The Battle of Ore is another of the “unknown battles”
The Battle of Oura from the Chronicles of Jean Froissart, 1410, the Paris National Library.
Well, let's say, such examples: who first baptized Russia and even received the title of “First Baptist”? Prince Askold! And what about him known to the overwhelming majority? That he was killed by Prince Oleg (that he was a nasty pagan, not even everyone knows), because he, Askold, was not of a princely family! And for some reason, Askold is not canonized, but those who worshiped pagans, honoring state interests in the first place, and faith (and their immortal soul!) Only in the second, are canonized.
Another miniature from the Chronicles of Froissart, 1410 of the year, showing warriors in their typical weapons.
And the battles in which the fate of the country was decided? Here, for example, the battle of Omovzhe or the battle of Embach (if you use the German name of the river), it is not in school textbooks, and yet this is a very interesting and important battle of the Russian troops with the crusaders of the Baltic states. Then, in 1234, Prince Yaroslav came along with his “lower regiments” and Novgorod and invaded the possession of the Order of the Sword, not far from the city of Yuriev, but the city did not besiege.
Miniature from the Chronicles of Saint-Denis. The same time and exactly the same equipment: helmets, bascinet with visor type “dog muzzle”, and the torsos are covered with quilted gambesons. British Library.
The chronicle says: “Ida Prince Yaroslav on Nemtsy near Yuriev, and a hundred did not reach the city ... Prince Yaroslav bisha them ... on the river on the Omizhe Nemtsy broke off” (PSRL, IV, 30, 178) from the town of Bear Head, located in 40 km, but at the same time they were broken. Some of the knights managed to go back beyond the fortress walls, while another part, pursued by Russian horsemen, entered the ice of the Emaygi River, collapsed and sank. Among those who died there, the chronicle calls “the best of Nѣmtsov nѣkolico and nizovets (that is, the soldiers of the Vladimir-Suzdal principality) nѣkolico. The Novgorod chronicle reports that “worship Nѣmtsi to the prince, while Yaroslav took the world with all their truths with them”. For some reason, is this battle in our history unpopular? Maybe because the prince "came himself", the invasion of the Germans did not wait? In general, we have a lot of events that seem to be the way they are, but almost nobody knows about them.
Knight 1350 g. Graham Türner's drawing on miniatures of that time.
However, not only our national history was not lucky here. For example, everyone knows such “key” battles of the well-known Hundred Years War, like the battles of Crécy and Poitiers, which unequivocally proved the power of the English “big bow” and ... the inability of French knighthood to adapt quickly in new conditions. However, there are much more such “key” battles, if we look, only one is well known to us, but for some reason there are no others.
Meanwhile, one of these battles between the troops of England and France took place near the city of Åre 29 September 1364. Moreover, although this battle is one of the battles of the Hundred Years War, it also refers to the battles of the war for the Breton inheritance or the “war of two Jeanne” that took place in 1341 — 1364, that is, it was such a “small war” which was part of the "big"!
Battle of Ore. Another medieval miniature, clearly showing all the features of the then knightly weapons and combat techniques of warfare. As you see, both short spears, swords, and daggers of the rondel type, which finish the defeated, are used in the course.
It all started as trite, as many feudal wars began: in 1341, Duke Jean III of Breton died, leaving no heirs and, moreover, without irresponsible telling the name of his successor, although he had the opportunity. But ... so he was in a hurry to appear before the eyes of the Lord, that he did not bother himself with the question of succession, leaving his duchy in the most difficult situation of dual power. Two Jeanne - Jeanne de Pentevr (or Jeanne the Lame) and Jeanne of Flanders began to challenge each other the right to the duchy, and in the end so finished their husbands: Jean de Montfort and Carl de Blois, that they decided to lay claim to this duchy. And since England and France at that time were in a state of war that began in 1337, both began to look for allies. Jean de Montfort took the oath of oath to the English Edward III, who declared himself king of France, but Carl de Blois decided that he could not find an ally more profitable than his own uncle, and brought hoop to Philip VI.
Capture of Jean de Montfort.
In 1341, the French managed to capture Jean de Montfort and surrender the duchy to Charles de Blois, Jeanne of Flanders went mad with grief, but in 1342 King Edward III landed with troops in Brest, as a result of which in 1343 the parties entered into a truce. But the balance of power was fragile, constantly disturbed, and it all ended with the fact that the peace negotiations in 1364 ended in failure, after which the British troops, led by the Duke of Breton, Jean V the Valiant, entered the city of Auray and besieged his castle, which was also blocked from the sea english fleet. The besieged had a shortage of food and were ready to capitulate on September 29, provided that they did not receive help until that day. That is, nobody wanted to climb the walls and spill their blood once again. Like, you wait, and we will surrender, if help does not come, and if it does, then we will fight - a kind of medieval reasoning, right ?!
Battle of Åre: Bretons on the right (Brittany coat of arms on the plate), on the left the French.
Meanwhile, already on September 27, the troops of Charles de Blois were located near the abbey, not far from the city. The next day, French troops crossed over to the left bank of the river and took up a position opposite the city’s castle. Duke Jean, fearing a double strike, with his troops out of the city and located them on the right bank of the river. And then between the warring parties began ... negotiations, the essence of which was reduced to finding out which of the dukes should leave the city and why.
Battle of Ore. Miniature by Pierre Le Baux.
However, on September 29 it became clear that neither side nor the other side were going to give in to the enemy, after which the French troops crossed the river a second time and stood up front north of the castle. At the same time, they took a very unfortunate position, since they found themselves on a swampy plain. British troops also took a position opposite, and stood up, waiting for the attack of the French.
Battle of Ore. Miniature of Jean Cuvillier ca.1400. They all considered themselves Bretons ...
Like many battles of the Hundred Years War, the British put in front of their line of archers, and the French - crossbowmen. A skirmish began between them, but she had no particular result, and then the French knightly cavalry went on the attack on the British. Interestingly, the French launched several attacks, one after the other, but the British repulsed them all. At the most critical moment, the situation was saved by a reserve, prudently left by Jean and plugged a “hole” punched in his positions by the knights. And the chroniclers say that the battle was simply incredibly fierce for the time character, so fierce that they did not take prisoners from either side. Then, noticing that the French were tired, the British counterattacked them on the right flank. The French could not stand it and ran, but seeing that the left flank was running, the right fled after him, too! Duke Carl de Blois was wounded by a spear, fell from his horse, and was finished off by some English warrior. The British victory was more than complete and put an end to the war for the Breton inheritance. In 1365, the first Treaty of Gerand was concluded, according to which Jean IV of Breton, in turn signing the union treaty with England, became the legal heir.
Battle of Ore. Stained glass window in the Basilica of Notre-Dame de Bonn in Rennes.
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