of the Chinese strategic nuclear forces consisted of one very primitive SSBN of the 092 “Xia” project with the 12 SLBM JL-1. At present, four much more modern Jin 094 SSBNs (each with JN-12 2 SLBMs and YJ-8Q ASMs) have been built. Two more modern SSBNs of the 094B project are being completed, each will carry the 16 SLBM JL-2.
The outdated submarines of the 091 “Han” project (five were built, but two have already been written off, the rest are part of the SF) were replaced by six Subchannels of the 093 “Shang” project (including two 093А projects and two 093B projects). The first two are part of the law firm, 2 A and 2 B - in the Federation Council. Construction of 095 submarines, comparable in performance characteristics to advanced American and Russian submarines, is underway. One or two submarines of this type have already been commissioned.
The Chinese diesel submarine fleet is the largest in the world. The most modern 15 PL of the 041A "Yuan" project (they are also the 039А / В project) with RCC YJ-8Q and an air-independent power plant - at least two in the SF, at least 10 in the HF. Launched even more modern submarine project 043.
Rather new are the 12 submarines of Russian construction - two 877 projects, two 636 projects, 8 of the 636EM project with the 3М54Е CRP. In addition, at the beginning of the 2000, the fleet received the 13 Subunit of the 039 "Sun" project - four each at the SF and law firm, five at the VF. There are older, but still combat-ready submarines of the 035 "Min" project. They are 18: 12 in the Federation Council, three each in the VF and LF. May remain in service until the 8 old submarines of the project 033.
In front of the whole of Europe
The only currently Chinese aircraft carrier "Liaonin" (part of the Federation Council) is a former Soviet aircraft carrier cruiser Varyag, acquired by the PRC in the Ukraine in an unfinished state. He is not a full-fledged aircraft carrier because of its design features. First of all, it is a nasal springboard and the absence of a catapult. This ship will forever remain a teaching and experimental, and not a fighting one, just as China has acquired it and launched it. But in China, construction of its own full-fledged aircraft carriers has already begun.
The most powerful ships of the PLA Navy are destroyers. The oldest of them - such as "Lyuda", built on the Soviet projects 50-s, are gradually written off. Three destroyers of the 051 project, or Lyuda-1 (two on the SF, one on the VF, two more are used as training, five in the sludge), one 051D project (on the SF), two projects 2G ("LYUDA-051" at LF).
In 90 and the beginning of 2000, China acquired four destroyers in Russia: two projects each 956 and one project 956EM (all in the WF). At the same time, seven more were built independently, and four different projects: two 051С (SF) projects, one 051В (LF) project, two 052В (LF) projects, two 052 (SF) projects.
In the end, the construction of truly modern ships of this class began in the People's Republic of China (project 052С / D). Currently, the Navy has six destroyers of the 052С project (four at the VF, two at the LF), four projects at the 052D (LF), four more are being built (two for the SF and a WF). In total, as expected, there will be at least 12 ships of this type. It should be noted that China has already technologically bypassed Russia and all European countries in the development of large surface ships, reaching the level of the three most advanced countries in this area - the United States, Japan and South Korea. This is evidenced by the presence of 052С and 052D radars with PAR and classic DPS type American Mk41 on destroyers. On the previous destroyers of the 051 and 052 projects, Russian drum guards were installed, in which only one of the eight missiles was ready for launch, and these guards were designed for only one type of ammunition (C-300F SAM systems). On the new Chinese destroyers are installed UVP, in which all missiles are ready for launch at the same time, and on destroyers of the 052D project they can be of different types and classes. On these ships UVP on 64 rocket. Obviously, it can accommodate maritime missiles HHQ-9, SLCM DH-10 and, possibly, RCC and PLUR. This will provide destroyers with the ability to strike both sea and coastal targets, as well as to carry out air defense of naval connections.
The most numerous class of surface ships of the PLA Navy is frigates. Of these, 30 - ships project 053H, which was built in seven versions. These are the 10 frigates of the 053H3 project (two at the Federation Council, four at the VF and LF), four projects at the 053H2G (VF), six projects at the 053H1G (LF), one at the 053N2 (SF) project, six of the 053H1 project, six of the 053NXXX project, and six VF, armed with MLRS, is used as a support ship for the landing). One 053H transferred to the Coast Guard, two are used as training, four are laid up. As a training, another frigate of the project 053HTN is used. Ships 053H (except for the most modern version of 053H3) are gradually removed from the Navy, some of them are sold to other countries. They replaced two frigates of the 054 project (on the VF) and 22 on the 054 project (six on the Federation Council, eight on the VF and LF). Along with the conventional strike weapons of the PLA Navy (eight C-803 anti-ship missiles in container PU), the 054 project ships were the first Chinese frigates to have an adequate HHQ-32 air defense system for 16 SAM systems based on the Russian Shtil air defense system . Due to this, these frigates will become universal escort ships that can be used to protect aircraft carriers near their shores and to strengthen destroyers in the open ocean (for more details see “Frigates of the New Wave”).
In 2012, the PRC began the construction of 056 project ships, which are classified either as small frigates or as corvettes. Currently, 26 has been put into operation (seven in the Federation Council, six in the VF, 11 in the LF, and two more in the Hong Kong garrison of the LF zone). Total ships of this type will be at least 50 units.
Becoming oceanic, the Chinese fleet holds the first place in the world in the number of combat boats. This, in particular, to 112 rocket: 83 – 86 project 022, six projects 037-II, 20 project 037-IG. The 022 boats are not only the most numerous in the world, but also the most powerful and modern in their class. They are built on the basis of the high-speed catamarans of the Australian company Austal, each carrying eight supersonic anti-ship missiles YJ-83. In the sediment is up to 75 old missile boats of the project 024. Patrol boats in the PLA Navy to 250: up to 46 037-I project, up to 95 037 project, 17 062-I project, to 98 062 project. However, the latter are actively written off.
Mine-sweeping forces are represented by one minzagom project 918, two new minesweepers project 082-II, 16 project 082, four project 081 and six project 082А. This, of course, is not enough. Trawl forces are the Achilles heel of the Chinese fleet.
The landing forces of the PLA Navy include four DTDs for the 071 project (one for the VF, three for the SF), 33 TDK for the 072 project of four modifications (11 for the 072-III project - three for the SF, seven for the VF, one for the SF, 15 of the 072А project - two for SF, seven at the VF, six at the LF, four 072-II projects - one at the VF, three at the LF, three 072 projects - at the VF, 13 of the 073 medium landing craft (10 of the 073A project, one 073-III project, two 073-II project and about 60 small (8 – 10 project 074А, up to 20 project 074, up to 32 project 079-II, the latter are mainly used as cargo ships), as well as four DCNP project 12322, built in Ukraine.
In general, the PLA Navy ranks first in the world in the number of diesel submarines, frigates, missile and patrol boats, landing craft. However, in terms of total tonnage and the capacity of the PLA Navy landing ships are inferior to the US Navy. By the number of nuclear submarines and destroyers, the Chinese fleet is the third in the world (in submarines and submarines - after the US Navy and the Russian Navy, in destroyers - after the American and Japanese).
Naval aviation organizationally consists of six air divisions. In the Federation Council - 2-I (4, 5, 6-th aviation regiment) and 5-I (13, 14, 15-th aviation regiment); in the VF - 4-I (10, 11, 12-th aviation regiment) and 6-I (16, 17, 18-th aviation regiment); in LF - 8-I (22, 23, 24-th aviation regiment) and 9-I (25, 26, 27-th aviation regiment) aviation division.
In recent years, it has been radically updated, and in terms of the number of aircraft it is the second in the world after the American one.
The PLA Navy Bombers are 39 – 41 aircraft H-6 (including three or four D, 27 – 28 G, three more H-6А, possibly in storage) and 116 – 121 JH7 (including 66 – 70HH -7А). H-6 created on the basis of the extremely outdated Soviet Tu-16, but its modern Chinese modifications are capable of carrying ALCM CJ-10, as well as various anti-ship missiles, therefore, represent a very significant military force. JH-7 - modern tactical bombers, their production continues. In storage up to 15 Q-5 attack aircraft.
The fighters are primarily represented by heavy Su-27 / 30 family vehicles and their Chinese versions. Now armed with naval aviation PLA 23 Sioux 30MK2 Russian production, up to 52 J-11V (up to 36 BH to 16 BSN), which are unlicensed copy of the Su-27, and at least 20 decked J-15, copied from purchased in Ukraine The first version of the Su-27K. In addition, 22 J-10 (15 AN, 7 SН) and up to 46 J-8 (still at least 13 in storage) are in service. Production of J-11 and J-10 continues, so their number will increase. Approximately 70 of the J-7 fighter jets (a copy of the MiG-21) withdrawn from the line-up are in storage.
Anti-submarine aviation is represented by three amphibians SH-5 and 49 helicopters: 14 Russian Ka-28, 35 Chinese Z-9, created on the basis of the French AS365.
There are six DRLO KJ-200 airplanes (based on the Y-8 transport), and four H-6DU tankers (based on the H-6 bomber).
In service is the 32 multi-purpose aircraft Y-8. Of these, eight are used in the DER version, four - as Y-8J DRLO planes, the rest - as transport ones. Three more Y-8 are in storage. In addition, naval aviation has nine Y-7 transport aircraft (up to four more in storage) and eight of their training options, HY-7.
There is up to 139 training aircraft: up to 60 JL-8, 35 JL-9, up to 38 CJ-6, six “corncoppers” Y-5.
The PLA naval aviation also includes nine DRLO Ka-31 helicopters, 35 transport helicopters (six Mi-8, 29 Chinese Z-8, based on the French SA-321, eight SA-321 proper are stored), and also three Ka-27PS rescue helicopter.
Marine Corps includes two brigades (1, 164-i) as part of LF. Chinese marines carry garrison service in the Chinese-controlled Paracel Islands.
This branch of troops is also undergoing rearmament. In particular, it receives a family of combat vehicles Ture 05, based on the BMP ZBD-05, including a light tank ZTD-05. Currently, the Marine Corps has received 124 ZTD-05 and 248 ZBD-05. The old light tank Ture 63A, BMP Ture 86 and BTR Ture 63С (there were 62 units of each of these three types), apparently, were written off. Self-propelled artillery has more than 20 of the newest SAU Type 07 and about the same number of old SAU Type 89 (both caliber - 122 mm). In addition, the PLA Marine Corps is equipped with the MLRS 63, the HJ-73 and HJ-8 ATGMs, and the HN-5 MANPADS.
Even today, the PLA Navy, in cooperation with the Air Force and the amphibious parts of the ground forces, can ensure the successful seizure of Taiwan. This is not done only for political reasons. China has almost reached equality at sea with Japan and achieved overwhelming superiority in surface forces over the Russian Pacific Fleet. In the near future, China will begin building aircraft carriers of at least four or five units, after which the Chinese fleet will be able to seriously compete with the US Navy in the northwestern Pacific and Indian Ocean.