Military Review

Fleet Legend, Alfa

68



At the end of 50-s, when the program for the creation of domestic anti-submarine plates began, it was decided to create highly automated and high-speed plates. The submarine of the 705 project (code Lira, according to the NATO classification "Alfa") is perhaps the brightest and most ambiguous ship in stories domestic submarine shipbuilding.

Simultaneously with the work on nuclear submarines of the 627, 645 and 671 projects, Leningrad SKB-142 underwent an energetic search for new, non-traditional technical solutions capable of providing a qualitative breakthrough in the development of submarine construction. In 1959, one of the leading specialists of the SKB, AB Petrov came out with a proposal to create a compact single-shaft complex-automated high-speed nuclear submarine with a reduced crew. According to the plan, the new ship, a kind of “underwater fighter-interceptor”, having a submerged speed exceeding the 40 nodes, was able to reach a predetermined point of the ocean in an extremely short time to attack the underwater or surface enemy. With the timely detection of the enemy torpedo attack, the submarine was supposed to move away from the torpedoes, pre-launching a volley from their torpedo tubes.



The small displacement of the boat (of the order of 1500 t) in combination with a powerful power plant should have provided a quick set of speed and high maneuverability. The submarine had to move away from the mooring wall in a matter of minutes, quickly turn around in the water area and leave the base to solve the combat mission, and after returning “home” to moor independently.

After a very heated debate with the participation of industry and the Navy, as well as a number of significant changes to the project, the idea of ​​such a submarine was supported by the leadership of the Ministry of the Judiciary and the military. In particular, the Minister of the shipbuilding industry B.E. Butoma and the Commander-in-Chief of the Navy S.G. Pots.

The technical proposal for the project was prepared at the beginning of 1960 of the year, and on 23 on June 1960, a joint resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers on the design and construction of a submarine of the 705 project was issued. 25 in May 1961 appeared another decree allowing the scientific management and the chief designer of the project, with sufficient justification, to deviate from the norms and rules of military shipbuilding. This largely “untied the hands” of the creators of the new nuclear submarine, allowed to embody the most ambitious, advanced time technical solutions into its design.

The work on the 705 project was headed by the chief designer MG Rusanov (in the 1977, he was replaced by VA Romin). General management of the program was entrusted to Academician A.P. Alexandrova. The main observers from the Navy were VV Gordeev and K.I. Martynenko. Creating a submarine project 705 was, according to the Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee D.F. Ustinov, who oversaw the defense industry, a "nationwide task." To participate in the program attracted powerful scientific forces, in particular, academicians V.A. Trapeznikova and A.G. Iosif'yana.

The submarines of the 705 project (then 705K) were intended for the destruction of enemy submarines when they left the bases, at sea crossing, and also at positions of intended use weapons against shore facilities. They could also be involved in the fight against surface ships, as well as transports in all areas of the world's oceans, including the Arctic.

The submarine of the project 705 (705K) is a double-hull, single-shaft. The hull made of titanium alloy (developed by the Central Research Institute of Metallurgy and Welding under the direction of Academician IV Gorynin, also titanium alloys were used for the manufacture of other structural elements and ship systems), along the entire length was a body of rotation. Fencing felling - "limousine" type. The titanium case reduced the magnetic field, but the acoustic field was still large, since the project was created at the beginning of the 60s. Careful testing of the hydrodynamic contours of the hull of the boat was carried out by scientists of the Moscow branch of TsAGI them. Professor N.E. Zhukovsky under the leadership of K.K. Fedyaevsky. A number of measures were taken to reduce the physical fields of the ship, as well as to increase its explosion resistance due to new structural solutions and more efficient depreciation.

The rugged casing was divided by transverse bulkheads into six waterproof compartments. The 3 th compartment, where the main command post and utility rooms are located, was limited to spherical bulkheads designed for full outboard pressure.

The boat (for the first time in the world) was equipped with a pop-up wheelhouse (pop-up rescue chamber (SVK)), designed to rescue the entire crew at the same time ascending from depth down to the limit, with large heights and trim values.

Nasal horizontal rudders were made retractable into the hull and placed below the CL.
The main armament included six nasal 533-mm TA with a quick-loading system.

The submarine of the 705 project should have displacements within 1500 – 2000 and speed over 40 nodes, which required a sufficiently powerful EI. As an option, the GEM was considered a gas reactor, which ensures the operation of the gas turbine. As a result, we stopped at one-reactor GEM with liquid metal coolant (LMT) and increased steam parameters. The installation with a liquid metal coolant was more compact than a nuclear power plant with a traditional water-cooled reactor, which was important in this case. Calculations showed that the installation with a liquid metal filter provided savings of 300 t displacement.



A proposal to create a single-reactor dual-circuit steam generating plant specifically for the boat project 705 of the design project boat 645 was received in 1960 from OKB Gidropress. Soon a government decision was made to develop such an installation. Academician A.I. Leipunsky.

At the same time, two alternative types of NPPs were designed: at OKB Gidropress under the supervision of Chief Designer V.V. Stekolnikova created the BM-40A (block, two-section, two steam lines, two circulation pumps), and in Gorky OKBM under the leadership of I. Afrikantova, OK-550 (block, with branched communications of the first circuit with three steam lines and three circulation pumps).
The single-unit OK-550 NPP was made according to a one-reactor scheme with liquid metal coolant (LMT) and mounted on a conventional beam-type foundation. The turbo-gear unit is mounted on a foundation with a new damping system; the noisiest equipment is installed on pneumatic shock absorbers. Steam turbine unit OK-7K - single-shaft, block design.

Two auxiliary propulsion complexes (2 x 100 kW) were installed on the boat, placed in hermetic nacelles in horizontal stabilizers and equipped with propellers with rotating blades.

There were two synchronous alternating three-phase alternators (2 x 1500 kW, 400 V, 400 Hz). Each generator provides energy to all consumers of its board. An auxiliary diesel generator set (500 kW, 300 B) and an emergency battery pack of 112 elements are installed.
The new reactor allowed to reduce the length of the plateau, to increase the speed, but it turned out to be very capricious.

The electric power system for the first time on the submarine was performed on a high-frequency current - 400Hz.

During the design, the number of compartments of the robust hull was increased from three to six, and the displacement increased one and a half times. Changed the number of the crew of the ship. Initially it was assumed that she would be 16 people, but later, according to the requirements of the Navy, the crew was brought to 29 people (25 officers and four midshipmen). Then the crew was increased to 32 people. Reducing the crew led to more stringent requirements for equipment reliability. The task was to eliminate the need for its maintenance during the entire voyage.



The residential, medical and sanitary facilities are located on the middle deck of the 3 compartment, the galley and the provision rooms are located on the lower deck of the same compartment. The cabin was a company that allowed the crew members to eat 12 at the same time.

For the submarines of the 705 project, new combat and technical means were created based on the latest achievements of science and technology of the 60-s, which have significantly improved weight and size characteristics. In order to meet the technical requirements, it was necessary to reduce the crew of a nuclear submarine to a level approximately corresponding to the crew of 40-50-s strategic bombers. As a result, a decision was made revolutionary for its time to create an integrated automated control system for the submarines. In the Central Clinical Hospital at the plant. Kulakov (now - the Scientific Research Institute "Granit") for the ship was created a unique combat information and control system (BIUS) "Accord", which allowed to concentrate all the management of the submarine at the central post.

The control of the submarine, its military and technical means was carried out from the main command post. Integrated automation provided the solution to the problems of using weapons, collecting and processing tactical information, combat maneuvering, reproducing the external situation, navigation, automatic and remote control of technical means and movement.

The implementation of permanent watches for individual mechanisms and devices was not provided. By readiness No. 1 and No. 2, only periodic maintenance of maintenance-free compartments on watch was made. Combat shift in real life is limited to eight crew members.

REV included the automated SJSC “Ocean”, the automated system of autonomous navigation means “Sozh”, the automatic control system for weapons “Sargan”, the automated radiation monitoring system “Alpha”, the automated complex of radio communication means Molniya, the television-optical complex TV-1, “Bukhta” radar, “Platan” single time system and “Ellipsoid” intra ship communication system.

The boat was equipped with a universal signal periscope. For software, automatic and manual control of the movement and stabilization of nuclear submarines on the course on the move, as well as the depth of immersion (on the move and without running) served the system "Bauxite". Automatic trimming on the go was made using the "Tan" system. The control and monitoring of the operation of the power plant, as well as of the electric power system and general ship systems and devices, was provided by the Rhythm system.

The backup engines used were 100 kW ED, located in gondolas on the aft horizontal stabilizers.

To reduce the size and weight of electrical equipment on ships of the 705 Ave. and 705K, alternating current EES of increased frequency 400 Hz, 380 V voltage was used. On these boats, for the first time in domestic practice, they used pneumohydraulic torpedo tubes with a firing depth from periscope to the limit. For the first time in world practice, the boat had a pop-up rescue cabin (camera) that contained the entire crew.

The construction of an experimental submarine of project 705 (K-64) with an OK-550 nuclear power plant, which was to become the prototype of a large series of anti-submarine nuclear submarines, was launched in the boathouse of the Leningrad Admiralty Association on June 2, 1968. On April 22, 1969 the ship was launched water. In the end, he arrived at the base in Zapadnaya Litsa and on December 31 went into operation on the North fleetjoining the 1st flotilla of the 3rd division of the submarine.

However, the boat pursued failures. During the mooring tests, one of the autonomous loops of the primary circuit failed. In the initial period of operation, the second loop failed. The cracking of the welded titanium case was also revealed.



However, in 1972, the course problem №1 was passed. In preparation for going to sea for the development of course problem No. XXUMX, the process of solidification of the primary coolant began. All measures to prevent the accident were unsuccessful. Eventually, the coolant froze completely and the reactor was shut off.

19 August 1974 K-64 was withdrawn from service. Earlier, in 1972, the decision was made to suspend further work on the laid boats of the 705 project until the reasons for the failure of the primary circuit of the reactor were determined and eliminated.

The failure of the lead ship delayed the implementation of the program for a long time, but did not lead to its termination. In Severodvinsk, work began on the construction of a series of three improved boats of the 705K project (the cipher "Lear"). The last, fourth ship in the series was disassembled on the stocks (?).

The boats of the 705 Ave. had a block PU-brand BM-40А (with two PG and parallel operating circulating turbopumps of the alloy instead of three PG and three pumps at OK-550) mounted on a foundation with a double damping system (PU-550 type foam was mounted on a conventional foundation beam type). PPU BM-40А (150000кВт) - one-reactor type. A lead-bismuth eutectic alloy was used as the primary coolant.

The length of the robust hull of the 705 Ave. corresponded to the length of the robust hull of the experienced K-64 PLA, while on serial ships of the 705 prospect it was extended by two shpats in the reactor compartment area. MAL and most noisy mechanisms placed on pneumatic shock absorbers.

The appearance of the 705 and 705K boats became a real sensation, as the combination of high speed comparable to the speed of anti-submarine weapons, great depth and high maneuverability forced our probable opponents to create a new generation of anti-submarine weapons, everything that existed to Americans was ineffective. Due to the peculiarities of its power plant, which did not require a special transition to higher parameters of the power plant when the speed was increased, as was the case with boats with pressurized water reactors, the 705 submarine of the project could develop a full stroke in a minute. High speed made it possible to quickly enter the “shadow” sector of any surface or underwater ship, even if the boat had previously been detected by the enemy’s hydroacoustics. The high speed and maneuverability characteristics of the submarines of the 705 Ave. made it possible to work out effective evasive maneuvers from the enemy's torpedoes fired, followed by a counterattack. In particular, the boat could circulate at 180 ° at maximum speed and already after 42 seconds could move in the opposite direction. The hull hull contours provided minimal reflection of hydro-acoustic signals, which made it difficult for the Alpha to be attacked by enemy ships using GUS in active mode.



However, during the operation of the 705 project boats, there were also significant shortcomings that hindered their efficient use. In particular, there were serious difficulties with the provision of basing (due to the need to constantly maintain the primary circuit of the reactor in a hot state). Regular special operations were needed to prevent oxidation of the coolant alloy, constant monitoring of its condition and periodic regeneration (removal of oxides). Turned out to be intractable and many operational issues. In particular, it was not possible to put into practice the idea of ​​creating two crews of nuclear submarines - the “sea” and the “coastal”, which ensures the operation and maintenance of the nuclear submarine while it is located at the base.

It is sad that all these shortcomings actually crossed out the true "Russian underwater miracle." After all, the complex automation has by and large fully justified itself, and the WITP AUU has not yet said its last word.

As a result, the career of the submarine 705 project, despite their unique advantages, was relatively short. Its “decline” was also promoted by the notorious restructuring, as a result of which the armed forces began to quickly lose funding.

K-123 went down in history as one of the longest overhauls in the history of the domestic submarine fleet, which lasted more than nine years - from June 1983 to August 1992. In July 1997, this ship was excluded from the fleet. The remaining submarines were excluded from the Navy much earlier - in 1990 year.

It should be particularly noted that over the years of its operation on the ships of this project in the struggle for survivability, not a single person was lost in 20.

In the process of working on the 705 project, it was planned to create three modifications of it. PLARK pr. 705А, equipped with anti-ship complex with an underwater launch "Amethyst", SSBN pr.687 (705B), equipped with missiles of the D-5 complex, PLAT (pr. XXNXX) which would be a complete analog of the submarine X. NUMX, but was equipped with water reactor. But both of these boats remained in the sketches.



Performance characteristics Project 705 and 705K Lira
Surface displacement, cubic meters Xnumx
Displacement underwater, cubic meter Xnumx
Length, m 81,4
Width, m 10,0
Draft, m 7,6
Total thermal power YAR, MW 155
Surface speed, 14,0 nodes
Submerged speed, 41,0 nodes
Immersion depth working, m 320
Maximum immersion depth, m 400
Autonomy, days 50
Crew, people. 32
Torpedo armament: the number and caliber of TA, mm 6 x 533, ammunition (type) torpedoes and mines 20 (torpedoes САЭТ-60 and СЭТ-65 or 24 (36?)
Radio-electronic armament: Accord BIUS (MVU-III), Sozh Oil Company, Molniya KSS, Yenisei State Joint-Stock Company (MGC-1001), Chibis Radio-Engineering Complex, TK TV-1.


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  1. tronin.maxim
    tronin.maxim 27 September 2013 07: 58 New
    +1
    Eh, now there would be at least 1 such submarine, and preferably a modernized one, not a little more is needed, although you can’t get far with our fleet budget. For the first time I encounter the over-maneuverability of submarines, extremely unexpectedly and pleasantly!
    1. vjhbc
      vjhbc 27 September 2013 12: 01 New
      10
      I agree I have only one question for the author of the article and for other authors, what we have for the mania of humiliation and admiration for Western lei balls, well, all of our weapons have the same submarine Project 705 and 705K "Lira" to take their own names the same artillery (cornflower , acacia, hyacinth, chrysanthemum) these are wonderful names so there is no need to put an alien enemy name in the title and in the article so I have never seen or heard that the NATO team called our classifications of their weapons, but the fact that it’s not an article is absolutely necessary Shmeki Hereki We don’t need them
    2. cdrt
      cdrt 28 September 2013 14: 17 New
      +3
      Why do we need such a boat now? Thank God they got rid of them not so long ago.

      I remembered the joke about the concept itself: black always wins on the run, white always shoots laughing

      The answer to our ultra-fast, but noisy across the ocean Lyra from the Americans was ... a new modification of the torpedo ... That's all.
      Lyra herself was in full swing so that she really heard from hundreds of kilometers, she herself at that moment naturally did not hear anything.
      The ideal target is for PLA, for Orion, for Viking.
      Actually - that’s why the next generation of boats was already traditionally made - PLA tea, and not a torpedo boat - as quiet as possible, albeit not outstanding in speed.

      So the serial construction of Lear is a waste of money, it would be better if the 10 671s (and then 971) were additionally washed down.
      But there would be this one - an experienced submarine, if she had no price.
      Well .... the reactors on the tank press something they all try, but it does not go in any way. But it’s a pity - both the idea is beautiful and the characteristics of it.
      1. Misantrop
        Misantrop 28 September 2013 16: 43 New
        +3
        Quote: cdrt
        Thank God they got rid of them not so long ago.
        BJRK also got rid of almost the same years. And also rejoiced ... And then they realized ...
  2. altman
    altman 27 September 2013 08: 02 New
    10
    What prevents the construction of new boats based on these developments and with the use of new technologies? Small displacement and highly automated .. preferably inexpensive and large series ...
    1. july
      july 27 September 2013 09: 32 New
      +4
      Not what, but who ... Taburetkins.
    2. tronin.maxim
      tronin.maxim 27 September 2013 09: 53 New
      +1
      Quote: altman
      preferably inexpensive

      That's the whole point, that they are expensive because of the use of titanium, the movie says it directly. Make a titanium diesel electric submarine. Due to the strength of titanium, it would be able to plunge 500 meters accurately, although given the talent of our designers it’s even 1km. The titanium DLPL is almost silent with a large depth of immersion + hypersonic anti-ship missiles. You can’t imagine a nightmare of the enemy. Mdaaa that strongly pulled in the fiction of the future or ...
    3. atalef
      atalef 27 September 2013 10: 56 New
      -1
      Quote: altman
      What prevents the construction of new boats based on these developments and with the use of new technologies? Small displacement and highly automated .. preferably inexpensive and large series ...

      Nothing except that. that it turned out (with this technical progress) a dead end branch of reactor development. The Americans also experimented with liquid metal coolant reactors and, as a result, abandoned it.
      Everything is too complicated and unreliable.
    4. Nayhas
      Nayhas 27 September 2013 12: 01 New
      +1
      Quote: altman
      What prevents the construction of new boats based on these developments and with the use of new technologies?

      The use of an MMT in a reactor was difficult and expensive. Even now, this will result in a big "penny".
    5. washi
      washi 27 September 2013 12: 29 New
      +4
      "Komsomolets" - drowned. High-tech, in other reactors.
      According to Kursk, the midshipman was officially appointed guilty.
      Our country’s creation of Normal weapons is not beneficial for certain states.
      Now, almost all titanium production is imported. These are already private enterprises with foreign participation. Buying watches made of titanium alloys, flying a Boeing, etc. know - this is Our titanium
      Problems with the reactor? This is a question of QUALITY of production and the state of coastal bases, which Ours have always neglected (Soviet people Everything can, well, they could, but the equipment could not stand it). Due to the lack of normal databases i.e. lack of normal service and rest a lot of ships and boats were decommissioned.
      1. cdrt
        cdrt 28 September 2013 14: 30 New
        -1
        This is a question of QUALITY of production and condition of coastal bases, which Ours have always neglected.

        Moreover, quality has ALWAYS been a problem, starting with the birth of Soviet shipbuilding (20s-30s).
        Well ... no relation with the coastal infrastructure - the visiting card of our Navy is again from the very beginning.
        I’m not talking about the RI fleet - another fleet, other people.
        There was virtually no continuity between them (unlike the Army, by the way).
    6. cdrt
      cdrt 28 September 2013 14: 25 New
      0
      What prevents the construction of new boats based on these developments and with the use of new technologies? Small displacement and highly automated .. preferably inexpensive and large series ...

      You asked for a cheap mass-produced car of Formula 1 with an engine resource of 1000000 km.
      It doesn’t happen, either a pipe or a pot laughing
      Or Formula 1 with an engine resource of 10 hours and for millions of dollars, or Volkswagen with a resource of 1 million km and 25 thousand. Dollars.
      And such boats - made - the French - Rubis. Both small and automated. But ... immortal, and not at all cheap. Well ... much less effective than the same Los Angeles, Sea Wolves, Virginia, 971, 945, which are 3 times larger and more expensive, but less noisy, they hear better, they carry more weapons
    7. gunnerminer
      gunnerminer 29 September 2013 01: 27 New
      0
      does the same make it difficult to build new boats based on these developments and using new technologies?




      The situation in the OSK guide.
  3. Sirocco
    Sirocco 27 September 2013 08: 08 New
    +5
    What can I say? the boat made its contribution to the country's defense, so to speak, it rolled back the technologies that are now being introduced into modern submarines. Well, Gorby, with his restructuring, and the betrayal of his people, we will remember for a long time in a bad word. I propose to follow the link (Military materials) there it is written in more detail about the SHOCK that the US Navy experienced from this miracle of Russian thought. http://warfiles.ru/show-3433-arsenal-titanovyy-mech-v-podvodnyh-glubinah.html
    It is discouraging how these submarine fighters were hastily decommissioned boats of the 705th project. Despite their young age (7-10 years with a service life of 25 years), they were the first to go under the knife. An attempt to preserve the body of one "Lyra" to turn it into a museum was unsuccessful.
    Titanium! Most likely this decided the fate of these submarines. With a price of 2-3 thousand US dollars per ton (1998), their hulls were quickly "disposed of"; cutting was carried out at the expense of foreign "sponsors". Where did thousands of tons of this miraculous metal go? I would like to believe that it is not on the “wrong” shore.
    Here I do not agree, the point is not in Titan, but in the fact that any US vessel could tear down these boats to smithereens. As a result of this, their gaze was shocked and awed, and as a continuation of this, through Gorbi, they eliminated opacity for their fleet.
    1. Nayhas
      Nayhas 27 September 2013 12: 03 New
      0
      Quote: Sirocco
      Here I do not agree, the point is not in Titan, but in the fact that any US vessel could tear down these boats to smithereens.

      Any nuclear submarine is capable of destroying "any ship" in the United States; Lyra did not have any particular advantages.
      1. Sirocco
        Sirocco 27 September 2013 14: 14 New
        +2
        You probably read the article inattentively, its advantage is the speed of 44.7 knots (82,78 km / h), as a result of which it takes 40 seconds. can go into the tail of an attacking boat, and also has a speed comparable to the speed of a torpedo. The second is the titanium case, with all the ensuing consequences, and the combat information and control system (BIUS), unique at that time, was unique
        1. spravochnik
          spravochnik 28 September 2013 23: 02 New
          0
          44,7 knots is the speed of the submarine pr.661 Anchar, not Alpha. Alpha's maximum speed is 42 knots.
          1. Misantrop
            Misantrop 29 September 2013 09: 14 New
            +1
            Quote: spravochnik
            Alpha's maximum speed is 42 knots.
            105 state test orders issued 42,3 nodes with a device capacity of 85%
  4. archi.sailor
    archi.sailor 27 September 2013 08: 09 New
    11
    good morning everybody. the article is good, but a mistake crept in the photos. Even the two, the very first is the 971 project and the bottom photo is also it. Yours faithfully
    1. ABV
      ABV 27 September 2013 09: 06 New
      +4
      I support, I just wanted to write about the photo!
      The disease of our media is the constant inconsistency of the photographic materials with the issue addressed !!!
      And the article is EXCELLENT +
  5. RPG_
    RPG_ 27 September 2013 09: 11 New
    0
    They are ahead of their time, all currents of the reactors are still far from perfect and create many problems during operation.
  6. Mihaylo Tishayshiy
    Mihaylo Tishayshiy 27 September 2013 09: 20 New
    +1
    They say about such things: "she was ahead of her time," although in our time she would not have appeared at all - the country is not that. And to modify it taking into account modern achievements in science and technology, and for decades it will provide a wild headache to all NATO admirals and other enemies. Yes, that's just "would" interfere.
    1. cdrt
      cdrt 28 September 2013 14: 37 New
      0
      It always bothers me when they say about a serial product with a unit cost for today's money of 1-1.5 billion dollars - it is ahead of its time.
      Translated into simple language - for a lot of money they built a series of ships that were not operational for most of the time (industrial defects, lack of coastal infrastructure, the real high complexity of the boat, etc.). It is clear that the record characteristics pleased the captains, admirals. That's just for the same money it was possible to make 10 boat soldiers - 671, or even 971. Which could be of much more benefit to the defense of the country.
      In short - one boat, the experimental one, was ahead of its time. A series of leading ones is gouging and squandering military and military-industrial complex corporations.
      1. Misantrop
        Misantrop 28 September 2013 16: 37 New
        0
        Quote: cdrt
        or even 971
        But nothing that 971 appeared 20 years later? Just based on the experience of operating ships of 705 and 761 projects, creatively reworking the operating experience gained on those projects ...
  7. slacker
    slacker 27 September 2013 09: 26 New
    0
    ... a combination of high speed comparable to the speed of anti-submarine vehicles, great depth of immersion and high maneuverability


    The characteristics of the boat are impressive! I am sure that with the political will and financial support, Russian engineers will be able to create even more outstanding nuclear submarines.
    1. Misantrop
      Misantrop 27 September 2013 23: 55 New
      +2
      Quote: Loafer
      The characteristics of the boat are impressive!
      Seeing her alive, you are impressed even more. And having gone to sea on it ... All the preparations for the battle and the campaign took 15 minutes (instead of more than two hours for everyone else). But the base system they did not really understand, why the traffic division had an eternal problem of duty on a working power plant in the database
      1. jjj
        jjj 28 September 2013 01: 07 New
        +1
        And at full speed to talk in the compartments could be calm?
        1. Misantrop
          Misantrop 28 September 2013 16: 32 New
          +1
          Quote: jjj
          And at full speed to talk in the compartments could be calm?
          In the centropost compartment - easily. But in the stern it was necessary to wear respirators - the oil used in the turbine group during evaporation gave a rather unpleasant effect: somewhere after a day of breathing without protective equipment, the voice completely sat down. One of his fellow students did not believe it, he didn’t wear a respirator, so then he could only whisper for two weeks ... And the Ellipsoid intra-ship communication system was, let's say, somewhat strange. Gave a strong distortion. The text can be read, but the timbre of the voice, and even from under the respirator - not always. The turbine compartment commander used this with success. On a prolonged alarm, he kept me in touch instead of himself, while he went to the 6th nap on the shaft line lol Accordingly, by the time he returned to the base from the task, he was the most vigorous of all GEM operators lol

          As for the noise, it was quite possible on nuclear-powered vessels to speak in the energy compartments at any installation parameters without raising their voices. This is not a 68B boiler room, where you had to yell in your ear to make out anything
  8. july
    july 27 September 2013 09: 30 New
    0
    Really impressive! How our engineers and designers made perfection out of nothing! How different this project is from the American "plate" in the next article! Our minds have no equal in the world! Honor and praise to our developers!
  9. AK-47
    AK-47 27 September 2013 10: 06 New
    +2
    It is sad that all these shortcomings actually crossed out the genuine “Russian underwater miracle”.

    Really sad.
    How much money and intellectual resource was spent in vain.

    Project 705K
    1. Nayhas
      Nayhas 27 September 2013 12: 07 New
      0
      Quote: AK-47
      How much money and intellectual resource was spent in vain.

      This was the first single-hull nuclear submarine project in the USSR. But it didn’t work out ... Lyra became two-hull noticeably adding to the displacement. The use of LMT was of course a mistake, a single-hull nuclear submarine with a classic reactor and increased automation would have lived much longer and would have spoiled the nerves of the adversary ...
      1. washi
        washi 27 September 2013 12: 33 New
        +3
        Quote: Nayhas
        Quote: AK-47
        How much money and intellectual resource was spent in vain.

        This was the first single-hull nuclear submarine project in the USSR. But it didn’t work out ... Lyra became two-hull noticeably adding to the displacement. The use of LMT was of course a mistake, a single-hull nuclear submarine with a classic reactor and increased automation would have lived much longer and would have spoiled the nerves of the adversary ...

        The use of such a reactor was not a mistake. The mistake was not to tighten the requirements for the production and maintenance of reactors.
        Unfortunately, at these times they have already left Personal responsibility for quality and switched to quantity
    2. cdrt
      cdrt 28 September 2013 14: 39 New
      +1
      Always considered 705 - the most squandering and senseless venture of our submarine and military-industrial complex, but it’s beautiful as laughing
  10. barbiturate
    barbiturate 27 September 2013 10: 16 New
    +2
    an amazing boat, of course, I bow to its creators, but the concept of its combat use is incomprehensible. I read a lot about its unique characteristics and capabilities, but how would this be implemented in practice? A significant gap in noise with western apl is obvious (a big noise is mentioned in the article as well), and therefore in the detection range. The authors would tell (if they know) how the boats of this project turned into hunters, and not into swift deer in the sight of quietly creeping hunters. Whether it was intended at all for anti-submarine warfare, perhaps the idea was to attack convoys across the Atlantic from the USA to Europe in the event of war. It’s not clear yet.
    1. Nayhas
      Nayhas 27 September 2013 12: 18 New
      +1
      Quote: barbiturate
      A significant gap in noise with western apl is obvious (a big noise is also mentioned in the article)

      Lira was conceived as a single-hull, but they could not push through a project with one building, so it turned out to be double-hull, which affected the noise. “Silent” screws began to be made only in the 80s with the purchase of CNC machines from Toshiba, so Lira did not receive them.
      1. barbiturate
        barbiturate 27 September 2013 14: 49 New
        +2
        Yes, here it was not the size of the wetted surface that determined the noise and not the high-speed screws, but the reactor with an LMC, most likely. At such speeds and with such a level of its own noise, the boat is blind and deaf, the concept of its application is interesting, maybe it was intended to somehow interact with other airliners, work as part of a team, or against NATO surface convoys. This is where I have never seen an explanation.
        1. saturn.mmm
          saturn.mmm 27 September 2013 18: 28 New
          +1
          Quote: barbiturate
          At such speeds and with such a level of intrinsic noise, the boat is blind and deaf,

          Probably at 41 knots it did not fly across the oceans all the time, it was probably used at high speed during the attack, and in traveling conditions at 6-8 knots it did not rattle over the whole ocean (assumption).
          1. cdrt
            cdrt 28 September 2013 14: 44 New
            0
            and in marching conditions at 6-8 knots it did not rattle across the entire ocean (speculation).

            I read in Janes in 1986 that I heard them and accompanied Los Angeles confidently at any speed, in the sense of arbitrarily small. Which is understandable - either specific power or low noise - all sorts of shock-absorbing foundations obviously do not increase specific power
            1. Misantrop
              Misantrop 28 September 2013 16: 51 New
              +2
              Quote: cdrt
              I read in Janes in 1986 that I heard them and accompanied Los Angeles confidently at any speed, in the sense of arbitrarily small.

              Read more of these tales, they still will not tell lol The "moose" against the 705th chance was not, NONE. Even if he shoots first. Low-noise torpedoes have not yet been invented. Unmasking with volley goes unambiguously, even if you have not heard before. Full speed of the turbine, circulation and ... execution of a shepherd from aft corners. And if we take into account that at a speed of more than 5 knots, the moose is defenseless (it will stupidly break the torpedo with a free stream, it has fan TAs), then it still has less chances ... request
        2. navy33
          navy33 27 September 2013 20: 22 New
          +5
          welcome! He served in Zapadnaya Litsa at RTMe, officers told us that these boats were intended as target indicators for the AUG due to the great depth of immersion. Once I went down to them on an excursion to the CPU, everything is really compact like in a spaceship!
          1. barbiturate
            barbiturate 28 September 2013 05: 20 New
            +2
            Well, at least something cleared up in the tactics of application, thanks
    2. washi
      washi 27 September 2013 12: 36 New
      +1
      This is a fighter - a hunter (like the Luftwaffe in World War II) saw-shot-escaped.
  11. carbofo
    carbofo 27 September 2013 10: 43 New
    -1
    Better a couple of dozen with Flurry missiles, if only to solve all problems with the reactor and noise.
    Then the nerves of the enemy captains will be on the verge of hysteria, only from the fact that our boat is in the area.
    1. washi
      washi 27 September 2013 12: 40 New
      -1
      Quote: carbofo
      Better a couple of dozen with Flurry missiles, if only to solve all problems with the reactor and noise.
      Then the nerves of the enemy captains will be on the verge of hysteria, only from the fact that our boat is in the area.

      Do you know the range of the flurry in order to claim that they are better? Flurry is a near weapon.
      1. carbofo
        carbofo 30 September 2013 23: 28 New
        0
        Quote: Vasya
        Do you know the range of the flurry in order to claim that they are better? Flurry is a near weapon.

        This you say, not me.
        And you generally read what I wrote, I do not need to ascribe the statements born of your head.
  12. Evgeniy667b
    Evgeniy667b 27 September 2013 10: 56 New
    +3
    The submarines of project 705 and 705k were very frightening at the time of the Americans and they, through agents of influence, did their best to get rid of them. Submarines of this level, but taking into account new developments and technologies, should form the basis of our nuclear submarine, but not monsters with a displacement of 20 thousand tons. There is experience, it is only necessary to design, build an experimental one and in a series, along with non-atomic ones! Then our Navy will be able to cool any aggressive head.
  13. xtur
    xtur 27 September 2013 11: 39 New
    +5
    it is very interesting that, judging by the article, there were projects of these boats on VVER-type reactors. But the choice of metal as a coolant was determined precisely by the greater compactness of metal reactors.
    It turns out that even in water reactors it was possible to create a small and sufficiently powerful EI

    In any case, the future for metal-cooled reactors, including such experiments, must be continued.
  14. Mhpv
    Mhpv 27 September 2013 11: 42 New
    +2
    Still, it’s interesting, but the first boat with a rector on the LMW was the K-27 pr 645ZHMT "Golden Fish" or "Nagasaki" (had two nicknames).
    K-27 is a Soviet nuclear submarine, the only ship built under the 645 LMT project with liquid metal as a coolant. The design of the boat is close to the 627 Kit project. The boat was a laureate of various awards; admirals and Heroes of the Soviet Union left its crew. K-27 had two nicknames: "Goldfish" and "Nagasaki" [2].

    It went into operation on April 1 1962 of the year. From April 21 to June 12, 1964 of the year made a record autonomous voyage into the waters of the Central Atlantic. The submarine under the command of I.I. Gulyaev broke records on the range of the autonomous campaign, the duration of scuba diving.

    Until 7 of September, 1965 was listed as a cruising submarine (KrPL) in combat structure and only subsequently was transferred to the category of experienced. On 24 on May 1968, a radiation accident occurred, the entire crew was injured, 9 people were killed. The boat itself only on 1 of February 1979 of the year was expelled from the USSR Navy and on October 1 of 1980 of the year it was disbanded. In September, 1982 of the year was flooded in the Kara Sea off the northeastern coast of the Novaya Zemlya archipelago at the entrance to Stepovoy Bay.


    Conclusions on the operation of systems and mechanisms

    Compared to submarines equipped with water-cooled reactors of that time, the K-27 boat had a number of advantages due to the use of a nuclear power plant with an LMT reactor [15]:

    Higher speed;
    Better dynamics and, as a result, higher maneuverability;
    A relatively higher level of safety due to the low (close to atmospheric) pressure in the primary circuit of the reactor.

    The negative aspects of the installation include [15]:

    The problem of the permanent formation of radioactive polonium-210 and the risk of crew poisoning. This problem was solved within the framework of this project, and in the following implementations of the 75 / 100 SVBR project LMT reactors designed for use on the 705 and 705K project submarines, an improved version of this protection was used.
    The need for alloy regeneration - cleaning from toxins, oxides and impurities. This is what caused the accident at K-27. This experience was taken into account when developing new reactors of this type; the conditions for the formation of insoluble slags and dust-like oxides were analyzed. There were no slagging issues with the 705 project in the future [1].

    The materials of the light and strong hull of the boat showed themselves poorly in the process, the light hull underwent cracking after the second trip [8]. It turned out that this low-magnetic steel has a low corrosion-mechanical strength; as a result, intercrystalline corrosion developed in it in sea water. As a result, numerous cracks occurred, and since the material showed itself poorly, as a result, low-magnetic steels were never used for the construction of submarines. Also, the demagnetizing device did not show its best side: the stability of this device and the degree of compensation of the magnetic field were found to be unsatisfactory and the device was not subsequently used [1].
    1. washi
      washi 27 September 2013 12: 58 New
      -1
      So I say - the main quality. After the departure of the Stalinist policy of transition to Communism, including: The transition of quantitative changes to qualitative and personal responsibility for what was done, the main thing was quantitative, i.e. not high-quality production. Because of this, people died and began to prefer foreign.
      Generally interesting. Stalin treated Kirov well — they killed him, and Zhdanov (despite his Russophile policy) —healed. Stalin himself - travanuli (or did not provide timely medical assistance - still an article)
      Putin divorced. They rumor about Kabaeva.
      How many attempts on GDP have been? Only official?
      1. cdrt
        cdrt 28 September 2013 14: 52 New
        0
        Well ... cruisers with cracked hulls were built under Stalin.
        But after him they learned to build better.
        It is not connected in any way.

        The issue is not quality and quantity.
        There is a Formula 1, there is a Volkswagen. Both are cars, but one record, the other hard worker.
        And no matter how you practice the technology, Formula 1 will be a sprinter, Volkswagen - a styer.
        In short - the ships were created without considering the issues of maintaining combat effectiveness and record-breaking characteristics in real production, and real operation.
        Therefore, they were immediately decommissioned.
  15. sergo1979
    sergo1979 27 September 2013 11: 43 New
    0
    the first picture is not lyra pr705 but pike pr670
    1. saturn.mmm
      saturn.mmm 27 September 2013 18: 43 New
      +2
      Quote: sergo1979
      the first picture is not lyra pr705 but pike pr670

      Project 670 is the "Slope" Project 670M "The Seagull" and the first and last is Project 971 "Pike" as noted above by archi.sailor (clickable in the photo of the Project 971 submarine)
  16. sergo1979
    sergo1979 27 September 2013 11: 43 New
    0
    last one too
  17. moreman78
    moreman78 27 September 2013 11: 54 New
    -2
    Smart people first consider all sorts of options, then create a prototype, conduct its trial operation and only if successful, launch mass production with the obligatory arrangement of infrastructure. And then there were continuous dissertations, bonuses for the development and implementation, the creation of a whole series of submarines, and on the way out - DISPOSAL AND DISPOSAL BECAUSE OF INSOLVABLE PROBLEMS!
    The history of the project 705 and 705K is an axiom as it cannot be done. Only squandered the resources of the state. For this, they put it to the wall in the old days.
    1. xtur
      xtur 27 September 2013 13: 49 New
      0
      technology differs from scientific theory in that all aspects cannot be foreseen.
    2. cdrt
      cdrt 28 September 2013 14: 57 New
      0
      The history of the project 705 and 705K is an axiom as it cannot be done. Only squandered the resources of the state. For this, they put it to the wall in the old days.


      Exactly.
      With a temporary detention center so beloved by many here, as soon as operational problems were discovered, they would take everyone (the Navy, shipbuilders, designers, and ministers) to Lubyanka, they would blow out all their teeth, then compare the readings, and ... decision makers leading up to the SERIES of non-operational boats would be expended.
      An experimental boat is one thing - anything can be done there, another is a soldier ship. It's like a Kalashnikov assault rifle should be
      1. Misantrop
        Misantrop 28 September 2013 16: 54 New
        +2
        Quote: cdrt
        It's like a Kalashnikov assault rifle should be

        This was Kalashnikov SF all the time they served. What is called a "plug every hole", a nuclear submarine ALWAYS ready to instantly go to sea. So they were constantly driven, as if not relatives ...
  18. Kovrovsky
    Kovrovsky 27 September 2013 16: 06 New
    +2
    Quote: RPG_
    They are ahead of their time, all currents of the reactors are still far from perfect and create many problems during operation.

    The analogy came to mind with the SR-71, an aircraft ahead of its time, during operation it also revealed many problems.
  19. samoletil18
    samoletil18 27 September 2013 17: 00 New
    0
    Quote: tronin.maxim
    Quote: altman
    preferably inexpensive

    That's the whole point, that they are expensive because of the use of titanium, the movie says it directly. Make a titanium diesel electric submarine. Due to the strength of titanium, it would be able to plunge 500 meters accurately, although given the talent of our designers it’s even 1km. The titanium DLPL is almost silent with a large depth of immersion + hypersonic anti-ship missiles. You can’t imagine a nightmare of the enemy. Mdaaa that strongly pulled in the fiction of the future or ...
  20. samoletil18
    samoletil18 27 September 2013 17: 10 New
    +2
    Then the cool comment got higher: to make a titanium diesel-electric boat. I'm just in shock. Ideas arise in Russian minds without exhausting! Interestingly, our geopolitical opponents sift through such sites?
    1. papik09
      papik09 28 September 2013 10: 30 New
      +1
      Let sifted, there will be little sense, titanium, then they have netuti in the right amount. So let them sift and are afraid that they will do such laughing
    2. cdrt
      cdrt 28 September 2013 15: 04 New
      +1
      Ideas arise in Russian minds without exhausting!

      About this is in the "Features of national fishing" - about how the district koala started and fed it with birch leaves, pouring them with tincture of eucalyptus.
      The forester’s answer was a good one - "... yeah, fools in Russia are 100 years old" laughing

      Titanium (i.e., very expensive) diesel-electric submarines even with VNEU.
      The speed is 2-3 knots for ten days or 20, but for 10 hours ... and then ... under the RPD at a depth of 10m ... and this is from titanium ... for an AUG attack ...
      The sleep of reason ...

      When boat diesel on a submarine in a bay works, on the shore on a table spoons in glasses ring laughing
  21. scientist
    scientist 27 September 2013 20: 30 New
    +1
    Very beautiful technical solution. Interestingly, did these boats be disposed of or not?
    After all, titanium is a very durable material, which means that boats, in principle, should have the possibility of long-term modernization. And this modernization can be very effective, because the level of automation was even very high in the project, and new technologies will make it possible to increase efficiency and reduce dimensions tenfold.
    1. I am
      I am 27 September 2013 22: 43 New
      +3
      The titanium-vanadium alloy from which the hulls of the boats were made is vulnerable without special protection to corrosion by the water in which this boat floats, cracking of the welds, if any, occurs. Or, again, cracking in corners and kinks.
      Maybe she used the terms incorrectly, but one of the developers of such buildings, who had worked at the Integral Research Institute at one time, told us at the polytechnic at sopromat.
      1. scientist
        scientist 28 September 2013 17: 28 New
        0
        I am unfortunately not a chemist, but I can read. You can find it yourself in any chemical. reference book. Properties of titanium alloy: "Corrosion resistant due to oxide film, resistant to dilute solutions of many acids and alkalis." And sheets of titanium are welded in an inert gas. I think it is more resistant to corrosion than aluminum and especially iron.
        1. scientist
          scientist 28 September 2013 17: 44 New
          0
          In our country, b-alloy 4201 (Ti + 33% Mo) is produced on a semi-industrial scale, characterized by high corrosion resistance. In a number of applications, it can replace tantalum, corrosion-resistant nickel alloys, and even gold and platinum. The alloy is characterized by high technological plasticity, it is well welded by all types of welding.
  22. atalef
    atalef 27 September 2013 20: 34 New
    -1
    Quote: scientist
    After all, titanium is a very durable material, which means that boats, in principle, should have the possibility of long-term modernization

    What area are you a scientist in?
    Do you think the potential for modernization depends on what material the submarine is made of?
    fool
    1. scientist
      scientist 28 September 2013 17: 31 New
      0
      Do not knock yourself on the head, shake your last brains. And I don’t have a glimpse of stupid questions, I'm afraid you will sleep badly after that. But I’ll definitely put a candle in the church for you tomorrow.
  23. Michael_59
    Michael_59 27 September 2013 23: 10 New
    +3
    Wow, I didn’t know about such a project of the USSR Navy - I believed that the titanium case at that time was used only on the Anchar project nuclear submarines - the same “killer of aircraft carriers”, it’s also the “goldfish”.

    Performance characteristics of the project 661 Anchar submarine nuclear missile carrier:
    Displacement - 8000 tons, crew - 85 people
    Length - 106m, height - 14,5m, immersion depth - 550 m
    Armament:
    Amethyst missile system - 10 missiles (launch depth 30 m)
    Torpedo tubes 533 mm - 4 (ammunition 12)

    During the tests, the boat showed a speed of more than 44 knots (80 km / h), i.e., in fact, this is the speed of a torpedo.

    The boat was created as a response to the new American oceanic deterrence strategy, which was based on the AUG.

    The creators of this submarine were set conditions - it was forbidden to use the solutions worked out on previously built submarines.
    The Amethyst cruise missiles had a flight range of 80 km, for this reason a high speed submarine was needed in order to approach the aircraft carrier as quickly as possible to the distance of a missile attack. The project, which applied 398 new technical solutions, was completed in late 1960.

    Widely used telemechanics, cameras for monitoring hazardous systems. Also, automation of all management processes has reached a new level. Layouts of posts and workplaces were built - to ensure ergonomics - a new word at that time. There are 2 new nuclear reactors, an original two-shaft nuclear power plant with a capacity of 40 thousand hp, on each shaft. (2 times more effective than analogues). The boat could perform 4 round the world without reloading the reactors.

    Particular attention is paid to reducing noise, the level of acoustic noise and the work of sonar stations. Noisy mechanisms were fixed using shock absorbers.

    Multipurpose nuclear submarine K-162 was laid down on December 28, 1963 at Severodvinsk shipbuilding enterprise Sevmash under serial number 501.
    She entered sea trials on December 13, 1969.
  24. Michael_59
    Michael_59 27 September 2013 23: 23 New
    +5
    The story with titanium cases is not over. The Russian fleet decided to put into operation the unique submarines of project 945 Barracuda, the hull of which is made of titanium. Titanium boats were created in the 1980s, since they are more durable, do not attract magnetic mines.

    Restoring boats proved to be more economically feasible than disposing.

    Now the fleet has four titanium nuclear submarines (except for mini-boats for deep-sea research): two 945 Barracuda projects - K-239 Karp and K-276 Kostroma and two titanium boats of the modernized Condor 945A project "- K-336" Pskov "and K-534" Nizhny Novgorod. "

    The main target of Barracud and Kondorov is aircraft carriers and submarines. To destroy them, torpedoes are used, which are fired from two 650 mm torpedo tubes and four 533 mm. Unlike the Barracuda, the Condors can shoot Granat nuclear cruise missiles and dive 50 m deeper - up to 600 m. Air defense - Igla anti-aircraft missiles.

    All boats are part of the 7th submarine division of the Northern Fleet (v. Vidyaevo), but Karp has been at the Zvyozdochka shipyard since 1994 awaiting recovery.

    Despite their age, the hulls of titanium boats are in excellent condition.

    According to preliminary data, titanium submarines will receive new sonar stations, combat information and control systems, radars with a radio reconnaissance station, and a navigation system based on GLONASS / GPS. In addition, armament systems will be changed on boats and they will be taught to shoot cruise missiles from the Caliber complex (Club-S), including on ground targets.

    The strength of titanium boats was demonstrated in 1992, when the Kostroma nuclear submarine collided in the Barents Sea with an American submarine of the Los Angeles type. The Russian ship received minor damage to the cabin, and the American boat had to be decommissioned.
    1. Russ69
      Russ69 28 September 2013 00: 03 New
      +5
      Quote: Michael_59
      . The Russian fleet decided to put into operation the unique submarines of project 945 Barracuda, the hull of which is made of titanium.


      The contract for a couple has already been signed.

      The contract for the repair of the first two submarines ─ K-239 Karp and K-276 Kostroma (both projects 945) ─ has already been signed with the Zvezdochka ship repair center in Severodvinsk.

      Under the terms of the agreement, Zvezdochka will conduct ship troubleshooting, and then replace nuclear fuel and all electrical equipment with them. In addition, verification and repair of the mechanical parts of the ships will be carried out.

      If necessary, repair of reactors will be carried out. It is expected that Karp will be transferred to Zvyozdochka by the end of April 2013. Repair will begin in the summer and will last two to three years. Then the Kostroma will get in for repairs.

      As expected, Barracudas will receive new sonar stations, combat information and control systems, radars, GLONASS / GPS navigation systems and weapons systems. In particular, the Caliber cruise missile systems will be installed on the ships, which will allow them to fire on ground targets. Details of the modernization of Project 945A submarines are not specified. Probably all work on these submarines will be carried out according to the same scenario.
  25. jjj
    jjj 28 September 2013 01: 15 New
    +2
    Yes, everything is fine, but practice has shown that the workers turned out to be 671 RTM, 671 RTMK, 971 and 971Б (Cheetah)
    1. Misantrop
      Misantrop 28 September 2013 16: 58 New
      0
      Quote: jjj
      the workers turned out to be pr. 671 RTM, 671 RTMK, 971 and 971B (Cheetah)

      And when you consider that before them were still 671 and 671RT ...
      667BDRM is also a good car. But before him there were A, AU, B, BD and BDR (not counting other modifications)
  26. mirag2
    mirag2 28 September 2013 08: 25 New
    +1
    Yes, our boats are good. We need to build. Until it leaves the groundwork.
  27. xomaNN
    xomaNN 28 September 2013 19: 31 New
    +1
    It was on the SF to see these submarines at the pier. It was precisely the crew and service staff that they caused a great deal of caution because of the constantly "hot reactor". Whether it was justified or not, maybe the experts didn’t inform them very much. And from the fact that I read about this 705 project before, it was the attempt to create the most automated nuclear submarines (and this, mind you in the 80s at that level of Soviet technology!) Aroused pride in our development sub!
  28. xtur
    xtur 28 September 2013 20: 15 New
    0
    it is curious that Koptsov never appeared in the discussion of this article (I hope I wrote the name correctly)
  29. Renzo
    Renzo 3 October 2013 16: 18 New
    0
    Tell me, can anyone know what British BIUSs are?
  30. sivuch
    sivuch 7 October 2013 14: 18 New
    0
    Quote: barbiturate
    At such speeds and with such a level of intrinsic noise, the boat is blind and deaf,
    Probably at 41 knots it did not fly across the oceans all the time, it was probably used at high speed during the attack, and in traveling conditions at 6-8 knots it did not rattle over the whole ocean (assumption).
    That's it. Therefore, it would be interesting to compare the noise of a quiet running (only I think it is less than 6-8 knots) and with a similar Soviet one, for example, 671.
    And, probably, it would be worth emphasizing that the LMT reactor gave not only high speed, but also acceleration. In addition, the excellent maneuverability of the boat. And the Americans were inferior in terms of noise, so the first shot, conditionally speaking, would be behind them.
    Well, Huck at that time was quite advanced
    But what they didn’t think about infrastructure is for sure. They didn’t even think about the psychological moment — that it’s a tragedy for a sailor to be ashore. For example, in aviation everything is clear — they go to one school to fly, to another to serve airplanes on the ground.