The commander of the Life Guards Semenov regiment, Major General Georgy Alexandrovich Min in textbooks stories was named among the main punishers of the revolutionary Moscow 1905 of the year. Today, rethinking the past, we have the right to ask ourselves: who was this man the savior of the Fatherland or the murderer?
The long-time ancestors of the general moved to Russia from Flanders, entering military service under Peter I. In the Minov family, there were hardly more soldiers than writers, and if Georgy’s father Alexander Yevgenyevich ended his service as lieutenant-general, all three of his brothers were writers and publicists. Our hero was also fond of literature, but preferred to serve in the army. Physically developed, with a strong character and sincere faith, a romantic at heart, named after the patron saint of the Russian army, George the Victorious, he seemed to be created for military service. And decided to start it, as his idol Alexander Suvorov, baseman. Having successfully graduated from the 1 Moscow Gymnasium, the son of the general chooses not a military school, not the Page Corps, promising a fast and successful career, but enters as a private in the Guards Semenov regiment as a volunteer. This military status was different from just a soldier, primarily because at the end of his service he gave the right to his carrier to become an officer, subject to successful passing the exam. Having stayed in the lower ranks of the required period, Georgy Alexandrovich was promoted to warrant officer.
The Russian-Turkish war began. The Semenov regiment was directly involved in this campaign. The young ensign along with the regiment was in all the battles that befell his unit: crossing the Danube, taking Pleven, storming Pravetsky heights, fighting at Dolny Dubnyak, crossing the Balkans, taking Sofia, Andriapolya, San Stefano. Often risking his head, he, as if conspired, was not even slightly injured. Having shown enviable courage, personal heroism, excellent organizational skills, by the end of the war he already commanded a lieutenant commanded a company. For military distinctions awarded the Order of St. Anne 4-th degree "For Bravery" and St. Stanislav 3-th degree with swords and bow. The war ended, but the authority of Mina among officers and subordinates continues to grow. In 1884, he is appointed to the post of a regimental adjutant with the rank of lieutenant, and 1887 is appointed as a member of the regimental court — his extreme scrupulousness in matters of service and officer's honor.
The next stage in the career of George Alexandrovich, by that time Colonel, was a business trip to Turkestan, where the plague epidemic broke out in 1889. Here he is placed at the disposal of Prince Alexander of Oldenburg, who is leading the fight against a terrible disease on the outskirts of Russia. By manifesting his best business and human qualities, Ming enthralled the new boss, their relationship ceased to be a true friendship. Upon returning to the capital, the prince did not fail to tell the sovereign about the active colonel, Semyonovts. And Georgy Alexandrovich in the meantime becomes the chairman of the regimental court. In 1903, he was appointed as commander of the 12 Grenadier Astrakhan Emperor Alexander III Regiment stationed in Moscow, whom he had commanded for almost a year. At the end of 1904, to the delight of his former colleagues, Colonel Ming was appointed commander of the Semenov regiment, and soon he was given the rank of court adjutant, which classifies him as Nicholas II retinue and gives the right to wear an imperial monogram and agel on an epaulette. With the beginning of the Russian-Japanese war, the commander with his regiment decreases to the front.
Time of Troubles
However, the alarming events that almost immediately and in parallel began in both capitals forced the command to return the Semenovtsi halfway to St. Petersburg, where after the first defeats in a seemingly fast and victorious war, the situation was complicated. Began unprecedented since the days of False Dmitry unrest. Under the slogans of freedom and equality throughout the country blood was poured, estates caught fire, pogroms and interethnic clashes began. It was not a day that people, mostly officials and state employees or just loyal subjects, did not die at the hands of rebellious armed hooligans who called themselves revolutionaries or warriors. In the 1906 year alone, 768 was killed and 820 authorities and their sympathizers were seriously injured.
In September and October, a well-organized general strike swept the country on 1905. On this occasion, the well-known publicist L. N. Tikhomirov noted: “It stopped the movement of railways, post offices, telegraphs, plunged the city into darkness, stopped the supply of food, stopped the work of factories and plants, deprived the population of the country of the opportunity to earn a living, took away Patients help doctors and pharmacies. She created for all the nation complete civil lawlessness. The person has lost the right even to work, to free movement. Everyone had to pester the general strike against their will. But the leaders of the liberation movement do not recognize that they are struggling with the nation itself. The absurdity of the activities of our “liberation” revolution is so clear that it does not require a description. ” But it was not limited to strikes alone. Real revolutionary terror unfolded.
At the call of Leon Trotsky, who was the de facto head of the St. Petersburg Council of Workers' Deputies, armed groups began to form, preparing to take power in the capital into their own hands. The day and place were appointed where Bloody Sunday should be repeated as a signal for rebellion. The position was saved by the Semenovtsy, who had taken convenient positions in advance and showed readiness to use it. weapon. This cooled the ardor of the revolutionaries, broke their plans and soon forced them to curb activity. And the name of the commander of Semenovites received great publicity, raising fear in some and causing delight in others. The first, however, was more. When in one of the Baltic barracks naval unrest began to the crew - the sailors refused to obey their officers, the instigators were preparing an armed rebellion - Ming was given the task to stop them, if possible, bloodlessly. He acted quickly and decisively: at night he surrounded the barracks, personally went inside and suddenly raised the sleeping troublemakers on alert. This decided the outcome of the case.
Especially difficult situation was in Moscow due to its special status. By 1905, the city became the center of the liberal and Zemstvo opposition. After the murder of supporters of decisive measures - the Governor-General of the Great Throne, Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich and the town governor and Chief of Police P. P. Shuvalov, the power in the city actually passed to the liberals and socialists. With their acquiescence in Moscow, several meetings of the opposition are openly held, where unlawful and even anti-government decisions are taken.
Using complete impunity, the militants began to form well-armed and equipped squads, terrorizing the population, killing law enforcement officers. This interstition ended with the fact that on December 10 of 1905, the self-proclaimed Executive Committee of Workers' Deputies decided on a general uprising, after which the city plunged into darkness. Residents of the 1.5 million metropolis have become hostages of hooligans, criminals and revolutionary fanatics. Looting of shops and shops began, killing not only policemen or soldiers, but also ordinary people who were forced to build barricades by force of arms. In total, on 13 December 1905, revolutionaries killed 80 and injured 320 people. The garrison troops and the police, without feeling the support of local authorities, were demoralized.
Life for the Tsar
It was at this moment that the Guardsmen-Semenov, led by the already legendary commander, arrived at the aid of the Muscovites on the personal order of the tsar. The regiment was divided into two groups. One under the command of Mina cleaned Presnya. The second, led by Colonel N. K. Riemann, acted along the line of the current Moscow-Kazan railroad, which was occupied by militants. December 16 began an operation to liberate the city from illegal armed groups.
Faced with decisive actions by the Semenovtsy in the area of the Schmidt factory and the Prokhorov manufactory, where an open battle ensued, the insurgents soon realized that they were doomed, and began to scatter and surrender. The detachment of Colonel Riemann acted harshly, stopping looting, looting and armed resistance. Several militants detained with weapons in their hands were shot on the spot. Thus, by December 20 the situation in Moscow has stabilized. The revolution was strangled. Semenovtsy paid a high price for it, losing three comrades. In total, during the clashes and shooting from around the corner in Moscow in December 1905, 13 soldiers and the 21 policeman were killed, according to the data of the Russian Navy’s Army Department. Militants - 32. Random passers-by and onlookers - 267.
To the credit of the regimental commander, he did not bury his dead soldiers in inhospitable Moscow, but organized the delivery of bodies to the capital at his own expense, where they were buried with military honors in a regimental tomb. Less than a year, as the commander lay next to them. Georgy Alexandrovich knew that he had been sentenced by terrorists, but flatly refused to have bodyguards, considering it unworthy of a guard officer. 13 August 1906, he was killed in front of his family at the Peterhof station.
At the funeral of his faithful servant, Nicholas II was dressed in the form of a Life Guards Semenov regiment. The eloquent inscription “Victim of Duty” stood out on the wreaths with which the comrades-in-arms piled up the grave of the beloved commander.
His murderer turned out to be a village teacher, Erska Zinaida Konoplyannikova. Despite the protests of the left-wing public who did not calm down, she was sentenced to death by hanging.