The project of operational-tactical missile complex 9K711 "Uran"
Having completed work on the Temp-S project, Soviet industry did not stop work in the field of operational-tactical missile systems. The study of new ideas and solutions was carried out, and the prospects for the further development of such systems were studied. By the autumn of 1967, some new ideas were formed that could be used to create promising projects. 17 of October of the same year issued a decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, according to which the industry had to translate new ideas into a ready draft. A promising army missile system (operational-tactical missile system in the modern classification) received the designation "Uranus". In the future, he was assigned the index 9K711.
Development of the project "Uranus" was entrusted to the Moscow Institute of Thermal Engineering. A.K. was appointed Chief Designer. Kuznetsov. Also, it was proposed to involve the design office of the Votkinsk Machine Building Plant for design work, and the OKB-221 of the Barrikady plant was to prepare a draft self-propelled launcher. After the development of the Uranus complex was completed, various enterprises could be involved in the project whose task would be to manufacture the required products. However, the list of manufacturers of new technology, according to the available data, has not been determined.
Model of self-propelled launcher complex 9K711 "Uran"
The project of operational-tactical missile complex 9K711 "Uranus" should be developed taking into account the unusual technical specifications. The complex was proposed to include a self-propelled launcher based on a special wheeled chassis. This machine should have been able to transport and launch one guided missile. Also in the technical assignment there were items about the air transportability of the launcher and the possibility of self-overcoming of water obstacles by swimming.
It was proposed to develop at once two versions of ballistic missiles, differing from each other by a number of main features and characteristics. One of these products, which received the designation "Uranus", was supposed to be a solid-fuel guided missile launched using a transport-launch container. The “Uran-P” rocket (in some sources it is referred to as “Uran-II”), in turn, had to have a fluid engine and did not need a launch container, instead of which a launch pad was required. The development of the Uran liquid rocket was carried out by the Moscow Thermal Engineering Institute independently, and the Uran-P project was planned to be created together with the designers of the Votkinsk engineering plant.
Initially, the missiles of the promising complex were to be built according to a two-stage scheme. In 1970, the terms of reference were revised. Now it was necessary to develop two versions of single-stage guided missiles. Such improvements had a significant impact on the project, but a number of ready-made ideas and solutions had to go from the original version of the project to the new one.
According to the available information, a new version of the self-propelled launcher was developed especially for the Uran rocket complex by the designers of the Barrikady plant. Designing such a machine started in 1968 year. On one of the existing (or promising) special chassis with the required characteristics it was proposed to mount a set of all the necessary units, from the means of transportation and launch of the rocket to the control equipment. Apparently, the machines intended for the use of two types of missiles should have had some differences. However, information on the technical features of the Uranus rocket launcher is missing. In the case of a product that uses a liquid engine, there are known photos of the launcher layout, allowing to see its design.
It was proposed to use the chassis with the wheel formula 8x8, which has some similarities with existing products. In particular, the chassis architecture of the launcher resembles the design of the special vehicle chassis ZIL-135, characterized by a reduced gap between the central axes and increased distances between the other bridges. In front of the chassis should have been placed a relatively large cabin with jobs for all crew members. Behind the cab there was a place to accommodate the engine and some transmission units. The entire central and aft part of the hull was set aside for the placement of the rocket and associated units.
To ensure the required mobility in various landscapes, a four-wheel drive all-wheel drive chassis with large diameter wheels was proposed. In addition, in the central part of the stern of the machine, it was proposed to place a jet propulsion or propeller for moving through the water. Due to the hermetic hull and auxiliary propulsion design, the self-propelled launcher could float at a sufficiently high speed.
The missile was to be located in the central compartment of the hull. To bring the product out of the hull it was proposed to use a large skylight. In the transport position, according to the available data, it had to be closed with an awning-curtain, which was moved forward by means of a winding mechanism. The opening in the rear part of the hull was closed by a swinging lid. Before lifting the rocket, the lid and the curtain should have opened access to the inside of the machine's cage.
To work with the Uran-P missile, it was proposed to equip a self-propelled launcher with a swinging launch pad. In the transport position, it had to be placed vertically and retract with the rocket inside the cargo compartment. When deploying the complex on the launch pad, hydraulic or other drives had to bring the table with the rocket out and set them in an upright position. A curious feature of such a launcher was the absence of a “traditional” boom or ramp for lifting a rocket. The entire weight of the rocket during lifting was to be transferred to the support ring of the launch pad. In addition, the design of the launcher made it possible to load the rocket without the use of a separate crane.
The project 9K711 offered separate transportation of the rocket and its head. For transportation of the latter, special fastenings with shock absorbers, temperature control systems, etc. were provided at the front of the cargo compartment. During the preparation of the complex for firing, the crew had to carry out the docking of the products, after which the rocket could rise to a vertical position. The solid-propellant missile in TPC, apparently, did not need such means and could be transported in assembled form.
In the case of a solid-propellant rocket, the self-propelled machine was supposed to receive a set of equipment necessary to hold the transport and launch container in the desired position and lift before firing. Accordingly, a different design of fasteners and a launching device, taking into account the particular structure of the container, was required.
The front cockpit of the launcher had to accommodate crew jobs of four, as well as a set of necessary control equipment. Provision was made for the placement of a control room with a driver’s workplace, as well as workplaces for the commander and two operators with the necessary consoles necessary for controlling various machine equipment.
The total length of the self-propelled launcher was to reach 12,75 m. Width - 2,7 m, height in transport position - about 2,5 m. The combat weight of the vehicle is unknown. Based on the requirements for the possibility of a military transport aviation and aircraft characteristics of the late sixties, some assumptions can be made.
The project of a ballistic missile "Uranus" meant the creation of a product equipped with a solid-fuel engine. Before 1970, a two-stage rocket was developed, after which it was decided to use a single-stage architecture. After such a revision, the rocket had to get other characteristics and change its appearance. So, a single-stage version of a solid-fuel rocket should have a cylindrical body of large elongation with a conical head fairing. Also could be used aerodynamic stabilizers or rudders.
Model of the propulsion system missiles "Uranus"
It was proposed to transport and launch a solid-fuel rocket using a transport and launch container. This product was supposed to be a cylindrical unit with end caps and a set of internal devices to hold the rocket in the desired position. The design of TPK provided windows designed to divert some of the gases during launch.
According to reports, the product "Uranus" was supposed to receive a solid-fuel engine with a controlled nozzle. In addition, the possibility of using gas rudders was considered at different design stages. It is known that the design of the engine with the required characteristics was developed at the Moscow Institute of Thermal Engineering. Solid fuel for such a power plant was created by specialists of the Scientific Research Institute-125.
In the instrument compartment of the rocket should be located autonomous inertial control system. With the help of a set of gyroscopes, this equipment had to track the movements of the rocket and produce corrections for the operation of the steering machines. In the final draft of the project, it was proposed to equip the rocket only with a controlled nozzle of a sustainer engine, without using any rudders of a different design.
The project “Uranus” in the 1969 version of the year proposed the construction of a rocket with a length of 2,8 m and a diameter of 880 mm. The launch weight of the product was 4,27 t. The estimated flight range reached 355 km. Circular probable deviation - no more than 800 m.
An alternative to a solid-fuel rocket was the liquid Uran-P. As in the case of solid fuel, initially it was required to create a two-stage product, but later this idea was abandoned. Apparently, in the new version both projects should have a similar layout, differing in the type of engine used. The main difference between the design of the two missiles was associated with the power plant.
The central and tail parts of the Uran-P rocket were allocated for the placement of tanks for fuel and oxidizer, as well as the engine. It was proposed to equip the engine with swinging nozzles with drives for thrust vectoring control used by control systems. In addition, for the control it was proposed to use an additional nozzle on the exhaust manifold of the turbopump assembly. According to some data, the possibility of long-term storage of the rocket in the filled state was provided for. Such storage periods could reach 10 years.
The control system of the Uran-P product should have used the same principles as the Uranus equipment. An autonomous control system based on inertial navigation was proposed. Such equipment has already been tested and had the required characteristics, which allowed it to be used in a new project.
The rocket with a liquid engine differed slightly smaller and some other design features, as well as a number of characteristics. In the 1969 project, the Uran-P rocket was supposed to have a length of 8,3 m with a diameter of 880 mm. Starting weight - 4 t. Due to the smaller starting mass and a more powerful engine, the liquid rocket was supposed to deliver the warhead to a range of up to 430 km. The parameters of the CER, according to the calculations of the authors of the project, were at the level of the Uran missile.
Several variants of combat units designed for use on the Uran and Uran-P missiles were being worked out. Thus, the possibility of creating nuclear warheads of mass 425 and 700 kg, 700-kg high-explosive fragmentation, as well as incendiary and guided warheads was considered. In addition to the warhead of the required type of missile could carry the means of breaking through the defense of the enemy. First of all, it was proposed to use active sources of interference for enemy radar facilities, which could be used both independently and in combination with passive interference, false targets, etc.
In 1969, the Moscow Institute of Heat Engineering and the Design Bureau of the Votkinsk Machine Building Plant completed the development of a draft version of the 9K711 Uran project. Soon, the project was defended, after which the industry could continue to develop the missile system, as well as begin preparations for the construction of experimental equipment. Already after the protection of the draft, it was decided to abandon the two-stage architecture of the rockets, modifying and simplifying their design. New versions of the missiles "Uranus" and "Uran-P" were developed from 1970 year.
Designing a new operational-tactical missile system continued until the 1972 year. By this time, the work faced some difficulties, primarily related to the load of design organizations. The lead developer of the Uranus project at that time was engaged in the creation of a mobile strategic missile complex 15P642 Temp-2С, because of which other promising developments did not receive proper attention. As a result, Minister of Defense Industry S.A. Zverev, seeing the situation, proposed to abandon further work on the Uranus project.
In March 1973, the proposal of the Minister was enshrined in a corresponding decree of the Council of Ministers. The Moscow Institute of Heat Engineering now had to focus on the new project of the complex with the intercontinental ballistic missile Temp-2С. Project 9K711 "Uranus" should be closed. In this case, the developments on it should not have been wasted. The available documentation on this topic was ordered to be transferred to the Kolomna Engineering Design Bureau.
At the time of the appearance of the Council of Ministers decision, the Uranus project was still in the early stages of development. At this stage, the project creators could not begin testing individual components, not to mention the construction and testing of high-grade products. As a result, the project remained in the form of a large amount of drawings and other design documents. In addition, a number of vehicle mock-ups were manufactured, one of which, according to available data, is currently stored in the museum of the Kapustin Yar test site.
Since the end of 1972, specialists from the Moscow Institute of Thermal Engineering, together with colleagues from other organizations, conducted tests on the Temp-2С complex. Termination of work on "Uranus" has allowed to finally release the forces necessary for the refinement and deployment of the production of a new complex for the Strategic Missile Forces. By the end of 1975, the MIT, the Votkinsk engineering plant and the Barrikady enterprise completed all the necessary work, after which the Temp-15С complex 645P2 was put into service.
The documentation for the Uranus project was transferred to the machine-building design bureau, which at that time was actively engaged in operational tactical missile systems. The designers of this organization studied the documents received and thanks to this they familiarized themselves with some of the developments of their colleagues. Some ideas and solutions of the Moscow Thermal Engineering Institute and the Design Bureau of the Votkinsk Machine Building Plant soon found application in new projects of rocket technology. In particular, there is an opinion according to which some ideas from the Uran project already in 1973 were used to create the operational tactical complex 9K714 Oka.
It should be noted that the version of the continuity of the two projects has not yet received acceptable confirmation, but some features of the Uran and Oka systems, as well as the design of self-propelled launchers, clearly indicate that certain developments of MIT specialists have not disappeared and have found application in new developments. In addition, they were brought to mass production and operation in the army, although in the composition of another missile system.
The project of the army missile complex / operational-tactical missile complex 9K711 "Uranus" was developed over several years, but it never left the design stage. As part of this project, it was proposed to develop at once two variants of a rocket with the required characteristics, as well as a new self-propelled launcher with a number of unusual features. However, despite all the positive features, the Uranus project faced some problems. At the same time as Uranus, the Moscow Institute of Heating Engineering designed other rocket complexes that were of greater interest to the customer. As a result, the loading of the organization led to the fact that the Temp-2С project was developed, and Uran was closed due to lack of opportunities. Nevertheless, the original ideas and solutions nevertheless contributed to the further development of domestic rocket technology, but already in the framework of new projects.
Shirokorad A.B. Atomic ram of the twentieth century. - M., Veche, 2005.
- Ryabov Kirill
- Wikimedia Commons, Militaryrussia.ru
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