Military Review

Long bows Poitiers


As is well known, in the 1346-51 years, an epidemic of "black death" swept across Europe, wiping out a third of its population. And already in the 1355 year, barely having wicked, England and France resumed the Hundred Years War. The French king Jean (John) the Second and the King of Navarre Charles (Charles) the Second concluded an anti-British military alliance, and the British in response began another invasion of French lands under the command of Edward Plantagenet, nicknamed The Black Prince. Jean, having assembled a large knight army, spoke out to meet them. The decisive battle took place exactly 660 years ago, September 19 1356, near the city of Poitiers, on the very spot where, six centuries before, the Frankish army had stopped the Muslim invasion of Europe.

The distant descendants of the victors in the first battle of Poitiers were less successful. Despite a considerable numerical superiority (15-17 of thousands of warriors against seven thousand), they suffered a crushing defeat from the British, in which the color of French chivalry died, and the king himself and his younger son were taken prisoner. The unfortunate choice of the battlefield (a field overgrown with shrubs, cut by numerous ditches and hedges), extremely inconvenient for cavalry actions, and undisciplined commanders of French detachments attacking the enemy scattered and uncoordinated was blamed for so pitiable for the French

As a result, the British, occupying a vantage point on the hill, consistently repulsed four attacks of individual parts of the French army, and then, having made a detour through the cavalry, inflicted a flank counter-strike. Under the threat of encirclement, the French fled. Trying to appease panic and by personal example to inspire the fighters, King Jean, at the head of a small detachment, rushed into battle, but was quickly cut off from the main forces, put in a ring and forced to surrender. In addition to him, 1933 surrendered to the warrior, mostly of noble origin, since the British did not take prisoners as commoners for whom they would not have given a good ransom.

The dead were even more. 2426 of the French were killed in the battle, including 17 barons, 13 graphs, five viscounts and more 100 knights. The Black Prince estimated his total losses at 40, however, the Flemish chronicler Jean Frouassart, who wrote a detailed description of the battle, indicated that the British had killed 160 archers and 150 warriors who fought cold weapons. Perhaps the discrepancy is due to the fact that the Prince mentioned only persons of noble birth, as it often happened in the Middle Ages. But, in any case, the damage suffered by the French, no less than 15 times the loss of the enemy.

For the ransom from the captivity of his king, the French paid a whopping, in those times, an amount of three million gold ecu. This literally ruined the country and caused a number of riots, because the authorities drastically incited taxes to raise money. When a similar incident happened to the Emperor Napoleon III, who surrendered to the Prussians in Sedan, the people of France did a lot smarter, overthrowing the monarchy and abandoning the ruler-loser. But, in order to wise up, the French took more than 500 years.

From a military-technical point of view, the Battle of Poitiers is interesting in that this is the first major battle in which both armies, more precisely, their most wealthy representatives, were dressed in plate armor to replace the mail and brigandines. These armor made of large steel plates, forged in the shape of a human body, held the blow much better, and they were particularly well protected from arrows.

The English archers who, in the previous battle of Cresi, literally squandered the French knights, first met an almost invulnerable enemy. However, they quickly found a way out, aiming not at the riders, but at their horses, which were protected much weaker, especially from the sides. Horses struck by arrows fell, dragging riders along, or out of obedience and dropping riders. Thus, an attack by an elite squad of 500 knights under the command of Marshal Audrey was repelled. Full horse armor, completely protecting the horse's torso, appeared only in the next century.

The screensaver features miniatures from the Chronicles of Froissart, depicting the battle of Poitiers. On the left - the French jump to the attack under attack, on the right - King Jean fights off the English infantry.

On the left - the French knights at the Battle of Poitiers, on the right - Prince Edward in the "newfangled" plate armor. His horse is also partially protected by a helmet - shanfron and our cynic - krinet.

Outfit of English archers - longboumenov.

The rank of archers reflects attack.

Battle of Poitiers in the painting of Eugene Delacroix. The final scene of the battle is depicted when the British surrounded King Jean and his small retinue.

Modern drawing on the same topic. The king is recognizable by the helmet with a gilded crown.

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  1. sub307
    sub307 24 September 2016 06: 38
    Thanks to the author, a wonderful historical sketch ....
    1. seti
      seti 24 September 2016 08: 32
      Thank. It is always interesting to read such essays.
  2. Amurets
    Amurets 24 September 2016 08: 16
    The English archers, who literally mowed down the French knights in the previous battle of Crescy, first met with an almost invulnerable enemy. However, they quickly found a way out, aiming not at the riders, but at their horses, protected much weaker, especially from the sides

    When reading the title, I thought the article would be about bows, but here about bows only this quote. Although it’s interesting to write about the battle, the development of armor can be traced.

    sub307 Today, 06:38 PM New
    Thanks to the author, a wonderful historical sketch ....
    That's just that, thanks. Here I agree with you.
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 24 September 2016 08: 19
    King Jean made two mistakes at the Battle of Poitiers. First, he ordered his cavalry to attack the English infantry, which was standing in a narrow ravine, and when this attack was repelled and the British rushed to the plain, he ordered his horsemen to dismount. Because of these unsuccessful orders, the French were defeated at Poitiers. Seeing Jean's blunders, Lord Chandos said to the Black Prince: "Go ahead, victory will be on your side. Head straight to where your opponent, the French king, is, and the question of who will be the winner will be settled. This king, as everyone knows, is so brave. that will not flee. " This is how it actually happened. England, like France, needed rest, so after the Battle of Poitiers in the Hundred Years War, a truce was concluded for two years.
    1. Retvizan
      Retvizan 24 September 2016 15: 36
      If we turn to a brief chronology of the beginning of the Hundred Years War (a very interesting war, by the way), then the list of events will be
      1348-Plague epidemic so-called. "Black Death"
      1349-Battle of Lunalong (summer) Purchase by Karl Valois of Dauphin
      1350-Defeat of the allied France of the Castilian fleet in
      Naval Battle of Vinchelsea ("Le Hispaniol-sur-Mer") (August 29)
      The death of Phillip VI (August 22), coronation of John II the Good (1350-1364)
      1351 "Battle of the Thirty" (March 26).
      Fight at Saint (April 8)
      The Battle of Ardre (June 6)
      The ordinance of John the Good is about forced labor of wage workers and the maximum wage.
      1352-Battle of Moron (Mauron) (August 14)
      1355-The British under the command of Edward the "Black Prince" ravage Aquitaine and reach the Mediterranean Sea.
      1356 English company in Normandy (Duke of Lancaster) (June-July).
      The siege of Breteuil by John II and the company of the British in southern France (Black Prince) (August-September).
      The battle of Poitiers (September 19) and the capture of John II.
      Convocation of the General States. Battle of Kutanten (November 11)
      The beginning of the unsuccessful 9-month siege of Ren (October 2, 1356-1357) by the British. The defense was led by Bertrand DuGuecklen.
      1357-Campaign of Edward III in northern France (1358-1359gg).
      Paris Uprising (1357-1358). "The Great March Ordinance"
      1358-The assassination of Etienne Marcel (June). Jacqueria
      1359-The last major campaign of Edward III in France. The battle of Nogent-sur-Seine (June 23), the Siege of Reims (December), the British.
      In Brittany, the British besiege Dinard.
      1360-Edward lifts the siege of Reims and goes to Burgundy (January)
      The French under the command of Enguard R. bust Vinchelsey (March 15) and Rie
      Edward besieges Paris (end of March), goes to Chartres. The British camp devastates the storm and hail (April 13), and Henry agreed to begin peace negotiations.
      Anglo-French Peace Treaty in Bretigny (May 8). An amended version of the treaty was ratified in Calais (October 24). The truce lasted until 1369.
      Return from captivity of John II (December).
      As you can see, the battle of Poitiers is one of the events (albeit key ones) from a number of French defeats.
      Those who are familiar with history on a scale somewhat larger than the school course are certainly aware that the concept of the "Hundred Years War" is very conditional, if only because this war was going on intermittently, thus representing a chain of armed conflicts. Even more conditional is the generally accepted date of its completion - 1453. Usually, as an event ending a war, one understands either the destruction of one of the belligerent countries (which, incidentally, happens infrequently), or some kind of agreement between them - if not "eternal peace", then a more or less stable peace treaty establishing some sort of settlement of disputed issues ... No such agreement was concluded between England and France either in 1453 or in the years that followed. The event that ended the Hundred Years War is the capture of the French capital of Guienne by the city of Bordeaux by the troops of King Charles VII (by the way, not for the first time during that war). A settlement on the key issue that led to it - the claims of the London kings to the throne of Paris - was not achieved either in the following years or in the following centuries.
      The article is definitely good. It clearly reflects the eternal "battle between armor and projectile"
  4. PKK
    PKK 24 September 2016 08: 53
    I will add about the "Black Death". There is an opinion that then it was not a real plague, from which there would not be a single living. Then there was smallpox, and it was noticed that people who had been ill from cows did not get infected with the main smallpox and survived. From there they went theory of vaccination, but the kings immediately adopted and created biological weapons, which were successfully used in the war with the Indians in America and in the war between Russia and Muscovy in the late 17th and early 18th centuries.
    1. Grenader
      Grenader 24 September 2016 09: 46
      Quote: PKK
      the war of Russia with Muscovy in the late 17th and early 18th centuries.

      What kind of war is this? Maybe one of the Russian-Ukrainian? But there was no war between Russia and the Petersburg province?
      1. Hapfri
        Hapfri 24 September 2016 11: 29
        Conspirology however. About the Indians are bullshit. The Spaniards wanted to baptize them and not kill
        1. Nagaibak
          Nagaibak 25 September 2016 16: 48
          Hapfrey "Conspiracy, however. About the Indians this is a lie. The Spaniards wanted to baptize them, not kill them."
          This is not conspiracy thesis; this is a new false theory invented by Fomenka and Co. for the idiots.))) Do not take these clowns seriously.)))
      2. Nagaibak
        Nagaibak 25 September 2016 16: 46
        Grenader "Was there no war between Russia and the Petersburg province?"
        Of course it was. This is when Peter 1 was actually Genghis Khan))) but little is known about this since the damned Romanovs destroyed all all of the archives.
    2. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 24 September 2016 12: 47
      Quote: PKK
      Then there was smallpox, and it was noticed that people who had been ill from cows were not infected with the main smallpox and survived.

      And where did the cows come from? A case not from Africa?
    3. Retvizan
      Retvizan 24 September 2016 14: 04
      Quote: PKK
      Then there was smallpox

      In 1346–1348, the bubonic plague raged, 25 million people became its victims. In the preface to the Decameron, Boccaccio left a description of her horrors.
      Here is a description of the plague itself. The incubation period ranges from several hours to 3-6 days.
      The disease begins suddenly with a rise in temperature to 39-40 degrees. Severe headache, dizziness, often nausea and vomiting are noted. Patients are disturbed by insomnia, hallucinations appear. In addition to common symptoms, with a skin-bubonic form, a spot of red color forms at the site of penetration of the pathogen, which turns into a pustule (vesicle) filled with blood-purulent contents. The pustule bursts and an ulcer forms. In the early days of the disease, an inflammatory process develops in the lymph nodes closest to the place of penetration of plague microbes, with the formation of the so-called buboes. With lung damage, there is plague pneumonia, accompanied by cough, sputum production with an admixture of blood, a feeling of lack of air and a general serious condition. The septic form of the disease is characterized by numerous hemorrhages in the skin, mucous membranes and various organs. This form is also severe. With it, the intestines can be affected, which is accompanied by profuse diarrhea, sometimes with an admixture of blood and mucus in the feces. Death occurs from general intoxication of the body and damage to internal organs by 2-3 days (pulmonary form) or 5-6 (bubonic form) Lethal outcomes in the absence of treatment reach 99,9%. Story 2 pandemic is
      In the summer of 1346, alarming rumors from the East began to arrive in Europe. Merchants doing business with caravans who brought spices and tea from India and China told horrible stories that no one believed at first. Allegedly, “in the east, near Big India, fire and smelly smoke burned all the cities”, or how “between China and Persia it rained heavily from the fire, falling in flakes, like snow, and burning mountains and valleys with all the inhabitants”, and accompanied by an ominous black cloud that “whoever saw dies in half a day” (description of the consequences of a volcano explosion). But then eyewitnesses of some pestilence escaped from Scythia. They testified that “execution from God” began there, and she struck the Genoese in the colonies on the shores of the Black and Azov Seas, that people die in three days, covered with painful sores and spots, and immediately blacken after death. However, winter was calm, and they tried not to think about the bad. In the spring of 1347 the situation changed and never returned to its former state.
      A terrible disease that left coal-black corpses first appeared in the “land of Hyperborean Scythians” (Tauride Peninsula) and spread along the coast of Pontus, then it penetrated into Thrace, Macedonia, Greece, Italy, the Mediterranean islands, Egypt, Libya, Judea, Syria. There was such a massive loss of life that, as Boccaccio (1351) noted then, a person who died from a plague “caused as much participation as a dead goat”
      On November 1, 1347, a black death appeared in Marseilles, by January 1348, a wave of epidemic reached Avignon, and then the plague spread rapidly throughout France. Pope Clement VI, having ordered anatomical corpses to find the cause of the disease, fled to his estate near Valencia, where he locked himself up in a room, constantly burning fire to smoke an infection, and did not allow anyone to come to him. In Avignon, mortality was so great that there was no way to bury the dead. Then the Pope sanctified the river and solemnly blessed to throw the bodies of people who died from the plague into it.
      By early 1348, black death had spread throughout Spain. By the end of January, the plague raged in all the major ports of southern Europe, including Venice, Genoa, Marseille and Barcelona. In the Mediterranean, ships were found full of corpses drifted by the will of winds and currents. One by one, despite desperate attempts to isolate themselves from the outside world, Italian cities “fell” before the epidemic. In the spring, turning Venice and Genoa into dead cities, the plague reached Florence
      The plague "crossed" through the Alps, to Bavaria. In Spain, she overtook the queen of Aragon and the king of Castile. The first half of 1348, a black death was approaching England. In the spring, she walked along Gascony, where she killed the king’s youngest daughter, Princess Jeanne, who was sent to Spain to marry the heir to the Castilian throne. Shortly after this plague broke out in Paris, where a huge number of people died, including the queens of France and Navarre. In July, an epidemic swept the north coast of France. In Normandy, according to a contemporary, “there was such a critical situation that no one could be found to drag corpses to the graves. People believed that the end of the world had come and this world was ceasing to exist.
      In early August 1348, the "scourge of the Lord" fell upon England.
      Both plague pandemics begin amid rampant leprosy for several centuries, and an ever-increasing number of cases of smallpox. Involuntarily one gets the impression that the plague seems to be completing some centuries-old pandemic cycle in which low-contagious pathogens of slow infections and highly contagious variola virus are consistently involved.
  5. Denimax
    Denimax 24 September 2016 09: 48
    There are already so many legends about archers. But doubts remain. To land on a foreign coast, you need confidence in the superiority of your strength. The British could gather all their knights for this invasion. Only local princes and in smaller numbers could expose their knightly squads among the French. But the French militia could be overwhelming. Here archers are just suitable as a superweapon against the militia, which can mow.
    1. Alekst
      Alekst 24 September 2016 11: 23
      ..the English king had his possessions in France, as well as the English lords and the French barons had their beds on both sides of the strait, so there was no unexpected attack, this time. The English army is not for you Fritz near Moscow, the French king could wait until the feudal lords gathered ... these are two. You can continue further ..
      1. Hapfri
        Hapfri 24 September 2016 11: 36
        The feudal lords must serve their overlord for 40 days. Then they could consider themselves completely free from all oaths and go about their business.
    2. Hapfri
      Hapfri 24 September 2016 11: 33
      You look at the English king. On his robe, not only English lions, but also French lilies. The English king not only in the north of the country had possessions, but also Gascony, Aquitaine. The king of France had more land than the king of France.
      1. Retvizan
        Retvizan 24 September 2016 14: 09
        Quote: Hupfri
        The king of England had more land in France than the king of France

        the title "King of England and France" Edward and his heirs continued to use. Henry VII Tudor, who soon overthrew the York dynasty, continued to interfere in the affairs of France on the same basis. And even in the 20s of the XNUMXth century, the commanders of his son Henry VIII, who invaded France during a series of wars together and also not without the admission of the "Italian" ones, brought the population of the French lands occupied by them to the oath of allegiance to Henry, as the legitimate king of France (see. more details: "E. V. Kalmykova. The Unfinished War").
  6. Lazy ozzy
    Lazy ozzy 24 September 2016 11: 28
    PKK, what substances do you use? Share the secret, it painfully nobly puts you in.
  7. PKK
    PKK 24 September 2016 12: 16
    Quote: Grenader

    What kind of war is this? Maybe one of the Russian-Ukrainian? But there was no war between Russia and the Petersburg province?

    Russia and Petersburg are one and the same, but Muscovy is another patrimony. And it was Muscovy that stood in the way of Russia to the Caspian Sea and Siberia. Its fate was predetermined and it became Russia.
    1. Grenader
      Grenader 24 September 2016 12: 30
      Quote: PKK
      And just Muscovy stood on the way of Russia to the Caspian Sea and Siberia. Its fate was predetermined and it became Russia.

      And where at that moment was Russia in your opinion?
  8. PKK
    PKK 24 September 2016 12: 20
    Quote: Hupfri
    Conspirology however. About the Indians are bullshit. The Spaniards wanted to baptize them and not kill

    The Americans and the British drove the Spaniards south. The development of America began in the middle of the 19th century. In this war, from the smallpox, the Indians died more than from the rifleman.
    1. Retvizan
      Retvizan 24 September 2016 14: 11
      Quote: PKK
      more Indians died than riflemen

      Indians died from vodka and diseases brought. No immunity is death.
      The case with the blankets of the Americans was not the first method
  9. PKK
    PKK 24 September 2016 12: 27
    Quote from Korsar4
    Horses from America are strong. Where do such history and geography textbooks get?

    Studying Igor the Greek, he logically and factually showed the history of both America and Europe. He is a former investigator himself, so it’s clear that TI himself doesn’t believe everything. And the facts are enough to understand what was happening then.
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 24 September 2016 12: 31
      And there were no chariots in ancient Greece? And in what century did Ilya Muromets come up with?
  10. PKK
    PKK 24 September 2016 12: 32
    Quote: Hyperion
    Hyperion Today, 09:55 ↑ ↓
    And in Asia, before that, they rode on donkeys and camels. Europe is considered one of the centers of horse domestication, as is Asia.

    Vazia rode small horses, see the photo of the British both in the Crimean War and in Central Asia.
    Compare with the horses of the Indians of America.
    Not only large horses + 3 apex, but also cows were brought to Europe. The names of the breeds are Holstein, from the time of unloading.
    1. Retvizan
      Retvizan 24 September 2016 14: 30
      The ancestors of the horses were air conditioners, living 75 million years ago, from which all ungulates came.
      In the United States 60 million years ago, a small animal lived in tropical forests, with a height of about 30 cm, he had 4 fingers. And on the back of 3 it was eogippus. It is North America that scientists consider the birthplace of horses. It’s a paradox, but in America in the Stone Age there were no horses. There are two opinions on this score: this is due either to the solid glaciation of the mainland or the destruction of horses by people of the Stone Age. In America, there were no horses for many millennia, and those mustangs of which we only know about feral horses brought by Europeans.
      Eogippus gradually settled throughout America and Eurasia, crossing the isthmus. About 40 million years ago, he died out. Mesogippus took its place, it was completely three-fingered, which confirms the change of substrate, soft tropical forests replace the steppes. Then came the one-fingered pliogippus, which also occurred in North America and was the link between the eogippus and the real tarpan. Pliogippus was the ancestor: - in Europe and West Asia, a modern horse came from him, - in Africa - donkeys and camels, in the Middle East - kulans. Pliogippus died out about 10 thousand years ago and in America they did not see horses until the XNUMXth century, when they "returned" to their homeland with the Spanish conquerors.
      Domesticated horses entered Africa in the 2nd millennium BC. from Europe and Asia Minor. In North Africa there was a great influence of the Arab breed. The colonists brought horses to South Africa in the middle of the XNUMXth century.
      In 1493, the Spaniards brought the first horses to America. Subsequently, horses were constantly brought to America from Europe, therefore, such breeds as Arabian, Hakne, thoroughbred horse were bred here and a number of new breeds were bred: quarter host, American trotter, pacifier, morgan, etc. There are local breeds of horses in Canada
      In Mexico and South America, the horses of the Spanish breed became the basis of local breeds (Mexican, Creole, etc.).
      The first horses were brought to Australia in the XNUMXth century from South Africa, where, in turn, they were imported from Europe.
      In China, a domesticated horse has been known since the second half of the third millennium BC. At first they were horses of the steppe type, but from the second millennium BC. the Chinese began to import Argomaks from Central Asia. Local breeds developed under the great influence of horses from Manchuria. So, contrary to the claims of modern Chinese historians, this country was not the ancestor of horse breeding in the world, moreover, not a single valuable breed was bred in China.
  11. PKK
    PKK 24 September 2016 12: 45
    Quote: Grenader

    And where at that moment was Russia in your opinion?

    Russia was called the Lands subject to St. Petersburg, Russia was named East the direction of the Oldenburg Dynasty. The Oldenburgs in Russia were called Peter the Great, and in Sweden they were called Karl (PETER ULGICH KARL GOLSTEINSKIY). These Lands spread to the headwaters of the nearest rivers, and the Neva in that Number. they moved in the direction of Muscovy; engineering troops were created.
    An invasion fleet was being built. Do you really think that Napoleon dragged his cannons, cores, cart fodder from France?
    1. Grenader
      Grenader 24 September 2016 19: 17
      All clear. You are from the sect of witnesses fomenko. It seems that this is not being treated. I would recommend you study the issue in depth, but to no avail. Fomenkovism is not a science, and a creed does not need evidence.
      1. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 25 September 2016 11: 10
        For some time I was surprised by the new fantasies of Fomenkovtsy, then I got tired.

        If Fomenkovtsy say that dogs were taken from cats in Australia
        and brought to Europe during the time of Peter the Great - means - amen - believe that it is. belay
  12. PKK
    PKK 24 September 2016 12: 50
    Quote: Denimax
    There are already so many legends about archers. But doubts remain. To land on a foreign coast, you need confidence in the superiority of your strength. The British could gather all their knights for this invasion. The French could put up their knightly squads only

    Do not lose sight of what the British need for an invasion fleet. Apparently in those days. In England there was a single authority that could build or already had enough fleet to transfer troops. You can not say this about Holland and France.
    Most likely England already had a fleet.
    1. Retvizan
      Retvizan 24 September 2016 14: 47
      Quote: PKK
      Apparently in those days. In England there was a single authority that could build or already had enough fleet for the transfer of troops. You can’t say the same about Holland and France.
      Most likely England already had a fleet.

      1338 year.
      Philip 4 (FR King) began military operations at sea. Without having his own
      fleet, he hired 40 Genoese galleys
      (each had 210 crew members, 25 crossbowmen and 80 rowers), to
      which were joined by several more armed merchant ships. These
      ships inflicted heavy losses on English maritime trade and
      devastated the south coast of England; four times in two years they attacked Southampton, looted and burned the city.
      the seizure of English ships (Christopher among them), anchored at the mouth of the Scheldt at about. Walcheren by the French under the command of Kirje (Autumn)
      1340. (after an alliance with Flanders, the British gain an advantage at sea)
      Sea battle at Slays (June 24) - the British gain dominance at sea.
      Fight at Saint-Omer (July 26)
  13. PKK
    PKK 24 September 2016 12: 56
    Quote: Mordvin 3

    And where did the cows come from? A case not from Africa?

    Cows, for example, the Longhorn breed (horns reached three meters), were brought from America, these cows had 20-30 million heads there. All of this mass was over-sausage in the colossal Chicago slaughterhouses. + 70 million bison, a few dozen lemons of horse heads, and a sheep and there are probably hundreds of millions of goats. Hence the wealth of Amermka.
    1. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 24 September 2016 13: 08
      Quote: PKK
      Longhorn breed (horns reached three meters), brought from America

      Cows with three-meter horns ... Here our beef is resting. Excuse me, but I will briefly turn off to comprehend such valuable information.
  14. Alekst
    Alekst 24 September 2016 13: 13
    Who is Igor Grek yet on our head ...))
    1. Retvizan
      Retvizan 24 September 2016 15: 16
      Quote: Alekst
      Igor Grek

      the author of such a hyptosis, which was put forward and its proofs (for the author of the hypothesis) were found on the basis of the conclusions arising from the logistic theory of civilization. The horses of North America, designated on the diagram as "mustangs", also penetrated into South America by land, turning over many, many years into a group of horses that differ in characteristics, indicated on the diagram as "Criollo" (Creollo, Creole horse):
      horses spread by I.Grek
      Both groups in many, many years reached a population of millions of individuals each and were distinguished by their amazing intraspecific diversity.
      The Indians had a very long time, they tamed and domesticated the appropriate horses, were engaged in selection and achieved tremendous success in training. The first navigators from the Old World, amazed by the unprecedented sight of horsemen, brought stories about centaurs (ken-prince, Taurus-bull!). Realizing that a horse is an indispensable means for conquering land spaces, the maritime civilization took measures to transport horses along the only "Columbus path" then available.
      But it was very difficult to transport such large animals on the ships that were then available across the ocean. Only with the development of shipbuilding and navigation did it become possible to bring a more or less significant number of horses in order to start breeding horses at the nearest points of arrival - in the territories of modern Morocco, Portugal and Spain. Therefore, in those days, horses were very expensive, hence the expression "horse, half a kingdom for a horse", prince = "horse". Modern genetic research shows the maximum affinity with the mustangs of North America in the "oldest breed" - the Berberian-Iberian, which is localized there, in Morocco, Portugal and Spain.
      Individuals brought to other places in Europe thanks to the horse's ability to breed "in themselves" (inbreeding, closely related crossing without negative consequences of degeneration) gave more or less uniform offspring, originally named after the place of origin: Lipizzans, Frisians and others, and only in the 19th century purposeful selection led to the formation of the corresponding breeds.
      Since, by the second half of the 19th century, marine civilization no longer needed either the Indians as a source of supply of such valuable horses or the mustangs themselves, they were all destroyed with the use of troops, including destroyed bisons, primordial long-legged longhorn cows and other fauna for clearing the area under crops and settlement by European immigrants. Such a grandiose ecocide-genocide ended the history of primitive America. (Taken from
      The author also has two themes tearing templates: "Witches are spoiled / fake coins" and "Alexander-1 was not a defender, but an aggressor in the 1812 war in Russia"
      In general, everything is debatable in this world. The hypotheses of the theory and so on are constantly updated.
      1. Alekst
        Alekst 25 September 2016 07: 44
        understand, thanks!
  15. PKK
    PKK 24 September 2016 13: 58
    Quote: Alekst
    Who is Igor Grek yet on our head ...))
  16. fa2998
    fa2998 24 September 2016 14: 03
    Quote: PKK
    and there was no cavalry then, horses were brought from America in the 17th century, and time passed before we learned how to raise them so that the horses would not die.

    Why don't people smoke! Maybe you can tell who was harnessed to Egyptian and Persian chariots. On whom the Tatar-Mongols fought (such a naughty staged in Asia). You may have heard the word - "Bucephalus" - so this is the favorite horse of Alexander the Great. With whom Alexander Nevsky fought in 1242, not with a knightly Teutonic horse "pig". And in the end, our ambush regiment in the Battle of Kulikovo (1380) - rode camels?
    That I got so divided, let them continue to smoke! hi
  17. tiaman.76
    tiaman.76 24 September 2016 14: 33
    I love such topics ... already captured the neo-right spirit ... and then Ukrainians and Ukrainians love the Middle Ages
    1. Retvizan
      Retvizan 25 September 2016 08: 33
      Medieval Ukrainians :-)
      However, the Middle Ages, my favorite story was in school, a Soviet textbook. History of the Middle Ages
  18. Torins
    Torins 1 October 2016 11: 33
    Quote: PKK
    I will add about the "Black Death". There is an opinion that then it was not a real plague, from which there would not be a single living. Then there was smallpox, and it was noticed that people who had been ill from cows did not get infected with the main smallpox and survived. From there they went theory of vaccination, but the kings immediately adopted and created biological weapons, which were successfully used in the war with the Indians in America and in the war between Russia and Muscovy in the late 17th and early 18th centuries.

    It was much later about smallpox)))) And from the plague all living things cannot die out, the death rate of infected people is about 86 percent by the way)
    1. Molot1979
      Molot1979 6 October 2016 13: 12
      I’ll clarify: from bubonic - about 95%, from pulmonary - 99,9% mortality. The number of infected and survivors was minimal. Basically, people survived to whom the plague simply did not get where the quarantine worked.
  19. Molot1979
    Molot1979 6 October 2016 13: 10
    Compared to Cressy-en-Pontier, the losses are not that big. There, 11 princes, 1500 knights died, and up to a heap of 10 simple infantry. I can add that remembering Cressy, part of the French went on foot attack. But here it turned out to be not here: until they reached the vineyards, they were completely exhausted, but they could not repel the English horse attack.