The ice-free port on the coast of the Kola Bay was laid just north of the ancient coastal coast village of Kola. The founding date is 21 September (October 4 new style) 1916. Until April, 1917 bore the name Romanov-on-Murman, but after the February Revolution, it was simply called Murmansk.
The arctic city owes its appearance to the First World War. The Baltic was closed by the Germans, and the communication of the Entente countries was carried out through the non-freezing Barents Sea, specifically the Kola Bay. Laid back in 1896, the commercial port of Aleksandrovsk (Polyarny), although it was located almost at the exit to the open sea, did not meet the requirements. In particular, it was impossible to bring the railway to him.
The experience of the first major shipments showed that the Northern Sea Theater was at that time completely unsuitable for a large cargo traffic. He did not have any well-equipped berths, nor a sufficiently reliable land communication with the central regions of the country and the front. Therefore, the construction of the Murmansk port and the railway linking it with Petrograd began urgently. The paths were laid at an accelerated pace, as required by the situation. And the highway, despite the most difficult conditions, was ready by November 1916 (in less than a year and a half). Port construction progressed more slowly.
Meanwhile, it was of great importance not only for transshipment of goods, but also for the formation of flotilla Of the Arctic Ocean. It was created in August of the same 1916 to protect shipping from attack by the German Navy ("With the light hand of" Bakan "). Already under Soviet rule, with the revival of the Northern Military Flotilla (later transformed into the Northern Fleet), Murmansk became its main base and was it until 1935.
During the years of peaceful construction, the city developed rapidly, becoming not only a transport, but also an industrial, scientific, cultural center of the richest Kola Territory.
In the Great Patriotic City became the object of intense struggle. The Nazi command, realizing the strategic importance of Murmansk, was the one that marked the brunt of it in the Arctic. Having failed to capture the city at the beginning of the war, from 1942, the Nazis subjected it to systematic bombardment, trying to disable the port. 185 thousands of bombs were dropped on Murmansk, more - only on Stalingrad.
Murmansk played a huge role in supplying the country and the army. Through it was a significant part of the goods received from the countries - allies in the anti-Hitler coalition. Under the conditions of constant hostile opposition, about 250 transports were unloaded here, over two million tons of cargo were handled.
For the first time, I and my fellow cadets saw Murmansk in 1956, when we were brought to the wooden station in heat trucks. Then the city has not yet recovered after the war, but after ten years it was not recognizable.
For industrial success, Murmansk in 1971 was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor, and in 1985 he deservedly for his valor and perseverance - was awarded the title "Hero City".
25 years of service in the Arctic left an indelible impression of the Kola region. Murmansk on our eyes turned into a modern port city, whose population grew rapidly due to young professionals. But came the vague 90-e, and the city experienced a massive outflow. Recently, an understanding of the significance of the Kola Polar region, in particular, Murmansk, has returned to the public consciousness. We can never close the gate to the Arctic ...
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