In the car of the sanitary train.
I must say that the fate of my grandmother Evdokia Petrovna Taratynova was still the same: she was born in a family ... a forester with one ... Penza graph, and her mother was a senior housekeeper in their family. Well, the forester was responsible for all the forest land and so that men from the surrounding villages would not steal forests. On her mother was all the cooking and all the supplies, because both the old and young countess did not burden themselves with the chores around the kitchen: “I want, my dear, kurnik, how are you doing, or chicken Kiev-style meatballs ...” - that's all between them was discussed. But her daughter, that is, my grandmother, was made a companion to the count's granddaughter, and together they learned from home teachers, and on the piano, and sew, and knit. “Why was the count's granddaughter learning to sew? - I asked, - What is the point? ““ Everyone studied, ”my grandmother answered. All together in the room sat and embroidered or sewed. It was so accepted. ”
Now these cars have become museums.
However, I was not interested in sewing. It was more interesting to hear about how the count's family from their country estate moved to the city for the winter, and the grandmother, together with the count's granddaughter, went to the gymnasium together. But most of all I was surprised at their “graph habits”. So, every morning, a man-made one with a freshly prepared butter (formed into molds with a convex ladybug), a can of milk and a sour cream pot was sent from the estate to the city in any weather. Meanwhile, the eldest housekeeper herself made hot buns with cream for the whole family, which were served with sour cream, cream, butter and milk "straight from the horse."
And there were such cars.
But then the revolution began and “this was the end of it,” and with what and how it ended, I didn’t get it. But it was obvious that the grandmother married the grandfather, and they began to live and be good. A large carpet of her dowry was sold to the famine 1921 of the year, but in general, thanks to the fact that the affairs worked as a contractor, they survived the famine without much loss. In 1940, my grandfather graduated from the Ulyanovsk Teachers' Institute (before that he had a diploma, but of tsarist time) and in 1941 he joined the party and immediately received an appointment to the post of head of the city education department. Grandma worked all this time as a librarian in the school library because of what later, when she retired, she made up only 28 rubles for her. True, the grandfather received a pension of republican value, as a veteran of labor and an order bearer, in 95 rubles, so that in general they had enough for their old age to live.
Well, when the war began and they almost immediately lost both sons, they decided that she needed to go to work in the sandy squire, because there they give a good ration, and so “what's the use of money in the library, and Rita (this is my mother) is already big. ” So, by mature family thinking, my grandmother went to the station to receive trains with the wounded. Interestingly, their family lived at this time ... with the servants! One woman came to clean the house, and the other - washed their laundry. And all for a fee, that is, they had the opportunity to pay them! But then at home, as my mother recalled, they were practically all together and never happened: grandmother would come, bring rations, cook cabbage soup and again to the station.
And here in Penza, the evacuees had already arrived, well, just darkness. One of my colleagues even defended his thesis on the topic “Party leadership of the evacuated population during the Great Patriotic War on the example of the Penza, Ulyanovsk and Kuibyshev regions”. And since I could read it, I learned that the evacuation was of an extremely complex and multifaceted nature, that cattle (self-moving), educational institutions, and, well, everyone knew about the evacuation. Even prisoners of prisons (!) And those were evacuated and local prisoners were sent to prisons, that's how. That is, the enemy was not left not only a single gram of fuel, but also deprived of his potential accomplices, because of which the Penza prison castle was simply overcrowded with prisoners. Well, in schools classes went in four (!) Shifts, so the burden on teachers was oh-oh, and my grandfather had to solve many problems and act as efficiently as possible. And he acted, otherwise the Order of Lenin would not have received.
Interior view of one of the III class cars on 16 seats.
Well, with my grandmother it was like this: at first she graduated from the medical orderly courses, and since she was already 40 years old, she was appointed the eldest 17-18 girl in the brigade of years. The task was this: as soon as the sanitary train arrives at the station, immediately run to him with a stretcher and unload the wounded. Then carry them to the emergency room for primary processing. There, other girls were taken to work, who washed, bandaged, disguised, and sent the wounded to hospitals. However, the most primary sorting was carried out even at unloading. Nurses from the train with each wounded gave "history diseases ", but it was also conveyed in words:" This gangrene of both legs has a third degree. Immediately under the knife! ”And they were not dragged to the reception room at the station, but straight to the square, where the ambulance carriages were already standing, and immediately such heavy trucks were taken to hospitals.
Signaling was carried out as follows: since the telephone was only at Penza-II station, they called and informed from there how much and which trains were going. Sometimes it was like this: “Girls, you have an hour of rest. There are no trains! ”- and then everyone was glad that you could relax, sat and chatted, but did not go anywhere. After all, the message about the train could come at any moment. However, more often, sanitary trains have signaled their arrival by beeps: one long beep — a train with the wounded is on, to prepare for unloading. And then everyone was throwing tea, if it was winter, they put on coats and hats, mittens, took out stretchers and went to the platform. Such trains were always taken on the first track, except for the cases when there were two or three such trains at once. That's when the girls had to run!
But the worst thing was when the train sounded frequent beeps. This meant: "A lot of heavy, immediate help is needed!" Then, on the platform, everyone ran headlong, regardless of who was a simple nurse and who was the brigade chief. It was necessary for everyone to carry the wounded. The train in the clouds of steam approached the platform, and immediately the doors of the cars opened and the train staff began to surrender the wounded along with the accompanying documents. And everyone shouted: “Faster, faster! On the approach of the second echelon, and behind him on the third stage! Already on the stretch! We miraculously overtook him! ”It was especially terrible when three such trains came in a row.
Looking at the wounded was not just hard, but very hard. And no increase in patriotism at the same time, as well as special pity for them, no one felt. It was just not to experience at least some high feelings! It was necessary to shift the heavy men from one stretcher to others, or to pull them out of the carriage on a tarpaulin, or to help those who can walk themselves, but they walk badly, and he tries to hang on you with the whole mass. It is intolerable from many that stinks, and that you look will throw up, but you cannot turn away or “tear”, you have to do the work assigned to you, that is, to save these people. Consoled without thinking: "Be patient, dear." And they thought to themselves: “What a heavy you are, uncle”.
So the wounded were let out of the car.
And the doctors from the train brigade are also in a hurry: “Pay attention - this is a fragmental wound to the chest, urgently on the table!”; "50 burns percent of the body, but you can still try to save!"; “This is an eye injury - immediately to the clinic!” It was inconvenient to carry the wounded through the station building. I had to run around with a stretcher. And there again to overload with them the wounded in the ambulance carriage and immediately rush back with the stretcher. It was impossible to lose, forget or confuse the paper, a person’s life could depend on it. And many of the wounded were unconscious, many were delirious and carried the devil knows that, while others also urged - “Hurry, go ahead, dig.” It’s only in the movies that the wounded call the nurse: “Sister! Honey! ”Usually it was later, in the hospital. And there, in the cold at the station, no one else felt like lying extra five minutes. It's good that the Germans never bombed Penza, and all this had to be done even in the cold, but at least not under the bombs!
Then the train had to help load the medicine, and he again went back. And the girls, like the grandmother told me, literally fell from their feet for fatigue and ran to the place assigned to them at the station to drink strong, hot tea. That this only escaped.
In the rations of supplies under Lend-Lease, the sandpufflers at the station were given egg powder, stew (for some reason, New Zealand), Indian tea, sugar and blankets. The grandmother got a coat with a collar of kangaroo fur, but the same coat was given then to many. Just someone this time was a coat, and someone more sugar and stew.
And so every day. Although there were also days of rest, when the stream of the wounded was redirected to other Volga cities, since all the hospitals in Penza were filled with them to capacity.
That was the building of the Penza-I station in the 40 years of the last century.
So patriotism was then not so much in words as in deed. And besides, people still remained people: someone tried to “wriggle”, someone to “catch”, someone was interested only in canned meat and “imported” blankets. But it was with the forces of those who “burned”, and those to whom it was all disgusting, but the need was forced to do business, and the common Victory was forged. It was. That's it, and nothing else! And if it is necessary, the current youth will also work. Just no one will go anywhere.