The danger of a complete replacement of the "Dirks" and "Daggers" with the new shipboard M-Tor and Wasps of the 21st century
We are all well aware of the long-standing and very successful tradition of Soviet defense design bureaus, which consists in developing ship modifications of anti-aircraft missile and anti-aircraft artillery complexes, which are almost completely unified with their ground-based versions of the anti-aircraft interceptors and, in some cases, multifunctional radar fire control . So, for example, the C-300F “Fort” shipborne long-range anti-aircraft missile system differs from the ground C-300PS ground projectile with the PFAR round structure and the reduced carrying capacity of the naval XRUMX 3 for “ of the land on-load tap-changer 41Н3Е), as well as the modernized 6В30РМ ZUR, which, unlike the 6В5Р version, has specialized radio communication modules with transport-launch containers ВПУ Б-55А on board. By the same principle, anti-aircraft missile and artillery complexes (ZRAK) "Dirk", "Armor-M" and air defense systems "Osa-M", "Dagger", "Gibka" were created, which received a full unification of the missiles with military complexes "Osa" , "Tungusska", "Pantsir-С5", "Wasp" and "Tor-М55" and "Igla-S".
We can confidently say that this has resolved all the issues with the interchangeability between the naval and military arsenals of anti-aircraft guided missiles of the above complexes. At the same time, the totality of these air defense missile systems in a tightly held naval or carrier strike grouping allows you to create a powerful echeloned air defense system, when, for example, at a long-range line, targets are intercepted by the Fort from the Moscow air defense missile, 1 ”with SC 11356“ Admiral Grigorovich ”, and in the near - anti-aircraft artillery complexes AK-630М and SAM“ Osa-M ”and“ Gibka ”(using the example of the Black Sea Fleet CUG). But judging by the latest news, not everything in the construction of ship defense of the 21st century goes as smoothly as we would like.
So, 26 September 2016 of the year, came two very important news from the General Director of JSC "Izhevsk Electromechanical Plant '' Kupol ''" Fanil Ziyatdinov, which can be classified as "good and bad." The good thing is that the Kupol plant, which is part of Concern EKR Almaz-Antey JSC, is launching a program to update the hardware and software of the Tor-M2 / 2KM family of anti-aircraft missile systems to realize the possibility of intercepting small-sized hypersonic high-precision elements weapons. The Tor-M2 family can become the first mobile air defense system capable of shooting down targets at speeds up to 1500 m / s, which was previously available only to systems such as the C-300PS. The military air defense will be endowed with even greater anti-missile qualities of a full-fledged aerospace defense (it is also known that the air defense of the Ground Forces will receive a “Buk-M3” with a target speed range up to 3000 m / s). The second news from the general director of the "Dome" causes very contradictory opinions, and is more likely to be bad.
It is noted that a new naval modification of the Tor-M2KM “M-Tor” air defense system is being developed, which will be gradually replaced in various classes of warships Kortik and the Dagger air defense system. Similar information, February 2 2014, was already reported by the spokesman for Almaz-Antey CEO Yury Baikov. New combat modules (BM) and launchers will begin to be delivered to the fleet from about 2018 year. What does it mean?
From NK such as the patrol ships of the 11540 "Yastreb" Avenue ("Fearless"), as well as large anti-submarine ships of the 1155 / 1155.1 "Udaly / Udali-II" Ave., the combat modules 3СXNNUMX-87 of the TORMS "Kortik-M" will be dismantled as well as the Dagger air defense missile system, including the 1 – 4 vertical octopus revolver launchers and the K-95-12 multi-purpose radar of the light. And instead of them, on special pedestals, autonomous combat control modules will be installed for them with the RPN 1А9МК-331, as well as a certain number of quadruple anti-aircraft missile modules 1М9Д with the 334М9Д missile, depending on the ship’s displacement. There is no doubt that the process of refitting ships with modular M-Tor air defense systems is several times less laborious and costly than installing deeply integrated into the Daggers design, but it’s hard to imagine the level of the combat potential of combat ships upgraded in this way, and even more so after removing the "Kortikov-M". There will be an inevitable decrease in the antimissile potential of the ships, due to the irrational location of the M-Tor antenna post with respect to the superstructures obstructing the view and the lack of protection of the “dead zone”, which was usually carried out by the Kortik-M ZRAK.
Let's start with the question of the irrational location of the autonomous combat module (ABM) 9А331МК-1, and, respectively, the radar control complex "M-Tor". The sketches and graphic images provided in the network show the frigate class warship, which has one ABM 9А331МК-1 stand-alone module on the nasal artillery mount, and 4 vertical built-in launchers on 16 ZUR assembled in 2 anti-aircraft missile launcher module ZRM 9М334Д (8 missiles in each). There are absolutely no questions about the launchers, since the vertical “cold” launch of the 9М331 anti-aircraft missiles, as in the early revolver TLU, provides all-round shooting at aerial targets regardless of the location on the ship’s deck, which cannot be said about the location of the ABM. His presence in the nose of the frigate is expressed by great restrictions on the sector of operation of the multifunctional radar in the rear hemisphere of the ship. The entire review of the M-Torah main firing radar is overlapped by the ship's superstructure and mast devices, which is why, in the course direction, 20 azimuth degrees of the ship’s rear hemisphere is completely unprotected before the impact of even one high-speed and intensively maneuvering anti-ship missile.
This is because the frigate class displacement ships apparently will not have the rear autonomous combat module 9А331МК-1 with the second firing radar to work on the targets attacking the ship from behind, because, first, additional space is needed for the installation of an artillery installation, and secondly, the empty sections of the superstructure are also usually occupied by radars for detecting surface targets within the radio horizon, as well as by radar fire control artillery and SCRC. Antenna posts K-12-1 of the “Dagger” complex have the most optimal location in the upper sections of the settings, due to which the radio horizon is moved further by 4-5 km in terms of detecting approaching anti-ship missiles. Without the CRAF, the Dirk-type cover, which protects the near air boundary of the ship, the new M-Tor will not be able to beat off the “star raid” of several dozen anti-ship missiles, some of which can break into the 1,5-kilometer “dead zone” of the complex, and therefore dismantling them is a completely wrong decision. If such a “modernization” is carried out on “Peter the Great” and “Admiral Kuznetsov”, we will get the 2 flagship with the missing lower echelon of the missile defense system, which can eventually become decisive.
A much more accurate solution would be to replace the “Dirks” with more advanced anti-aircraft artillery complexes “Pantsir-M”, with the subsequent upgrading of the latter to expand the speed range of the intercepted targets, since even deeply modernized “M-Torah” capable of intercepting hypersonic targets will have a “dead zone” with a length of about 800 - 1000 m from the carrier ship. Also, a very interesting option would be to upgrade the radar elements of the ship-based air defense system "Dagger" in service while maintaining the revolver 4C95 launcher.
It consists in the development of a promising 4-sided multifunctional radar guidance based on active or passive HEADLIGHTS that can be installed in 4-s rotary antenna posts located on the upper corners of the superstructure of a combat ship to provide the most productive overview of the airspace. Each antenna post should have a constructive opportunity to rotate by +/- 90 degrees in the azimuthal plane: in the end, this will allow 3 antenna arrays to be simultaneously accompanied and captured a large number of targets in a small area of airspace. As you know, all existing MRLS, including “Polyment” and AN / SPY-1A / D, have fixed canvases of FAR on each side of the superstructure, because of which only 2 of them can work in the same direction of missile, which reduces the overall performance of the ship ZRK. A version with mobile radars would radically change the situation. Based on the modular concept of the M-Tor complex, it is possible to carry out such modernization by placing four autonomous combat modules 9А331МК-1 at the corners of the superstructure, but the whole point is that they are large enough for ships with a displacement of up to 6000 tons, and therefore it will be necessary to develop a small antenna post.
The ship’s Dagger SAM and the 9М331МКМ Tor-М2КМ anti-aircraft missiles are 4-channel, and therefore, for example, for any configuration of the sea Torah with four multifunction radars, the number of targets to be fired will be 16 units, from 12, 18, 2013 of which can be simultaneously fired on the same direction. At the MAKS-2 air show, Tactical Missile Weapons Corporation presented a new missile defense system for the Tor-M9 family of complexes - 338М3 (Р9В-МД). This interceptor missile, unlike 331М9 and 331М1,2Д missiles, has 1000 times greater maximum speed (16 m / s), 12 km (with previous versions of 15-9 km), better maneuverability, as well as more advanced Aviation Aviation Radiomandnoy control system. The aerodynamic design and geometrical dimensions of the 338МXNUMX have undergone significant changes: from the “weft” scheme, the specialists of the Vympel design bureau came to a normal aerodynamic configuration with a tail arrangement of aerodynamic control surfaces and stabilizers.
The most important advantage of this rocket is the considerably smaller dimensions with folded planes, which made it possible to reduce the transverse size of the new cylindrical transport and launch container 35М9К by approximately 338% compared to the modular square TPK 9Я281 of the Tor-M1 complex. Due to this, it is planned to increase the total ammunition of missiles in the launch modules of all the latest modifications of the Tor-М2 air defense system almost 2 times. Smaller, “packed” in TPK, the span of the rudders and stabilizers was achieved not only by reducing their size, but also by placing the folding mechanism: if the 9М331 had a folding mechanism in the middle of the planes, then it was located at the root of the 9М338.
In addition, according to the statements of the Deputy General Director of the Almaz-Antey Air Defense Concern, Sergey Druzin, who commented earlier on the training interceptions of the WTO elements of the conditional enemy, RZV-MD demonstrated the highest accuracy: out of five targets that were destroyed by the 9X338 guided missiles, three were hit by a direct hit (kinet interception, - "hit-to-kill"). As is well known, the usual radio command control can only in rare cases provide a direct hit of a “rocket into a rocket”; for this, either an active or semi-active radar homing head is needed, and the method of radio correction from an optical-electronic TV / IR scanner mounted on a BM can also be used. family "Thor". The 9М338 rocket, as is known, possesses only the latter, and therefore the complex also owes its high precision radar guidance with a low-level HEADLIGHT operating in a centimeter X-band with a beam width of not more than 1 degrees. The first modifications of the 9М331 SAM also had a large compartment for a radio-fuse, and later on the 9М338 a compact high-energy ARGSN can be placed, capable of a direct hit to destroy hypersonic targets even with the strongest electronic countermeasures from the enemy.
It is not excluded that the further work of Almaz-Antey on the modernization of Tor-M2KM and M-Tor in terms of developing new methods of homing (including active radar) will lead to the emergence of more multi-channel maritime and military variants capable of intercepting 6 and more air targets. And at the moment, it is very early to talk about the complete replacement of the M-Torah combat modules of the universal and combat-unique anti-aircraft guns of the Daggers and optimized for the all-round interception of Daggers, which have proven themselves well over a couple of decades of use.
"SECOND BREATH" FOR ZENIT-ROCKET COMPLEX 9K33M3 "OCA-AKM": REACH TO "STYLE"
With all the intensity of modernization work on projects of promising ship and land versions of the Tor-M2U family, the Kupol plant does not forget about the earlier military short-range anti-aircraft missile complexes of the Osa family. Despite the fact that single-channel Osa-AK / AKM ZRSKs are practically unsuitable for repelling the strikes of modern low-profile means of air attack, their modernization potential still remains at a high enough level, which led to the development of various advanced Osa concepts by Russian, Belarusian and Polish design offices. In a statement to the media, F. Ziyatdinov noted the modernization of the OSA “Osa-AKM” to the level of “Osa-AKM1”, which will extend their operational life for another 15 years.
9K33 Osa 4 October 2016 self-propelled military air defense system 45K9 marks exactly 33 years since the adoption of the USSR Ground Forces, and for this “hot” and complex, from a geostrategic point of view, the complex had to prove a high technical level and prestige more than once Russian defense products in numerous military conflicts in the Middle East, in Africa, and also in Iraq. The baptism of the first Osa complexes took place in the First Lebanese War, where several attack fighters Hel Khaavir (Israeli Air Force) were shot down, and the optical pilotage for the first time used on self-propelled air defense systems caused the incredible fear of Israeli pilots TV-optical sightings, which is why the Phantom radiation warning system was often silent, and it was only possible to prepare for an anti-aircraft maneuver after detecting a smoke strip from a TRD for an XN anti-aircraft missile launching missile. UMXMXNUMX, often at this moment the plane was already doomed.
Later, for the Iraqi air defense system 9K33М2 Osa-AK, during the start of the massive US Navy air and missile attack before the operation Desert Storm, they were able to intercept several Tomahawk strategic cruise missiles. This modification was developed on the basis of the Osa complex as early as 1975, and even it confirmed the ability to cover troops and strategic targets from single strikes of modern high-precision weapons. Now several captured Osa-AK complexes captured during the battles of the Ukrainian military formations formed the basis of the middle line of the air defense of the Donetsk and Lugansk People's Republics. In Novorossia, they cover the largest transport interchanges, machine-building and coke-chemical enterprises, as well as military warehouses of the High-Level Military Council in the Donetsk-Makeevka agglomeration from attacks by Su-25 attack aircraft of the Ukrainian Air Force.
The Polish modification of Osa-AK - SA-8 “Sting” is, at first glance, a licensed counterpart of the Russian complex, but apparently has improved display equipment for automated combat work stations based on the LCD MFI, as well as a radio station for exchanging tactical information with other BM 9А33БМ “Osa-AK” at the battery level and obtaining information about the air situation from the radar-DRLO and radar detectors of long-range SAM systems such as C-300PS, “Buk-M1 / 2”. The shape of the radar detection and tracking, as well as the missile part remained the same. On the "stuffing" SA-8 "Sting" is virtually unknown, because the media and fans of this information was not disclosed. It is obvious that the update was carried out in approximately the same way as in the development of the Russian version of Osa-AKM.
Upgrading the Osa-AKM air defense system to the Osa-AKM1 level at the Kupol plant is no longer simply the integration of network-centric data-exchange equipment with other air defense units and the installation of multifunctional liquid-crystal indicators to display data from radar and guidance radars, but also full digitization of the entire element base in the paths of the transmitter and receiver of the radar signal, as well as in the television-optical image converter for passive operation of the anti-aircraft missile system. Fanil Ziyatdinov noted that the immunity of “Wasps-AKM1” will be significantly higher than that of the previous modification. After the upgrade, AKM1 will maintain confident competitiveness in the African and Asian arms markets. In which vector will the improvement of one of the most famous military self-propelled anti-aircraft missile systems move?
As an example of the most advanced versions of the OSA “Osa-AKM”, one can consider projects of the Belarusian research and production enterprise “Tetrahedr”, which is also known for upgrading the air defense system with the Strela-10М2 infrared guidance system, as well as Strela-10T, as well as C 125 Pechora to C-125-2TM Pechora-2TM. These projects include an intermediate modification of "Wasps" - 9K33-1T "Wasp-1T", as well as the most advanced version of the T38 "Stiletto". In terms of hardware, these complexes are almost the same, the main differences are observed in the missile part.
The OSA-1T air defense system, which is a deep modernization of the Osa-AK complex, received a completely new three-axle under-terrain MZKT-69222 chassis with the 420-powerful diesel engine YMZ-7513.10, the Toron anti-aircraft self-propelled complex is based on a similar undercarriage M2E. Due to this, the fuel reserve without refueling (at the two-hour combat duty at the position) at Osa-1T is 500 km, which is 2 times more than in previous Osa complexes based on the BAZ-5937 three-axle chassis with a diesel engine BD20K300 horsepower 300
Even though MZKT-69222 is not a floating platform, its best tensile strength gives additional advantages in the European theater of operations with wet and soft ground. The speed parameters in the traveling position remained at the same level - on the order of 75 km / h on the highway.
As for the air defense potential of the new “Osa-1T”, it is much higher than that of the “Osa-AK / AKM”. So, thanks to the new hardware and software with advanced radio command control algorithms for the standard 9М33М2 / 3 SAMs, the probability of hitting a fighter-type target increased from about 0,7 to 0,85. Increasing the sensitivity of the receiver and converter of the reflected signal made it possible to work on ultra-small targets with an effective 0,02 m2 scattering surface (the complex can intercept F-35A type fighters, as well as AGM-88 HARM anti-radar missiles and other high-precision weapons). Compared to Osa-AKM, the range of aerial targets increased from 10 to 12 km, and the height from 5 to 7 km.
According to the graphs shown on the Tetrahedron product advertising page, Osa-1T is able to intercept targets flying at speeds in 500 m / s at an altitude of 6 km in the range of distances from 3500 to 8000 m (“Osa-AKM” intercepts such targets at an altitude of just 5 km and with a small range of distances from 5 to 6 km). If we talk about the destruction of the AGM-88 HARM anti-radar missile at a speed of 700 m / s (2200 km / h), then Osa-AKM will not be able to perform this task, since HARM speed will exceed the speed limit of the complex. “Osa-1T” will intercept a similar target at an altitude of 5 km and in the range of 4 to 7 km. The updated two-channel counter-resolving device СРП-1 also makes a contribution to the increase of the speed limit and the accuracy of interception, which allows the launch of two SAM at once on one target.
In addition to the standard single-stage 9М33М3 anti-aircraft missiles developing 500 m / s speed, the Osa-1T family of ammunition can also include high-speed bicaliber two-stage 382 SAMs developed by the Kyiv State Committee for Design and Construction of Luch. After equipping such missiles, as well as minor software upgrades and hardware, the complex turns into a radically modernized version of the T-38 Stilet. The ammunition of new missiles is located in the 2-x quad slant launchers with cylindrical transport and launch containers (TLC). The T381 T38 Stilett combat vehicle can also carry mixed ammunition in the form of a standard triple launcher with 9М33М2 (3) missiles on one side of a combat module and a PU with Т382 missiles on the other side.
The combat characteristics of the Stiletto with T382 missiles are approximately 35% higher than with 9M33M2 missiles. Strategic cruise missiles such as Tomahawk or AGM-86C ALCM are intercepted by a new anti-aircraft missile at a distance of 12 km, attack helicopters and tactical aviation enemy - up to 20 km, high-precision means of air attack (PRLR, guided bombs, etc.) can be hit at a distance of 7 km. If you carefully compare the range graphs for the "Stiletto" with 9M33M3 and T382 missiles, you can notice that the range of destruction of cruise missiles in the T382 is much larger, and the range of work on small-sized elements of the WTO is identical for both missiles. Here the whole point is that the weaker 9M33M3 rocket engine does not allow to realize sufficient speed and range to destroy remote low-altitude TFRs at a distance of more than 8 km, and for a two-stage T382 this is achievable. At the same time, the previous parameters of the target tracking and guidance station (SSC) do not allow either 9M33M3 or T382 to capture the inconspicuous WTO at ranges exceeding 7 km. This confirms the difference between the Osa-1T and the Stiletto only on the rocket. We proceed directly to the review of T382 missiles.
The first stage of the ZUR-interceptor has a diameter of 209,6 mm, and is represented by a powerful solid-propellant launch accelerator, which accelerates the rocket to 3100 km / h (for 9М33М3 - 1800 km / h). After acceleration to the required speed and burnout of the accelerator, the latter is separated, and the main engine of the combat stage comes into operation with the 20 running time, retaining a high supersonic flight speed even at the final segment of the interception. The combat stage has a diameter of 108 mm and is equipped with a 61% heavier warhead (23 kg versus 14,27 kg) than the 9М33М3: a reliable target destruction is achieved even with a strong missile guidance error, in the case of active electronic countermeasures. The compact marching stage with large stabilizers and aerodynamic rudders can maneuver with overloads of more than 40 units, due to which aircraft cannot be dodged from it making anti-aircraft maneuvers with overloads up to 15 units.
The speed of the target to be hit when the T38 Stilette complex is equipped with the T382 rocket reaches 900 m / s (3240 km / h), which takes the updated Belarusian Osu to an intermediate level between Tor-M2E and Pantsir-C1; Of course, this applies solely to the speed of intercepted objects, as well as work on targets after, because when reflecting a massive air strike "Stiletto" with 2 target channels has superiority only over ZRSK "Tor-M1" - it is also 2-x-channel. In terms of the height of the destroyed air strikes, component 10000 m, Stilet also does not lag behind Tor-MXNUME: it is the altitude range from 2 to 5 km that most future air battles will take place between multipurpose fighters of the 12 ++ and 4 generation, and here both the new “OsaKM5” and the “Stilettos” are able to support our fighter aircraft well over their own territory, possessing the possibility of covert work using television-optical sights of the type 1Ш9-38 or ОЭС-2Т.
If the modernization of the Russian Osa-AKM air defense missile system is aimed at updating the missile part according to the Belarusian methodology, Kupol will need to develop its own high-speed missile defense system, similar in characteristics to the Ukrainian Т382, because cooperation with the LKKKB Luch has now completely stopped. Its development does not require a long period of time, as well as significant and costly research, since our missilemen have long had a project for a two-stage bicalyber high-speed interceptor missile interceptor. This is the 9М335 (57E6) SAM, which is the basis of the Pantsir-С1 anti-aircraft missile systems. The ballistic qualities of the compact marching stage of this rocket considerably exceed those of the Ukrainian Т382: the initial speed 57E6 reaches 1300 m / s (4680 km / h), and the rate of slowdown of the marching stage (40 m / s on the 1 km of trajectory) is much lower than the Ukrainian version . Despite the smaller overall dimensions of the 57E6 (the launch stage diameter is 90 mm and the sustainer stage 76 mm), the missile carries a similar heavy rod warhead weighing 20 kg. The launch time of the 57EX6 is 2,4 with (Т382 - 1,5 with) for which the rocket accelerates to maximum speed, thanks to which it can hit targets at altitudes of 15000. The rocket’s compactness, with unique TTX, was maintained due to the absence of a rocket engine of the sustainer stage with simultaneous giving significant qualities to the starting accelerator.
The 9М335 missiles used by the Pantsir-С1 complex also have radio command guidance based on the fully digital element base of the on-board computers and data exchange equipment, and therefore their integration into the weapons control system of the new Osa-AKM1 is realizable. The details of the modernization so far are not very much known, but its potential for Osa-AKM remains very, very large, which is noticeable in the example of the Belarusian Stiletto. A huge number of armies of the countries-operators of the Osa family of complexes, whose “club” includes the armed forces of Russia, India, Greece and Armenia, continue to harbor high hopes for updating the complexes in service to the indicators that allow them to defend the sky of the 21st century as “Top-М1” and “Armor-С1”, and therefore the financing of the ambitious program will continue for more than one year.
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