Unification of Germany: a joyful event for the Germans and its sad consequences

October 3 1990 of the year was the unification of Germany. As you know, after the defeat in World War II, Germany was divided into the occupation zones of the Allied forces. Subsequently, two states arose - the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). The unification of Germany, held in 1990, was presented as one of the most impressive results of the “end of the cold war”. But for Germany itself, the unification (and in fact it was the takeover of the GDR, since the new German state was not created as a result of the unification, but simply the GDR became part of the Federal Republic of Germany) gave rise to a host of political, economic, social and cultural problems, many of which persist until so far and even lead to new consequences.

Indeed, a significant part of the population of the GDR perceived the coming union with the Federal Republic of Germany with great optimism. It seemed that life would become better, economic well-being would increase, and most importantly, the German people would reunite almost half a century after the war. But almost immediately after the reunion that had begun, it became clear that it would not lead to such joyous consequences as its ardent supporters had imagined.

First of all, it should be borne in mind that it was not the reunion that took place, but the absorption of the GDR. Officials from the Federal Republic of Germany arrived in East Germany, who were to head all the local authorities and administrations. Former citizens of the GDR, who worked in government bodies, were former party activists, law enforcement officers, were actually left out of public life, deprived of the opportunity to pursue a career in a united Germany. The authorities of the united Germany considered them potentially unreliable citizens, and the West Germans were not going to allow new competitors to the areas of governance, security, the armed forces, law and order.

The former soldier of the National People’s Army of the GDR was also unlucky. By the way, it was considered the second most efficient army of countries of the socialist camp after the Soviet Army. But the authorities of the FRG did not pay attention to this factor - they were afraid that the commanding staff of the NNA retained communist views and could be dangerous for the existing system in the FRG. Therefore, the idea of ​​integrating the National People’s Army of the GDR into the Bundeswehr was not even seriously considered. The composition of the Bundeswehr included only private and non-commissioned officers of military service, who had to serve in the armed forces of Germany. As for generals, admirals, officers, Fenriks (ensigns) and non-commissioned officers, all of them were dismissed from military service. 23 155 officers and 22 549 non-commissioned officers were on the street. With rare exceptions, almost none of them managed to enlist in the Bundeswehr. Only 2,7% officers and non-commissioned officers nevertheless were accepted into the Bundeswehr - these were technical specialists, simply necessary for the Federal Republic of Germany to service the equipment that remained from the National People’s Army of the GDR. The rest went "to the citizen," and without offsetting their military service. Since they did not even consider serving in the NNA as a civilian experience, they could not qualify for normal vacancies and for the most part were forced to engage in low-paid and low-skilled labor.

The system of education that remained in East Germany from the GDR has undergone a serious purge. Arriving from West Germany, officials had to establish the degree of reliability of the faculty, school teachers, and other employees of the institute of education. In violation of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany, questionnaires that were proposed to be filled in asked questions about political views and political activity. Naturally, people who were not afraid to recognize themselves as communists or socialists were either not admitted to the university or school system of united Germany, or were allowed in exceptional cases. By the way, there were not only purely ideological reasons, but also considerations for improving the socio-economic situation in western Germany. Dismissing the old teachers and teachers who worked in the GDR, because of alleged unsuitability to educational activities, the authorities pursued the goal of providing jobs for unemployed teachers and teachers from West Germany who were offered to move east. In addition, the West Germans were supposed to carry the Eastern foundations of the new outlook, the “new cultural values”.

Approximately in the same way as in the army and the field of education, the situation was also in the field of justice. East German lawyers lost their jobs because the laws of the Federal Republic of Germany differed significantly from the laws of the GDR. This was successfully used by their West German competitors, who opened legal practice in the east of the country or entered the service in state legal institutions and law enforcement agencies.

Unification of Germany: a joyful event for the Germans and its sad consequences

Thus, despite the fact that officially the leadership of the Federal Republic of Germany announced that democracy was being established in East Germany, in practice the rights and freedoms of citizens were violated in every way. East Germans were deprived of the right to work in their specialty, left without pensions, did not deduct seniority, and made humiliating lists of former party activists and state employees. And this was done, including in the interests of reducing unemployment in West Germany.

If the destruction of the army and the expulsion of officers, the purges in the education system were dictated by ideological motives, then the economic problems that followed the unification of Germany for the East were caused by differences in the economies of Germany and the GDR, as well as the corresponding role of West German corporations. In addition, a tremendous money exchange scam was held. At first, the German authorities promised that they would change the brands of the GDR at the rate of 1: 1, which was very encouraging to the residents of East Germany. But, as it turned out, at this rate only savings of thousands of marks changed in 4. Larger funds have already changed at the rate of 2 brand GDR for 1 mark of Germany. That is, all the savings and savings of former GDR citizens have been halved. The government simply robbed them.

Naturally, this inevitably affected both the living standards of the East Germans and their ability to settle in a capitalist economy, for example, to start their own business. There was a rapid impoverishment and marginalization of the population of East Germany. Until now, the standard of living of most East Germans is different from the standard of living of their Western tribesmen, which is also reflected in the political preferences of East Germans. After the unification of Germany began a catastrophic decline in production at enterprises in the eastern part of the country. Products that were produced by the enterprises of the former GDR, were recognized as not meeting the standards of Germany. Many enterprises were unable to restructure their structure and operating principles in accordance with the changing requirements and ceased to exist. Others went bankrupt, unable to compete with more dynamic West German enterprises.

Employees of East German enterprises and institutions joined the army of the unemployed. By July 1991, unemployment reached more than 12% of able-bodied citizens of the former German Democratic Republic. At the same time, a significant part of workers was transferred to part-time work in order to reduce wages. According to the 1991 year, out of 8,5 million of able-bodied people in Germany, approximately 2,5 million people were actually unemployed - despite the fact that the official unemployment figures were, of course, much lower. For the inhabitants of the former GDR, unemployment itself was a great shock, since before the unification of Germany this problem simply did not exist in the country. Yes, maybe the citizens of the GDR lived modestly, but there was no such colossal social stratification as in the Federal Republic of Germany, there were no oligarchs and poor, unemployed or homeless people.

In the east of Germany, West German prices were almost immediately established, despite the fact that the incomes of the East Germans in 1991 were only 37% of the incomes of the West Germans. The standard of living of the population in East Germany has plummeted, many families could not afford even the most necessary. This led to the fact that the most active, qualified and young East Germans went to West Germany to work. In East Germany, an older, less qualified and less active population remained, which also did not contribute to the economic development of the eastern lands. Until now, in East Germany receive lower salaries than in the west of the country. According to the research, the youngest working East Germans complain about this - people born after the reunification of Germany, at the beginning of the 1990s.

The psychological comfort of East Germans has also deteriorated. If during the years of the existence of the GDR, many of them thought that they were living worse than in the west, were unhappy with the policies of the party and the government, then after the unification it turned out that they still did not become equal to the West Germans. Moreover, in Germany, in the speeches of politicians and in the press, accusations against residents of the former GDR that they supported the totalitarian regime of the Communists, who allegedly inherited the traditions of the Third Reich, slipped for a long time. Naturally, this attitude very much offended East Germans, especially the older generation. The latter turned out to be about the same situation as the older Soviet citizens after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The entire system of values ​​and ideological attitudes, which was formed almost half a century after the end of the Second World War, suddenly turned out to be the subject of fierce criticism and attacks by the media and popular culture. The citizens themselves felt it was useless that their life in the GDR was lived in vain. This influenced the overall psychological well-being of East Germans. Even twenty-six years after the unification of Germany, many East Germans admit to sociologists and journalists that they still do not feel equal to West Germans, feel their second-class status in their own, like, state.

This is manifested, in particular, in a fairly widespread nostalgia for the times of the GDR. This nostalgia also manifests itself at a primitive, everyday level - in collecting items related to the past era, in creating institutions whose interior returns during the GDR, and at a more conscious level - in the form of extensive criticism of the consequences of German unification in the economic, political, cultural and social relations. In particular, today in Germany there are societies of former servicemen and veterans of the National People’s Army of the GDR, who are trying to preserve the memory of the past socialist era in stories East Germany, and periodically accept and statements criticizing the policies of the current German leadership.

Finally, it should not be forgotten that after the unification of Germany, the territories that were part of the GDR faced practically unknown unfavorable trends inherent in capitalist societies. Youth unemployment, social deprivation contributed to a significant increase in crime. Prostitution has risen sharply, and practically unknown drug addiction has spread widely. The psychological dissonance between the imposed consumption patterns and the inability to implement consumer needs cultivated by mass propaganda was aggravated. All these factors also significantly worsened the social situation in East Germany.

East Germany was also confronted with such an unknown phenomenon in the GDR as labor migration. By the time of the unification of Germany, in Germany already there lived an impressive diaspora of immigrants from Asian and African countries, which in the 1990-e - 2000-s only gained more and more people. East Germans, to the neighborhood with people with such a different culture and mentality, were completely unprepared - after all, the GDR for all forty years of its existence remained virtually a mono-ethnic state. In addition, given the high level of unemployment, East Germans were worried that immigrants would compete with them in the labor market, taking only a few jobs. This, like the other factors mentioned above, explains where there is much greater sympathy for nationalist forces in the federal states located in the east of Germany. East Germany became the stronghold of the nationalist forces, which criticized the migration policy of modern Germany and particularly zealously criticized the current German Chancellor Angela Merkel.

Of course, the majority of Germans, both in the west and in the east, consider that the unification of Germany was the right step. They are quite understandable. One people, one of the most significant not only in European, but also in world history, the Germans deserve to live in a single state. But the joy of unification does not always cover the hardships and problems faced by the East Germans in the new reality. Now they and their children are wholly clearing up the consequences of the completely ill-conceived policy of the leadership of Germany in the first years after the unification. In some aspects, this policy in relation to the population of the former GDR can be called criminal.
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  1. PKK
    3 October 2016 17: 17
    Do not remind the tricks of a hunchback. As a result, the mood for the evening can be spoiled
    1. +13
      3 October 2016 17: 40
      Here Humpback is less to blame than in his native country. In Russia, he is a traitor. And the Fritz was given free will, but they themselves overthrew Honecker (he didn’t betray his people!) And joined on their own terms with Germany, no one forced. They had their own traitors ...
      1. +8
        3 October 2016 17: 45
        Quote: midashko
        Here Humpback is less to blame than in his native country.

        It was with this "unification" that everything began in our country (and not only in our country). He agreed to this step, thereby denouncing the Yalta agreements. So, do not belittle his guilt.
        1. +1
          3 October 2016 18: 55
          Gorbachev was the General Secretary of the CPSU, he simply realized the dream of Marx, Engels and Lenin and began the destruction of Russia. so that he is not a traitor to the Communists, he brought to life the ideas of Marx. Read what Marx wrote about the Slavs.
          1. +4
            3 October 2016 19: 17
            You are very, very limited in your knowledge if you are trying to stick to Lenin the label of a Russophobe and an alleged dreamer about the destruction of RUSSIA.
            Are you constantly practicing with I. Chubais?
            He already in the tale of Kolobok saw an anti-Soviet orientation, and you, ignorant of what exactly Lenin, and then Stalin, removed Macroff's writing from access, argue as primitively as those intelligentsia. What should have been the intellect of the nation, but turned out to be ..... and as Lenin said.
            We read and understand that the "captain" has once again slipped into the blame of the past, not understanding anything in it, and in the same way, does not understand anything in the present, sliding, slowly but surely, into Russophobia.
            With regards to Gorbachev, then you are exactly the same as he and Yeltsin.
          2. 0
            3 October 2016 21: 38

            You limited person.

            You have no idea how far into the future Marx, Engels, Lenin looked.

            Read a little book, this adds horizons.
            1. +2
              4 October 2016 00: 39
              Dear comrades Leninists, I strongly advise you to read, in addition to the "Short Course on the History of the CPSU / b / and the materials of the Congress of the CPSU, also the work of Lenin. Especially the period 1918-23.
            2. +2
              5 October 2016 19: 48
              In my opinion, this "captain" reads absolutely nothing, except for tales of the teeth, swanids and other breweries.
              It is not given to him to understand what Lenin, Stalin did, he thinks that the crunch of French rolls, that in the language of noble gentlemen means a bunch of young ladies, is the only true solution to all questions ....
              I would like to read what his duz / khovnyh mentors wrote among whites, in relation to the people, but he, this, will not read, this is the people, and he thinks himself "noble", not being such at all.
              Golub P .: "White terror in Russia. 1918-1920"
              A historical documentary about one of the less studied phenomena of the Civil War - the White Terror, the terror of the opponents of Bolshevism in relation to the majority of the population of the Volga region, Siberia, the North and the Far East of Russia.
              For professionals and a wide range of readers.
              Circulation: 1000 pcs., 480 pages, enlarged format.
              The circulation is small, yes, but what if our "captains" cannot stand the truth.

              By the way, foreign interventionists actively contributed to the deployment of new concentration camps on Russian territory for those who opposed the occupation or sympathized with the Bolsheviks. Concentration camps began to be created by the Provisional Government. This is an indisputable fact, about which the whistleblowers of the “bloody atrocities” of the Communists are also silent. When French and English troops landed in Arkhangelsk and Murmansk, one of their leaders, General Poole, on behalf of the allies solemnly promised the northerners to ensure “the triumph of law and justice” in the occupied territory. However, almost immediately after these words, a concentration camp was organized on the island of Mudyug captured by the invaders. Here are the testimonies of those who happened to be there:
              “Several people died every night, and their corpses remained in the hut until the morning. And in the morning a French sergeant appeared and gloatedly asked: “How many Bolsheviks are there today?” Of those imprisoned on Mudyug, more than 50 percent lost their lives, many went crazy ... ”

              After the departure of the Anglo-French invaders, power in the north of Russia passed into the hands of the White Guard General Miller. He not only continued, but intensified repression and terror, trying to stop the rapidly developing process of "Bolshevization of the masses." Their most inhumane personification was the forced labor camp in Yokanga, which one of the prisoners described as "the most brutal, sophisticated method of exterminating people by a slow, painful death." Here are excerpts from the memoirs of those who miraculously managed to survive in this hell:
              “The dead lay on the bunks with the living, and the living were no better than the dead: dirty, covered with scabs, in torn rags, decomposing alive, they presented a nightmare picture.”

              By the time Iokangi was freed from whites, out of a thousand and a half prisoners, there were 576 people out of which 205 could no longer move.
          3. +1
            5 October 2016 20: 56
            And whose are these?
            Receive and sign that you still serve the Americans, who killed Russians just like game, that’s your true price, the price of Bely in general is always to betray, always to kill.
            I must say that, judging by the surviving testimonies, the American warriors in terms of drunkenness, robbery and "obscenities in relation to women who are made vile proposals directly on the streets", as well as arrogant, boorish behavior towards everything and everyone, even then equal to themselves did not have. They could arrange, in a drunken stupor, indiscriminately firing on crowded streets on the principle: who did not hide - I am not guilty! Not at all embarrassed that innocent people are dying under their bullets. Brutally beat the first comer and see the contents of his wallet and pockets. The newspaper "Voice of the Motherland" for 12 January 1922 g. Gave a very specific title: "American savages have fun."

            Links: https: //ru.wikipedia.org/wiki / ... http: //www.usinfo.ru/c4.files / ... http: //militera.lib.ru/h/shihs ...
      2. +9
        3 October 2016 19: 32
        Quote: midashko
        and joined on their terms with Germany, no one forced.

        I just agree with Shakhnozarov on the issue of accession ... THERE WAS NOT AN ASSOCIATION OF GERMANY, AND WAS ANNEXIA OF THE TERRITORY OF THE GDR WESTERN GERMANY. There was no referendum, no voting, no polls. Stupidly, in one stage, they all snapped. And now the Germans are the first to grunt about the disenfranchised annexation of Crimea, where there was a referendum, the will of the people and everything was in accordance with the law.
        And as for the withdrawal of our contingent from the territory of the GDR ... oh little for this we received compensation ... crumbs. It was really necessary to leave a couple of bases there. Maybe now the Germans would not have been so angry, and the mattress defense would not have been there.
      3. +3
        3 October 2016 19: 56
        Quote: midashko
        Here Humpback is less to blame than in his native country. In Russia, he is a traitor. And the Fritz was given free will, but they themselves overthrew Honecker (he didn’t betray his people!) And joined on their own terms with Germany, no one forced. They had their own traitors ...

        Traitors and we are full ... The most diverse. Destroyed the USSR, continue to harm the people and destroy Russia
    2. +1
      3 October 2016 22: 55
      Quote: PKK
      Do not remind the tricks of a hunchback. As a result, the mood for the evening can be spoiled

      I will give you advice. Do not be stupid! And demonstrate your stupidity to everyone! hi
  2. +7
    3 October 2016 17: 28
    Germany has been an occupied country since 1945. American and British bases on its territory and total control over the federal government, suggests that the East Germans fell "out of the flames and into the fires."
    1. 0
      3 October 2016 19: 25
      Eh, Germans, Germans ... Is this your "honorary citizen of Germany"? Deceived Russia think ...?
      We just checked you for "lice"! hi

      And you didn’t pass this test again ... Don’t be offended later!
      1. +1
        4 October 2016 14: 30
        Quote: STARPER
        Eh, Germans, Germans ... Is this your "honorary citizen of Germany"? Deceived Russia think ...?
        We just checked you for "lice"! hi
        And you didn’t pass this test again ... Don’t be offended later!

        And what are you going to do to the Germans for "not passing the test for lice"?
  3. +4
    3 October 2016 17: 32
    It was not a union, but a takeover; the FRG swallowed the GDR. Yesterday, at the "evening with Solovyov," Kulikov said very well about this.
  4. +12
    3 October 2016 17: 44
    (... with the above, it is explained by much greater sympathy for nationalist forces precisely in the federal states located in the east of Germany.)

    Nationalist sentiments in the eastern provinces of Germany are primarily caused by the fact that the center still considers the inhabitants of the former GDR to be non-Germans, and the "Easterners" have a memory of the recent past. Well, yes, this is their German business, and we don't give a fuck about getting into their troubles.
    For relaxation, I'll take off one story:
  5. +8
    3 October 2016 18: 05
    "The rest went to civilian life, and without credit for their military service."

    Normally, they threw the military! Anyway, people lived normally in the GDR, our military men who served in the GDR talked a lot about life there. GDR goods were of excellent quality. Everything went to dust.
    And after that Merkel will still reproach us with Crimea !!!!
    1. +10
      3 October 2016 19: 23
      I confirm.
      A very, very ...... acted with the NNA, its officers ... Not a single officer in the rank of mail / olre and higher got into any services.
      They lived in the GDR, excellent, Gorbatom, instead of his hump building, you had to take what was from the Gderaites, and there were a lot of good things.
      GDR- Gorbachev HANDED, betrayed, I saw Honecker personally, in the Belitsa hospital, when he was already removed from power, when this brave old man was forced to hide in the territory of a military hospital .. And I remembered his words - your leader sold us, betrayed and you.
      And then I sat under the windows of the hospital, waiting for what they say ...
  6. +3
    3 October 2016 19: 20
    The Germans may rejoice, but why shouldn't they rejoice? Our troops drove the snuff out of tobacco. Without a single shot. Traitors, because of whom it happened, live and live, bathe in German money, in thirty pieces of silver.
    The balance of power was upset because Americans from Germany did not leave. Not fools. But since fascism and Nazism (with whom you will lead) began to flourish in the USA, the Germans began to dream of revenge. Scoundrels! They must be informed that if they unleash a war, do not get rid of Ukraine and continue to fascist, then they will no longer have a state. Enough, we won’t make more mistakes! Before the people killed and tortured by the Germans, our people are ashamed!
    1. 0
      3 October 2016 21: 42

      What does it mean kicked out? Nobody drove the Soviet troops from the GDR. They were ordered to redeploy to the territory of the USSR. They carried out the order.

      What do you grind ....
      1. +1
        3 October 2016 21: 54
        Thanks to the author.

        You wrote it right. You have now clearly shown all the "beauty" of capitalism.

        Capitalism does not work for the development of society. Capitalism works to enslave society.

        How could equalize the rights of Gdrovites if they lost their institute of social protection, the state? What do you think in Germany, fools were sitting? They have such a chance in the hands piled the country to rape. So they took advantage.

        Capitalism is competition. A synonym for competition is enmity, war.

        Once again for all the idiots, including Fursenko-Livanovtsev. If you want to live confidently, you need to strengthen the state. Primarily through education and self-education.

        Capitalism is an instrument of destruction of the state. Because the state is a society with elements of public ownership. As soon as there is a common property, there will always be someone who needs this property.

        Look at how pompous the privatization of state enterprises is announced. But these enterprises are your social protection. It is your parents who built the state. And these liberals are not entitled to rape your state.
        1. +2
          4 October 2016 14: 28
          Quote: gladcu2
          Thanks to the author.

          You wrote it right. You have now clearly shown all the "beauty" of capitalism.
          Capitalism does not work for the development of society. Capitalism works to enslave society.

          Comrade gladcu2, if you do not like capitalism, then why do you have the flag of capitalist Canada itself? Not ashamed rot live in a capitalist ally of the United States, in which the Queen of England can change the government?
        2. 0
          10 October 2016 10: 55
          "Capitalism is competition. Competition is synonymous with enmity, war."
          When you applied competition, received T34, IL2, AK47.
      2. +2
        4 October 2016 06: 22
        Relocated, you’ll .... recourse
        Well, this is when a unit, unit, well, etc., from one training area, God forbid, military operations move to another.
        And when a group of many thousands, with all the belongings (families) from the constructed dwellings, by the will of one 3,14-ra, they were thrown into the open field - somehow it was even close to the relocation!
        And so that the locals quickly forget about the Soviet ones - even residential townships were demolished ....
  7. +2
    3 October 2016 21: 29
    Wessi behaved on the territory of the GDR as ordinary colonizers. From the deliberate bankruptcy of quite promising enterprises to the dismissal of many specialists - diplomatic workers, military, teachers. The current Ossis really do not like the fact that they get the idea that the GDR was a criminal state.
  8. +1
    3 October 2016 23: 44
    the hunchbacked one just surrendered the whole country to the enemies - we take the brackets as a nationality - took everything that was conquered by hundreds of thousands of lives
  9. 0
    4 October 2016 00: 41
    Yes, ok guys, they threw the GDR, but now we go by normal German cars.
  10. +2
    4 October 2016 14: 24
    The USSR received the GDR instead of reparations from Nazi Germany. Since the GDR is returned to the bosom of the bourgeoisie, where are the reparations?

    Gorbachev passed literally all the results of the Second World War. This is generally some kind of unlimited mega betrayal.
  11. +2
    5 October 2016 19: 07
    Quote: captain
    Dear comrades Leninists, I strongly advise you to read, in addition to the "Short Course on the History of the CPSU / b / and the materials of the Congress of the CPSU, also the work of Lenin. Especially the period 1918-23.

    And what does Lenin's work of 1918-1923 have to do with it, considering that Ilyich that in 1923 Lenin was already terminally ill? And you, mister "captain", think that the White Guards are white and fluffy? Those same lieutenants of the Golitsyns who did not stand up for their commander-in-chief, whom other officers were assiduously overthrowing. Who willingly went to fight with their own slaves in the Civil. You, mister "captain", can wear on weekends barnyard boots, kid gloves, an English jacket with epaulets and aiguillettes, epaulettes of a "captain", but don't get involved in politics, this is not a captain's business. Here one corporal from 1933 to 1945 heaped up business, and you are still here.

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