The officers of the Office of Combat Training of the General Assembly of the PLA regularly make adjustments to the plans of combat training, are engaged in the development of training grounds, shooting ranges and other training sites. The main sources of new approaches are the developments of the Russian Federation and the United States, which are renowned for their efforts by military intelligence and analytical units. So in modern Russian Armed Forces, the Chinese military adopted the concept of interspecific training grounds (PMP) and sudden checks.
It is known that PLA has at its disposal eight PMPs, namely: Taonan (Jilin Province), Zhuzhihe (Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region), Quyeshan (Henan), Sanjie (Zhejiang), Lujai (Guangxi-Zhuang Autonomous Region), and Cintun Xia (Ningxia) Huye Autonomous Region), Dalianshan (Sichuan), Shandan (Gansu).
In mid-May, according to the plan of measures for combat training of crews tanks and infantry fighting vehicles at the Tsingtunsya PMP, the first competition was held, "Central Steel Fist - Steel Tank Riders", a copy of the Russian tank biathlon. In the final part of the competition 10 crews took part - the leaders according to the results of the qualifying competitions in the 54th, 38th, 27th, 31st and 1st combined arms armies of the SV PLA.
The length of the Chinese tank biathlon track is 21 kilometer for a single race and 16 kilometers for pair runs. There are eight types of obstacles and 24 targets on the track. The crew must conduct reconnaissance for three kilometers of the route in order to identify the potential enemy forces.
The exercises of the rifle units at the PMP Zhuzhihe have been given the name “Kuayue” (“Breakthrough”). They have been held since 2009. This polygon is considered the most equipped among such training sites. There is a railway station at Zhuzhihe, which allows you to take trains from 20 passenger cars. When unloading machinery checks the implementation of temporary standards. It is known that some units are transferred to the landfill from permanent locations that are at a distance of 4500 kilometers.
Analysis of photo and video shows that the landfill can accommodate up to 10 thousands of people in the multi-storey barracks, and in the parks - 1000 armored vehicles. In addition, six blocks of residential buildings imitation, typical for settlements of the People's Republic of China, as well as an exact replica of the government buildings quarter in Taipei, the capital of Taiwan, have been created at the site. The power supply of the landfill is provided by a network of wind generators, which are installed at a considerable distance from the target areas.
The enemy forces on the Zhuzhihe PPS are units of the 195-th motorized rifle brigade 13 A and CB PLA, which are equipped with modernized versions of the Tank 59, 69 and 96 tanks, BMP and the Tank 89 anti-tank guns. According to Chinese military estimates, 195-I defeats the forces of the "red" in 95 percent of cases, because it uses the tactics of the highly maneuverable Stryker brigade of the US Army, as well as some techniques that were overseen during the observation of the sudden checks of the combat readiness of the Russian Army. Episodes of the “Breakthrough” exercise are also held at the Quayshan, Sanjie and Taonan test sites.
During the “Breakthrough of Zhuzhihe”, three-day gatherings of commanders of the army, divisional and brigade level are held. There are large-scale demonstrations of actions on mock-ups of the district, analysis of problem points, practical deployment.
The inter-district exercises of the SV artillery brigades have the symbol “Holi (“ Power of Fire ”) Tsintunya” and are carried out in five stages. According to PRC media reports, gunners from 21, 31, 39, 41, and 54 armies are taking part in these maneuvers, in cooperation with which the EW, Air Defense and medical personnel of military hospitals operate on an unfamiliar training ground. Some units carry out a transfer from permanent locations to a distance of 2500 kilometers.
The formation of such a grouping of forces is due to the fact that the PPP Tsintunya is located in a mountainous area at an altitude from 1300 to 3000 meters above sea level. The enemy is 55 and 56 of the 47 A mountain-rifle brigades, for whom such conditions are lightened, since the soldiers are undergoing training at training bases at altitudes from 4500 to 6200 meters.
The armored vehicles of the data and similar units are created taking into account actions in the highlands, it is distinguished by power and reliability. As a rule, the PLA mountain rifle units use a tactical technique called “Two Peaks” when using army helicopters Mi-171 aviation the landing of personnel and light guns is carried out for two passes from the position of the enemy.
A series of exercises under the designation "Shandan Fire Power" is being conducted to test combat training and the coherence of the operations of the anti-personnel units of the SC PLA. The Shandan training ground includes three test areas, a training base and a joint tactical training center.
The servicemen of the joint air defense brigades armed with anti-aircraft missile and rocket-gun complexes of Russian and Chinese production must prevent the enemy forces from breaking through the air defense lines, which are 2 Fighter Division of the Air Force with the honorary title “South Tyrant”, aerobatic team "Red Falcons", "Wings of the sky" and "First of August."
According to data from open sources, "South Tiran" - the main unit of the likely enemy. The division’s armament is the Jian-11B, Jian-7E, Su-27 SC and Su-30MKK fighters with camouflage patterns typical of the USAF, Vietnam, India and Japan. The main part of aviation technology is located at bases in the cities of Zhane and Uwei.
Pilots of squadrons of this division use tactical techniques from the arsenal of pilots of these countries and carry out radio exchanges in English, Vietnamese, Indian and Japanese. Information about the elements of fighter aviation training in the countries of the likely enemy comes through military intelligence channels as well as during the friendly exercises of the PRC and Pakistan Air Forces.
To create a complex electromagnetic environment against the forces of the "red", four support units operate at the test site with modern EW equipment.
The only thing that can counterpose to the actions of the aviation division of the ground defense, - stealth and surprise response. The result is achieved by using camouflage coatings on difficult terrain, since the territory of the landfill is the Helanshan mountain range.
Tanks do not climb into the mud
To check the combat readiness of servicemen and vehicles of armored units of the SV PLA at the Qyueshan PMP, the central sharp sword interunity exercises are held. This PMP (created in 1999 as a shooting range and modernized in 2007) has 400 false electronic targets in eight directions and more than 1000 moving targets of various sizes.
To increase the speed of movement of armored vehicles and reduce the wear and tear of the material part in the PLA since the 70-s, tank tractors with 6xXNNXX and 6x8 wheel formulas have been used. Such special cars are produced at the factories in Taian (TA brand, 8, 4360 and 4410А models) and Wuhan (Hanyan brand, HY5570AS model).
According to news agencies, armored units of the "red" forces during the exercise made throws at a range of 380 kilometers at the range’s muddy roads after floods and torrential rains, which indicates an increase in the reliability of Chinese technology, which previously was not able to overcome more than 250 kilometers without serious damage and mechanical failures.
Zhuzhihe and Taonan with the 2015 of the year are used for conducting exercises of the 1 and 164 units of the PLA Navy Marine Brigade in the autumn-winter period. Winter studies (January-February) are designed to give marines the opportunity to train in unfamiliar terrain, which is very different from the coastline of the southern provinces of China. By 2016, the commanders of the marines took into account the shortcomings of the standard camouflage (blue and white) coloring and last winter the floating armored vehicles and assault guns were repainted in sandy white color or covered with full-sized covers with fixtures for elements of local vegetation.
Testing the actions of the marines in a mountainous and wooded area is organized at the Maloon firing range located in the Yunnan province of the same name. Until 2015, it served as a shooting range, but the management of the combat training of the types of troops of the General Staff of the PLA approved a plan for the modernization and expansion of the site. As a result, the area has been cleared for several directresses, new target areas have been created.
Exam special forces
Analysts of the management of combat training of the types of troops of the Joint Operational Headquarters under the Central Military Council of the CPC conduct an analysis of each episode of the exercises immediately upon its completion with the assessment of the divisions of the "red" and "blue" forces. Then a detailed review within two months. By the way, the final result is also influenced by such an indicator as the provision of security during the transfer of a unit (by rail, as a part of motorcade). In the role of sabotage groups of potential enemy forces can be one of the special purpose units of the PLA 16. After the completion of all training activities of the spring-summer period, experimental maneuvers are carried out with the involvement of two brigades, which are invited to apply new tactical techniques.
In 2015, the units of the likely adversary defeated the forces of the "red" in almost all stages. This result meant an extremely low level of training commanders. The results of the 2016 of the year (units of the "red" forces were able to overcome the advanced positions of the "blue" in 50% of episodes) showed that the leadership of the SV PLA took measures aimed at improving the quality of combat training.