On the centenary of the plant named after Degtyaryov: from machine gun Madsen to Korda. Part of 5

In 1949, by a resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR weapons The Kovrov plant got its current name Degtyarev Plant (ZiD), and a year later another plant stood out from its structure as an independent enterprise - No. 575 (Kovrov Mechanical Plant). Moreover, in the postwar years, the company constantly mastered the production of new products. In particular, here they began to produce missiles for anti-tank and portable anti-aircraft systems.

After the end of World War II, the plant mastered the production of infantry machine guns: RPD, RP-46, SGM and PKP, as well as easel and hand grenade launchers (RPG-2, SG-82), air guns (HP-23, HP-30, GSh-23 , GSh-30-2), signal pistols SP-81. Since 1959 years in Kovrov began to manufacture rocket weapons. In particular, anti-tank systems Bumblebee, Baby, Bassoon, Factoria, portable Strela-2 and Igla anti-aircraft missile systems, Strela-10 anti-aircraft missile systems and other weapons were assembled here. By order of Minatom, ZiD produces unique equipment designed for the separation of uranium isotopes, and for the civilian market - sports and road bikes of the Voskhod and Kovrovets brands. For the needs of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, RGS-50 grenade launchers are manufactured for non-lethal ammunition, and for the needs of the Russian Navy, the unique anti-sabotage grenade launchers DP-64 "Nepryadva" and DP-65 "Necklace".

But story The plant began at one time with the production of machine guns and is inextricably linked with them to the present. Today it is in Kovrov that the Russian single Pecheneg machine gun is manufactured at the Degtyarev plant. This 7,62-mm machine gun, created on the basis of PKM (Kalashnikov machine gun modernized), is designed to defeat the enemy's manpower, transport and firing means, his air targets. The machine gun was created by designers TSNIITOCHMASH, and its production is currently occupied by ZiD in Kovrov.

Pecheneg unitary machine gun (6P41)

7,62-mm Russian uniform machine gun PKP “Pecheneg” (Kalashnikov infantry machine gun, GRAU index - 6P41) was created by the designers of TsNIITOCHMASH. For shooting from this machine gun, the whole range of 7,62-mm rifle cartridges can be used. The presence of a gas regulator in a machine gun ensures reliable operation of the weapon’s automatics under various conditions of its operation. The high degree of unification with the PKM machine gun (on the basis of which it was created) and the similar scheme of automation work provide Pecheneg with a high level of reliability in any operating conditions. Machine gun production was deployed in Kovrov in 1999, and in 2001, it was adopted by the Russian army.

In the design of the Pecheneg machine gun, new technical solutions were used to increase the cooling efficiency of the barrel, which allowed the designers to exclude the spare barrel from the 6P41 machine gun, the official website of the manufacturer reports. The increased rigidity of the barrel of the machine gun, together with the elimination of its thermal deformation due to the influence of the wind and the almost complete absence of air heat flow from the heated barrel, made it possible to improve the aiming conditions and led to more than twice the accuracy of fire.

Speaking of single machine guns, it is necessary to begin with the period of the Second World War. Machine guns have proven themselves in combat both in manual and easel versions, they were installed on all types of military vehicles - from light motorcycles to heavy tanksweighing up to 100 tons. Also, machine guns stood on planes, warships, and were installed in fortifications. It was precisely this versatility that became the reason for the classification of the famous German MG-34 machine guns and its descendant MG-42 as single machine guns.

After the end of the Second World War, almost all the armies of the world adopted the German experience and acquired this type of small arms. This is the Belgian FN MAG 1958 of the year, which was in service with the armies of Great Britain, France and Switzerland, and the American machine gun M60 1959 of the year, and the Soviet Kalashnikov machine gun and its modernization - PC and PKM 1960 of the year. PCs and PKM were very good machine guns, they proved to be excellent in several dozens of local wars around the globe, were in service with the states parties to the Warsaw Pact and many other countries. Kalashnikov machine guns have spread around the world in hundreds of thousands of copies, but time does not stand still and they needed a worthy replacement.

In 80-s of the last century, the main direction of development of small arms is to increase the probability of hitting a target from the first shot (turn). This direction directly affected the machine guns. The wide distribution of the PKN machine gun 7,62-mm precisely in the version of the manual machine gun (with firing from the bipod) required an increase in the effectiveness of firing in this version. In turn, this would make it possible to increase the effectiveness of the use of the machine gun and from the machine tool. But increasing the accuracy of the weapon’s battle was not the only requirement of the time, it was necessary to increase the resource of the main parts of the machine gun, and also to improve all its operational properties in general. Experts of TsNIITOCHMASH and Kovrovsky Mechanical Plant took up the solution of these problems. In 1990-s, a group of workers of the CNIITOCHMASH composed of A. A. Deryagina, N.N. Denisov, V.I. Suslova. Mv Chugunova, A.S. Neugodova and others carried out a set of developmental works aimed at improving the accuracy of firing the PKM machine gun, during which a whole set of measures was implemented to improve the accuracy of shooting, as well as increase the survivability of the barrel of the new machine gun.

Thus, the Pecheneg control panel, a single machine gun, which was a continuation of the PKM-proven operation over the years, was born. When creating a new machine gun, designers had to eliminate or at least partially compensate for those factors that negatively affected shooting accuracy. Such factors included the oscillations of the barrel of the machine gun, and the deterioration of the ballistic characteristics due to its heating, and the thermal mirage that was formed in the field of view of the air heated from the barrel of the machine gun (this was especially sensitive when used with a machine gun optical sights). As in the case of the modernization of a large-caliber machine gun "Utes", improvements in the design of the PKM machine gun, proposed by TsNIITOCHMASH specialists, and then when transferring the machine gun to production and gunsmiths from Kovrov, led to the appearance of an almost new model under the control panel "Pecheneg" automatic firearms.

7,62-mm single machine gun "Pecheneg" is a powerful weapon designed for fire support of motorized rifle subunits and combining the maneuverability of a light machine gun with high firepower of an easel machine gun. Automation of a single machine gun works by withdrawing a portion of the powder gases from the barrel to the gas piston, which is connected to the bolt carrier. Locking the barrel of the machine gun before firing is done by turning the shutter. At Pechenig, a trigger mechanism is used - of the shock type, which operates under the influence of the slide frame. The trigger of the machine gun - with the rear sear, it allows the shooter to conduct only automatic fire. In the on state, the fuse blocks the sear and the trigger.

Automatics, the trigger mechanism, the locking assembly and the feed mechanism of the cartridges of a single Pecheneg machine gun are similar to those of PKM. The main changes on the new machine gun has undergone a trunk node. The change in the design of the barrel of the machine gun and the introduction of the covers could increase its rigidity, reduced its own vibrations, improved cooling, protected it from various atmospheric influences, protected the line of sight from the thermal “mirage”. The gap between the outer surface of the barrel and the machine gun cover, the transverse ribbing of the barrel, as well as the ejector, located at the muzzle of the barrel (works as an air pump due to the vacuum that is created when the powder gases out of the barrel bore), ensure uniform cooling of a part of the barrel of the gun "Pecheneg" by pumping outside air during firing.

In the design and creation of the barrel for the Pecheneg machine gun, the newest processing technologies were used, the barrel became longer and thicker than the PC and PKM machine guns. All this allowed to kill two birds with one stone. On the one hand, due to the length and quality of processing, the control panel demonstrates higher firing accuracy. On the other hand, this made it possible to increase the resource of the barrel immediately 3 times - up to 30 thousands of shots against 10 thousands of shots from the PKM machine gun. A more massive barrel of the new machine gun provides better cooling, which positively affected its resource.

Due to the listed decisions of the developers, the Pecheneg single machine gun has a much greater heat emission compared to PCM and, accordingly, heats up less. Additionally increases the rigidity of the barrel and reduces thermal leashes with intensive firing the handle of the barrel assembly. The handle and barrel cover protect the sight from a thermal mirage. The new design of the machine gun barrel has allowed developers to move the bipod mount almost to the muzzle. This solution provides the best stability of the machine gun when firing long bursts. The accuracy of shooting from the PKP Pecheneg single machine gun increased by an average of 2 compared to the base PCM.

As noted on the official site of TsNIITOCHMASH, the Pecheneg machine gun has improved shooting accuracy compared to existing counterparts more than 2,5 times when firing from bipods and more than 1,5 times when firing from the machine (specific machine guns with which it is conducted, comparison not listed). A single Pecheneg machine gun provides for shooting at least 400 ammunition rounds of ammunition in long bursts of 20-50 rounds without a drop in firing efficiency. The survivability of the barrel of the machine gun is 30 thousands of shots when firing in intensive mode, which allowed to refuse from having a replaceable barrel when using the weapon.

The technology of producing a single machine gun, Pecheneg, was initially worked out at the Kovrovsky Mechanical Plant. This 7,62-mm machine gun was entered into service with the Russian army under the designation PKP (Kalashnikov infantry machine gun), but the name Pecheneg also remained behind it. PKP "Pecheneg" is a machine gun, which was largely unified with PKM, its design uses approximately 80% of PKM machine gun parts and blanks for them. All this allowed to start mass production of the machine gun at the Kovrovsky Mechanical Plant in 1999, later production was transferred to the Degtyaryov Plant, where the machine gun is still being manufactured. Currently, the following versions of this machine gun are mass-produced:

- night (6P41H) - with a dovetail-type strap for mounting on a night or optical sight machine gun;

- machine tool (6P41С) - with Stepanov's machine 6Т5;

- machine night (6P41СН) - with a machine tool and a mounting plate for sights.

As part of the work on the “Warrior” theme, the designers of the FSUE TsNIITOCHMASH created the Pecheneg-SP machine gun (GRAU 6P69 index), which, unlike the base model, provides the soldier with increased mobility during special operations in the city. For the first time, this modification of the machine gun was presented in August 2014, at the exhibition "Rosoboronexpo-2014", which was held in Zhukovsky. Unlike the basic Pecheneg single machine gun (6P41), the new version has an additional short barrel with a low-noise firing device (PMS). Resource shortened version of the barrel with the ICP compared to the base reduced by half and is 15 thousands of shots.

Additionally, the new 7,62-mm machine gun “Pecheneg-SP” received an ergonomic butt, which can be adjusted in length and fold, as well as a tactical fire control grip, which serves to conveniently hold the weapon when firing from a standing position. In addition, "Pecheneg-SP" received a removable bipod, which can be placed on the muzzle of the machine-gun barrel (as on the 6P41 model), and on the gas chamber (as in the PCM). On the cover of the receiver of the machine gun appeared Picatinny rail, designed for mounting night and optical sights. To reduce noise and clang when moving with a machine gun, the entire inner surface of the box, intended for storing machine gun belt, was covered with plastic. The aiming bar of the mechanical sight of the 6P69 machine gun was marked up to 800 meters.

Performance characteristics of the Pecheneg control panel (6P41):
Caliber - 7,62 mm.
Chuck - 7,62 × 54R.
Overall dimensions: 1200x115x213 mm.
Barrel length - 658 mm.
Weight - 8,2 kg.
Rate of Fire - 600 ... 800 rds / min.
The initial speed of the bullet - 825 m / s.
Sighting range of shooting - 1500 m.
Tape capacity - 100 or 200 cartridges.

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  1. PKK
    27 September 2016 08: 16
    Accuracy of a normal machine gun, always suited, the machine gun hit exactly at the target, so that the improved accuracy twice and accuracy, causes mixed feelings.
    1. +3
      27 September 2016 08: 55
      There is no limit to perfection. In the article, all the advantages of Pecheneg over a PC are clearly described and they are quite significant.
    2. +2
      27 September 2016 13: 37
      With better accuracy, the aiming range increases ...
  2. avt
    27 September 2016 08: 44
    what Or maybe the article should have been called "From Madsen to" Pechenega " wassat CORD is it now? laughing Or am I missing something?
    1. +1
      27 September 2016 09: 12
      Apparently, to be continued.
  3. +2
    27 September 2016 10: 50
    A massive barrel increases the weight of the machine gun. The trunk can also be made ribbed, with ribs along the trunk. It will be easier and it will be better to cool. True, modern machine guns do not make such trunks, and massive trunks are made mainly for sniper rifles, although ribbed trunks are also made for them
  4. 0
    27 September 2016 11: 35
    Nice machine gun! In "Military Acceptance" they showed how he fired several tapes in a row without stopping, and the accuracy did not suffer. Plus, the barrel does not need to be changed, and these are the seconds won in battle. I look forward to continuing.
  5. +2
    27 September 2016 12: 06
    Bad idea with a non-replaceable barrel. What to do in a very real situation, when you need to keep a long fire, and the machine gun is already spitting? Hysterically looking for a puddle? It is also not clear why the machine gun needs special accuracy. Is it a sniper? Just this machine should have a decent dispersion.
    1. +2
      29 September 2016 18: 35
      Quote: Sahalinets
      why the machine gun special accuracy. Is it a sniper? Just this machine should have a decent dispersion.

      Good accuracy is needed. Because dispersion can be created if necessary - to move the aiming point during the queue. But when heap shooting is required, and the weapon disperses, then it is impossible to get good accuracy.
  6. +2
    27 September 2016 12: 45
    Quote: Sahalinets
    Bad idea with a non-replaceable barrel. What to do in a very real situation, when you need to keep a long fire, and the machine gun is already spitting?

    And how to "create" this situation, if Pecheneg releases all the ammunition wearable by the crew in one burst without the "spitting" effect? Where can the soldiers get those cartridges that would make the barrel glow?
    Quote: Sahalinets
    It is also not clear why the machine gun needs special accuracy. Is it a sniper? Just this machine should have a decent dispersion.

    Dispersion is created by the cartridges themselves, i.e. bullet design, not a machine gun.
    1. +1
      27 September 2016 13: 22
      You can take ammo from the scorpion system
      1. 0
        27 September 2016 16: 10
        Quote: Siberia 9444

        Siberia 9444 Today, 13:22 PM ↑
        You can take ammo from the scorpion system

        Yeah, and if the tape in the feed sleeve will jam what to do?
    2. 0
      27 September 2016 13: 36
      The thinner the barrel, the more it bends when fired (this process intensifies when heated), hence the accuracy of the ball.
    3. +2
      27 September 2016 17: 03
      And the situation when soldiers are fighting a long battle in position and have a supply of ammunition - is it not considered in principle?
    4. 0
      29 September 2016 18: 37
      Quote: DesToeR
      Dispersion is created by the cartridges themselves, i.e. bullet design, not a machine gun.

      Dispersion is created by both ammunition and weapons and even the shooter.
  7. 0
    27 September 2016 13: 38
    A beautiful machine gun. You can also make the version 5,45 lite .....
    1. 0
      27 September 2016 16: 41
      Quote: Zaurbek
      A beautiful machine gun. You can also make the version 5,45 lite .....

      But why?
      1. 0
        28 September 2016 12: 58
        There was an order, made another PKK
  8. +1
    27 September 2016 14: 02
    I remember when I read about MG-34 and MG-42, there was a special device for automatic bullet dispersion. British officers in WWII negatively accepted the Bren's high accuracy and accuracy. So high accuracy for a machine gun, on the contrary, is a minus? request
    And then, have all the "childhood diseases" been eliminated? How, for example, is the issue of contamination of the ejector holes solved? Indeed, if the holes are dirty, the pumping of the cooling air worsens or may stop altogether, which will lead to overheating of the barrel.
    1. 0
      29 September 2016 18: 55
      Quote: Black Colonel
      negatively accepted the high accuracy and accuracy of the "Bren".

      1. Accuracy is the combination of the midpoint of hits (STP) with the center of the target. Accuracy depends on the sight and on the shooter, and not on the weapon. The higher the accuracy, the higher the probability of hitting, so there is no situation where accuracy would be in the way.
      2. Accuracy is a circle or ellipse into which hits are stacked (usually 100% of hits are implied, but sometimes they mean accuracy of 50% or 70% of the best hits). With accuracy there is one point: if the STP is in the contours of the target, then the higher accuracy is, the better: the probability of hitting is higher. But if, as a result of inaccurate aiming, the STP went beyond the contours of the target, then usually an increase in accuracy leads to a decrease in the probability of hitting, as more bullets go past the target.
      Therefore, when designing a weapon, the optimal dispersion for it is determined, which depends on the average firing errors with such a weapon. But if the optimal dispersion was calculated for a mechanical sight and we produce "strongly" scattering weapons and cartridges, and the troops installed an optical sight on the weapons, which gives much less shooting errors, then the dispersion with such a sight should be reduced, but in no way: the weapon and the cartridge do not redo.
      Therefore, the best option is to make accuracy as small as possible, and if necessary, the shooter himself can drive the barrel during the turn and scatter shots.
  9. 0
    27 September 2016 15: 15
    Thanks, good article! We also forgot to mention "bullpup".
  10. 0
    27 September 2016 16: 31
    It is necessary to change the iron box for the belt to the cloth box, similar to the "Mini" machine gun. And lighter and quieter!
  11. 0
    27 September 2016 21: 44
    Quote: Siberia 9444
    You can take ammo from the scorpion system

    And that this system has already been put into service, so that something can be taken from it for "linear" machine-gun crews? Maybe this storage system somehow lightens the weight of the 7,62x54 R cartridges?
    Quote: Sahalinets
    And the situation when soldiers are fighting a long battle in position and have a supply of ammunition - is it not considered in principle?

    Where did they get the loaded belts, ready for immediate use? If you can still get "zinc" with cartridges, then where can you get the required number of tapes? The ammunition load for the machine gun is calculated from the physical ability to transfer it by the forces of the fighters. One loaded belt of 250 rounds weighs 9,4 kg. So consider how many cartridges two people can carry on themselves, taking into account the weight of the body armor, weapons and other ammunition. The total weight of the carried weapons, ammunition and ammunition in the "Warrior" outfit for a machine gunner is 28kg. Vrt and count how much remains for cartridges after deducting "everything". Rather than creating a machine gun with interchangeable barrels for firing at a stationary position in areas, it is easier to install an AGS-17 "flame" at a checkpoint (or in a bunker) - this will give a hundred points a head start to any machine gun. Why equip thousands of people with machine guns with interchangeable barrels, if in 99,9% of cases their "Pecheneg" will allow you to discharge all wearable ammunition for ONE CONTINUOUS burst of 600 shots? So imagine how many "Pechenegs" will be able to fire in one battle, if the burst is somewhat shorter than 600 shots at a time, with breaks for aiming, reloading and pauses during the battle.
    1. 0
      27 September 2016 22: 42
      no one sane would shoot such bursts. but in the compartment, Pecheneg and AGS-17 in the long-term strengthening of the business will do more than everyone alone. For them, their goals and objectives, for plus specials at the trigger, then 1 in the field warrior.)))
  12. 0
    27 September 2016 22: 38
    actually a good machine. although I could only compare it with personal experience with the PKK. but not for me to evaluate it.)))
  13. 0
    3 October 2016 01: 05
    Pecheneg on "Army 2016":

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