Military Review

Bronze age on the island of Cyprus or "migrants are to blame for everything"! (part of 5)

45
... Didn't you ask travelers ...
(Book of Job 21: 29)



We have not seen anything for a long time about the events of the Bronze Age. And we stopped just at the time when copper gradually began to be replaced with bronze, that is, with copper alloys with various other metals. But what nevertheless caused the fact that the Eneolithic in Cyprus, by the way, which completely satisfied its inhabitants, was replaced there by a real Bronze Age? And the reason is very simple. Again, everything is to blame for migrants from Anatolia, around 2400 BC. er arrivals, that is, sailed by sea from the continent and laid the foundation for the archaeological culture of Philia, the earliest culture of the Bronze Age on the island. Monuments of this culture found on its territory almost everywhere. And the immigrants already knew exactly what they needed to look for here, and soon they settled, primarily in the places where copper ores were found, and above all on the Troodos hill. The houses of the new inhabitants of the island became rectangular, they began to use a plow and a loom, they had cattle in the household, that is, they brought cattle and donkeys with them to the island. These migrants knew how to make bronze and knew how to alloy it with other metals. This period of the Bronze Age on the land of Cyprus is considered by scholars to be early, but the Middle Bronze Age followed, also leaving monuments and continuing from 1900 to 1600 BC. er

Bronze age on the island of Cyprus or "migrants are to blame for everything"! (part of 5)

Bronze armor V-IV centuries. BC. It is clear that in Cyprus of the Early Bronze Age the armor was slightly different, but the fact of the widest use of bronze armor in the Mediterranean region for about a millennium is an indisputable fact. These armor were presented at a European auction of antiquities. The starting price is 84000 euro.

The Middle Bronze Age in Cyprus was a relatively short period, and its beginning was marked by peaceful development. Archaeological excavations in various parts of the island showed that there were many rooms in the rectangular houses of that period, and the streets in the villages ensured the free movement of people. However, at the end of the Middle Bronze Age, the construction of fortresses began in Cyprus, which most vividly indicates that its inhabitants at that time had something to protect and to defend against. Cyprus itself at that time was called Alasia - the name known to us from the Egyptian, Hittite, Assyrian and Ugaritic documents.


Stone anchors and a millstone are the obligatory attributes of the Cypriot civilization. Archaeological Museum in Larnaca, Cyprus.

It was at this time that ingots of copper in the form of lamb skins were actively exported from Cyprus, and it is clear that this was a very important article of its export, and of all world trade at that time. That is, if we marked the ways of the advancement of metallurgy with the help of arrows, then they would come from Anatolia region and ancient Chatal-Hyuyuk by land to Troy and further to the territory of ancient Thrace, and to the Carpathians, one more arrow - to the Sumerians to the east, another - on the lands of modern Syria, Palestine and Israel to the south, to Egypt, and, by sea, ancient navigators could sail to the Cyclades, to Crete, and even to Spain, and to the British Isles. That is, almost all of Europe was covered by the influence of the peoples who recognized copper and who belonged to the Atlantic culture. Although the last statement is of a relative nature, since the spread of metallurgy took place both by land, and there representatives of continental cultures could be carriers of its secrets. The main thing is that a certain event would force them to withdraw from their homes and go to distant lands in search of a better life. And here, meeting with the natives who did not know the metal, they got a clear advantage in fights with them and went further, leaving behind themselves legends and traditions, and it is possible that the samples of their technologies, which for the survivors turned into role models.

Although the sea, of course, was "expensive number one." For example, on the same Cycladic islands, on some Cycladic vessels, there is an image of a fish that served as the emblem of one of the pre-dynastic nomes in the Nile Delta, and not preserved in historical period. This gives reason to believe that when Pharaoh Menes conquered these lands, their population, bearing the emblem of a fish, fled to the Cyclades. But this could only be done by sea. After all, the Cyclades are islands. Moreover, the Egyptian origin is also seen in some other samples of the material Cycladic culture - for example, tweezers for pulling hair, the widespread use of stone amulets, the use of stone tiles for grinding paints (although the Cycladic samples have a recess larger than that of the Egyptians and Minoans and, finally, in preference, given to stone rather than ceramic vessels, characteristic of the pre-dynastic culture of Egypt.


Characteristic vessels with images of fish. Museum of the Sea in Ayia Napa, Cyprus.

However, although the links between certain areas of the then Oikumena were very important, the successes of the settlers, that is, migrants, so to speak, “on the ground” were no less significant. And here to get acquainted with how they settled in new places, we will help another settlement in Cyprus - the ancient city of the late Bronze Age Enkomi.


We were all very fortunate that in the past, people used to decorate their ceramics with patterns characteristic only of a certain territory and time, which helps both the typing and localization of ancient cultures. Museum of the Sea in Ayia Napa, Cyprus.

Enkomi - Late Bronze Age City

The city of Enkomi - and this was indeed a city, was also known as Alazia, and it should be noted that its location was chosen by its builders just perfectly. Here, in the western part of the island, there were fertile lands, a river flowed along the plain, there was a convenient natural harbor and - most importantly, there were rich deposits of copper located nearby. All this contributed to the fact that Enkomi in 1300-1100 BC. turned into a rich and prosperous city, which actively traded with Egypt, Palestine, the island of Crete, and the whole Aegean world.

Pedias, on the bank of which Enkomi was located, was the largest river on the island, even if its length was only about 100 km. It took its beginning in the mountains of Troodos and flowed to the east, through the area of ​​modern Nicosia, descended to the plain of Mesaoria, and then flowed into the sea (and even now) in the Gulf of Famagusta.


Glass incense vessels found in Cyprus. Archaeological Museum in Larnaca. Cyprus.

The city was surrounded around the perimeter by a powerful fortress wall of “cyclopean” masonry, and in the middle it had a large square-shaped area, around which there were public buildings, also made of large hewn stone blocks. The residential buildings consisted of several rooms located around the inner courtyard, which had a complex drainage system. The architects of Enkomi were practical people, that is, they proceeded from the available material, but were demanding and did not allow any promise in building the city. Therefore, the gates in the city were located symmetrically within the walls, and the streets intersected only at a right angle and represented in the plan exactly the lined "lattice". Interestingly, the construction of cities along such “lattice” plans in the ancient world was practiced in Egypt, and the city of Ugarit, one of the oldest cities in the world, located on the Syrian coast just opposite the city of Enkomi, was built according to the same plan.

Well, they traded in Enkomi, above all, copper smelted here and magnificent Cypriot cypress wood, which at that time even competed with Lebanese cedar. It was these goods that made Enkomi rich and powerful and provided various products derived from other lands. As for the metalworking, in Enkomi it was put on stream: copper ore mined in the mines was transported to the city, where it was enriched, then subjected to smelting, after which the finished ingots were offered for sale. It was in Enkomi that the production of the famous Mediterranean daggers was set up, and also bronze drafts “cnemids” were produced here, repeating the contours of the human leg from the knee to the foot, which was a chased bronze plate fastened to the leg with leather straps made of bronze wire. That is, the division of production and its specialization are obvious: helmets were better off somewhere and, apparently, there was a corresponding equipment, muscular cuirass was made somewhere, but Enkomi became the center of production of Knemid!


Knemida from the Thracian burial on the territory of modern Bulgaria.

The first archaeological excavations at Enkomi by the British Museum were made back in 1896, and they found a forge with a large supply of bronze that was buried as a result of one of the geological disasters that occurred on the island in the 12th century BC. A large number of graves were also found that contained jewelery items of amazing beauty and a large number of everyday items of people living in the Bronze Age, which are on display today among other treasures of the British Museum. However, British archaeologists have not realized that these burials lie under the houses of the city, so that the city itself was found later during the excavations already conducted by the French expedition in 1930 year. Archaeological excavations continued here until the 1974 year, when the Enkomi area became inaccessible to researchers due to the occupation of the island by Turkish troops.


Left knnemide VI. BC. from the Walters Museum collection.

However, the British archaeological expedition found a large number of artifacts that vividly demonstrate the influence of nearby countries on the civilization of ancient Cyprus, and, of course, this influence was primarily affected by the Minoan or Crete-Mycenaean civilization. How else to explain the found elegant ceramic vessels, painted with typical for the Cretan art "sea" scenes depicting fish, dolphins and algae?


Crater with a picture of an octopus from Enkomi. Ceramics. XIV century BC

One of the most frequently encountered motifs in a vase painting was an image of an octopus, whose tentacles twisted around the rounded surface of the vessel. Some of the samples of ceramics found here even got their own names, for example, “Crater of Zeus”. In which the ancient master portrayed the famous episode from Homer's Iliad (or a similar plot), in which the god Zeus holds the scales of fate in front of the warriors preparing to go into battle. The second motif, which was also used very often in vazopisi Enkomi, is the image of a bull, which was the object of worship for the Cretans and also symbolized Zeus, the father of King Minos and the founder of the Cretan civilization itself. And why it was so, it is clear - after all, there were many colonies on the island, founded by immigrants from the island of Crete, and the trade with the Cretans itself was at that time in full bloom.

During the excavations, items such as scarabs made of gold rings and necklaces were found, which could either be brought from Egypt or made here by local craftsmen according to their Egyptian designs. Very interesting are the bronze statues of various deities, in which you can trace the influence of both Eastern and local Mediterranean cults. For example, a bronze statue of the “Horned God” - height 35 cm, found in one of the shrines of Enkomi, clearly bears traces of Hittite influence and, most likely, was the subject of a cult.

The sanctuary at Enkomi consisted of three rooms: a hall in which there was a sacrificial altar, and two small internal rooms. At the altar during the excavations, many cattle skulls were found - oxen and also deer, ritual vessels for libation, but the bronze figure of the “Horned God” was in one of its internal rooms. There is an assumption that this is a statue of the god of abundance and the patron of cattle, which is identified with the later Apollo.


Statue "The God of Metal". Bronze. XII century BC The height of 35, see the 1963 excavation of the year. Archaeological Museum in Nicosia.

In another sanctuary, archaeologists discovered a bronze statuette, called the “God of metal”. “God” is represented by an armed spear and shield, on his head is a helmet with horns, and he himself stands on the basis, having the form of talent (a rectangular ingot of copper, similar to a stretched bull skin). A similar female statuette (based also in the form of a copper ingot), made in Cyprus in the same era, is located today in a museum in Oxford. And the presence of such an obvious compositional similarity made it possible for the researchers to see in these two sculptures ... a married couple - the blacksmith God Hephaestus and the goddess Aphrodite - depicting in such a symbolic form the wealth of the copper mines of the island of Cyprus.

Here, archaeologists also found the 12-centimeter bronze statuette of the god Baal, which used to be completely covered with thin sheets of gold, now preserved only on the face and chest. This shows that the population of Enkomi was not ethnically homogeneous, and that various Eastern deities were also worshiped here. Since Baal was revered both in Syria and Palestine, and in Ugarit, Phenicia, Canaan and Carthage, and also in Babylon, it can be assumed that migrants from all these cities and lands could live here. Moreover, Baal was also depicted as a warrior, holding a spear in his hand (as well as the aforementioned “God of metal”), and as a man in a helmet with horns (“The horned god”) or in the form of the same bull.


Such a copper pot in which it was possible to cook food for many people in the Ancient world at once was a great value. Archaeological Museum of Anapa.

Interestingly, one of the main plots of almost all biblical texts is the fight against the cult of this deity, although about him and the rituals associated with his veneration, practically no information has reached our days, except for indicating the great pomp of all ceremonies ending in human sacrifice. However, the very fact of such a long and uncompromising struggle against the Baal cult in all its manifestations speaks only of its wide distribution throughout the whole of Asia Minor; and moreover, that in its original form it was one of the most important elements of beliefs for more than a thousand-year epoch of the development of the peoples of the Mediterranean, who assimilated not only Asian people, but also their religion.


The bronze axes of the Mediterranean were usually small in size and rather resembled nineteenth-century Indian tomahawks. Archaeological Museum of Anapa.

Well, at the end of the late Bronze Age, the city of Enkomi began to gradually decline, and lost its former significance. The role in this sad event was first played by the people - “the peoples of the sea”, who committed their devastating raids along the entire coast of the Mediterranean Sea around 1200 BC. Nevertheless, Enkomi existed for another century, until it was destroyed by a strong earthquake, after which the city was finally abandoned by its inhabitants.


People always sought to live beautifully, and therefore tried to decorate their homes. For example, such a low-key floor mosaic that can be seen today in front of the archaeological museum in the city of Larnaca, Cyprus.

Well, and the conclusion? The conclusion is this: already then immigrants from different cultures sailed here from the continent. Their goal was metal, and here on the spot they mastered its mining and processing. That is, although there was still no written language, the exchange of information between peoples remote from each other took place, was well-established, and no cultural, ethnic or religious barriers interfered with it! Although the wars and raids at that time also occurred almost constantly ...

Previous materials:
1. From stone to metal: ancient cities (part 1)
2. The first metalwork and ancient cities: Chatal-Hüyuk - "the city under the hood" (part 2)
3. “Real Copper Age” or from the old paradigm to the new (part of 3)
4. Ancient metal and ships (part 4)
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  1. V.ic
    V.ic 23 September 2016 07: 16
    0
    Interesting, though controversial.
    "The fact of such a long and irreconcilable struggle against the cult of Baal in all its manifestations speaks only of its widespread distribution throughout Asia Minor; Author: Vyacheslav Shpakovsky"

    One of the many deities (remember India = cow). Agriculture however! Either yoke yourself with your wife and children, or yoke the bull. As IA Efremov wrote, brides in Greece were called "bringing bulls". Hence the cult. Ancient farmers needed the bull as the equivalent of a tractor. Hence the logical chain of power-power-wealth-"Taurus". By the way, the fight against the cult of the "golden calf" is by no means over ...
    “The conclusion is this: even then migrants from different cultures came here from the continent. Their purpose was metal, and here on the spot they mastered its extraction and processing. Author: Vyacheslav Shpakovsky”

    Not a fact.
    "Products of Anatolian metallurgists (jewelry, weapons, cutlery) were in demand in the Aegean region and elsewhere."
    http://www.krugosvet.ru/enc/istoriya/anatoliya_dr
    evnyaya_tsivilizatsiya.html
    On the other hand = why not accept capable artisans who know the secrets of turning copper into solid bronze? Or at least not capture them as prisoners of war in the Crete-Mycenaean era ...
    http://sinref.ru/000_uchebniki/03400metalurg/010_
    uvelirnoe_hudojestv_litio_po_modelam_splavov_medi
    _1991 / 005.htm
    1. kalibr
      23 September 2016 07: 49
      +1
      Everything can be, Victor. Any opinion or statement about that era is somewhat hypothetical. More or less...
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 23 September 2016 07: 57
    0
    Their goal was metal, and here on the spot they mastered its mining and processing.
    .. Not for nothing that the British Isles were called Tin .. Thank you .. indeed, for some time they did not consider the events of the Bronze Age.
  3. PKK
    PKK 23 September 2016 08: 11
    0
    I propose to the author of the article to cut a square hole with a copper tool in the stone of the mill. The author refuses, but will stand his ground, cut through with copper and that's it.
    Last guesses, and History is just guesses, the first mined metal was Arsenic bronze, which is much easier to obtain than pure copper, and the smelting temperature is lower.
    The duration of the Bronze Age depended on the presence of a tree, when the trees were burned, bronze would end there. Europe after that century was deforested.
    The technology of metal was transferred to our ancestors by the Gods, all kinds of recipes, admixtures, it’s so hard to imagine.
    1. Bloodsucker
      Bloodsucker 23 September 2016 08: 20
      0
      930 — 1140 ° C
      Bronze
      Copper melting point
      1083,4 ° C
      Well, is it much easier?
      Where is Vietnam and where is England?
      Deforestation Europe from the presence, lack of bronze? What kind of stupidity?
      It would be understandable, given the transition to the Iron Age, then yes, it is, with the forest in Europe began to strain.
      Technologies transferred ... Gods ??? Oh, yes, yes ... it means the ancestors were dumb, stupid and worthless, and what else did the Gods give — a wheel and pots of clay, a bow and fire?
      At the expense of drilling with a copper drill .. pour sand into the pipe, turn it and you will see the result - it’s drilling with hard granite, and this is just copper ... Yes, and what were you need square holes for, since everything you used, tools and war, impaled on the ROUND ...
    2. kalibr
      23 September 2016 08: 52
      0
      Quote: PKK
      The duration of the Bronze Age depended on the presence of a tree, when the trees were burned, bronze would end there. Europe after that century was deforested.

      Here you are, perhaps, right. In Cyprus, this generally led to an environmental disaster. However, charcoal was also required for the production of iron, so Europe also "deforested" for this reason - the forests were burned into coal, and the land was turned into fields. But as for everything else, everything is very controversial.
      Mouse-like bronze, yes, it was, but products made from it are in layers above pure copper, that is, it could not have been before. But it is located below the tin bronze items, so it is, yes, primary in relation to alloys with tin. In archeology, in this case, the earth itself helps determine where what and when. Deeper - ancient, higher - "early"!
      1. ando_bor
        ando_bor 23 September 2016 23: 56
        0
        The end of the Bronze Age due to powerful climatic changes is caused by the disappearance of forests, and humanity in general, both as a species and as a civilization - a product of adaptation to climatic changes, of different cycles only.
  4. 2-0
    2-0 23 September 2016 08: 58
    0
    Of course, probably, maybe - just kidding, but "Knemis from a Thracian burial in the territory of modern Bulgaria" - and the girls are in kokoshniks ...
    Make me a trireme, or at least a seaworthy trough with a copper or bronze instrument - and I will believe everything written about migration.

    The melting point of copper and bronze was written by "Bloodsucker", and GLASS, almost fifteen hundred ... The Middle Ages, frits, clean glass were not able to make until probably Murano, and here, on you, transparent vessels with handles. B-A-Y-K-I !!!!
    1. kalibr
      23 September 2016 13: 18
      +1
      All this was found in burials of the corresponding era, documented, photographed, cataloged. No one is going to convince ignoramuses, but this is science.
      1. 2-0
        2-0 23 September 2016 13: 25
        +2
        Ay, Vyacheslav! No need to throw accusations (ignoramuses).
        This is not a scientific meeting, where doctors and academics fight with horns, but a platform for opinions, and free ones.

        As for the burials and logging ... Tiara Saitafern, I don’t know, just that they didn’t bite, probably ... Where is the tiara (in decorative art - I saw, yeah, the Jews ... Rukhumovsky), and HDE experts?

        You tell me about Schliemann that he found the "Priam's treasure" .... and dug up Homeric Troy.
        1. kalibr
          23 September 2016 19: 16
          0
          In this case, this is not an accusation, but a statement of a sad fact. Why a fact? Because you mentioned Priam's treasure. It is worth coming to Moscow and to look at it at the Pushkin Museum. And on the Internet there is a description of each of its artifacts up to the data of metallographic analysis.
          1. 2-0
            2-0 23 September 2016 20: 54
            0
            Yes, I have seen, and more than once. And what, it says on the items: "Priam wore this, Aeneas supported, did Paris and Hector try on?" It means once.
            And two will be like that. Vyacheslav, how much junk from Priam's treasure was sold by Schliemann in private collections?
            Well, three - this is any mistake of analysis and related dates turns everything into candy wrappers and words. There is no one to do this. Nobody wants to bubble the swamp of historical science - they will devour them one at a time.

            Of course, we can talk with you over the hill, 8 km to the coastline, hike tight-syudym to fight, the convenience of the fleet's parking, even with temporary changes to the coast, the Troy area and, as it were, its walls (folded by the gods, not a pound of raisins ), but I think it will take too long. The fighter's hand knocking (on the keyboard) is tired.
            1. kalibr
              23 September 2016 21: 29
              0
              Quote: 2-0
              Yes, I have seen, and more than once. And what, it says on the items: "Priam wore this, Aeneas supported, did Paris and Hector try on?" It means once.
              And two will be like that. Vyacheslav, how much junk from Priam's treasure was sold by Schliemann in private collections?
              Well, three - this is any mistake of analysis and related dates turns everything into candy wrappers and words. There is no one to do this. Nobody wants to bubble the swamp of historical science - they will devour them one at a time.

              You judge superficially and about what you yourself do not know. Therefore, I simply have nothing to discuss with you. One of your phrases ... "bubble the swamp". Yes, this is precisely the cherished dream of every historian. And no one has devoured anyone yet, if they have documents and data from examinations in their hands. And without this, any statement is speculation and not science fiction. But you, apparently, want it to be that way and someone ate someone. But I know how it really is.
              1. 2-0
                2-0 24 September 2016 23: 15
                0
                Well, of course, superficially, what is the conversation about. He threw the charge and enough, enough.
                Docks 100% belonging to the treasure Priam, or at least for some period there? No, Schliemann allegedly dug out Troy, and called Priam's treasure, that’s all the docks.
                There is nothing to say about the sale of private owners - nothing.
                You, Vyacheslav, like any comrade with regalia in science, when you push against the wall with uncomfortable questions - the accusations of incompetence immediately went away.

                You probably know that some radiocarbon analyzes showed even future dates for plants and so on, so that we will not talk about the examination.

                About expertise. Here you write in an article about the researchers who allegedly dragged "Hephaestus" to the alleged "Aphrodite". Well, well, show me another sculpture where the lame, probably humpbacked Hephaestus was depicted with a shield and a spear and a slender ginger ... So, don't talk about experts.
  5. PKK
    PKK 23 September 2016 09: 17
    0
    Quote: The Bloodthirster

    At the expense of drilling with a copper drill .. pour sand into the pipe, turn it and you will see the result - it’s drilling with hard granite, and this is just copper ... Yes, and for which square ones were needed

    In the photo, it’s a square hole, you first study the article, look carefully. And then you messed it up, bronze is a tree. Arsenic bronze is more common to get it distorted, you don’t have to add tin.
    As for the Gods, there is no other option here. Is it possible to guess that if bellows blow air into the furnace, then bronze forms in the crucible. You can’t guess about this, you need to have this knowledge. You need to know and be able to make metallurgy.
    1. 2-0
      2-0 23 September 2016 09: 28
      +1
      There is a problem with the "gods". The problem is that having created such a brute as a man, they did not immediately teach him the theory of neutrinos, but drove into caves, where he partly went into monkeys, partly into homo sapiens. And he went and went, now he's almost reached ... If that's the only way, for fun, to see what will happen to the beast in 30 thousand years ...

      Those. if there were hints from above, then it was too primitive, at the level of human intuition and observation. Roughly like a "vessel from Baghdad", yes, the current gives 2 W, enough for gilding, but either it was used, then it was generally used for something else, historians are still beating with horns.
      1. V.ic
        V.ic 23 September 2016 10: 34
        0
        Quote: 2-0
        yes, the current gives 2 watts,

        Bravo! Yes, only the current / to your regret / is measured in amperes, and not in "W"! stop
        1. 2-0
          2-0 23 September 2016 11: 26
          0
          Come on you, find fault with particulars and make up clever girl. Do you want me to look at your opus and write a review on them? Tormented, stunned.

          In general, I wrote in watts for parking, but it should be in volts, did you notice "V.ic"?
        2. Niccola Mack
          Niccola Mack 25 September 2016 19: 54
          0
          To be precise, the chemical element has 3 critical characteristics:
          - Capacity - in watt hours
          - Normal voltage (at the end of the discharge - always less) - volts.
          - Normal discharge current - amps.
          Capacity usually depends on volume. Voltage - on type (say for acid batteries -2 V). Normal discharge current depends on volume and type.
          So it’s better not to start if you do not want to get confused from scratch and off topic.

          I liked the article - although I know almost nothing about it!
          It is necessary to re-read the others from the list.
    2. kalibr
      23 September 2016 19: 31
      0
      And who told you, or where does it say that the millstone belongs to the Bronze Age? This is a late product of the 5-4 century, when iron was already in use.
  6. PKK
    PKK 23 September 2016 09: 25
    0
    Quote: kalibr

    Mouse-like bronze, yes, it was, but products made from it are in layers above pure copper, that is, it could not have been before. But it is located below the tin bronze items, so it is, yes, primary in relation to alloys with tin. In archeology, in this case, the earth itself helps determine where what and when. Deeper - ancient, higher - "early"!

    Not all archaeologists adhere to the theory of layers, the deeper the more ancient. For example, iron is deeper than bronze, but iron has decayed, nothing remains of it, so what?
    1. V.ic
      V.ic 23 September 2016 10: 42
      0
      PKK "but the iron has rotted"

      M. b. is it "oxidized" after all?
      Shovel at least one "bayonet" on the assigned to you with
      excavation chief fool "square meters". Did you participate in the excavations? Shovel in hand bully held?
    2. kalibr
      23 September 2016 19: 17
      0
      It has rotted, but it would leave traces - oxides. But they are not! So it is unfortunate archaeologists deny the theory of layers. Poor students and bad books.
  7. PKK
    PKK 23 September 2016 10: 49
    0
    Quote: 2-0
    There is a problem with the "gods". The problem is that having created such a brute as a man, they did not immediately teach him the theory of neutrinos, but drove into caves, where he partly went into monkeys, partly into homo sapiens. And he went and went, now he's almost reached ... If that's the only way, for fun, to see what will happen to the beast in 30 thousand years ...

    No monkey will work out of a person, another menstrual cycle, monkeys have a penis bone, a person does not. A person’s hair grows and if not cut, after 5 years he will become tangled in his hair.
    Different completely breeds.
    1. 2-0
      2-0 23 September 2016 11: 29
      0
      Okay, let's follow Darwin - evolved. Then there is no talk about "gods" at all - prejudices and myth-making ...

      I MAY BE something like Darwin agreed with a million reservations, but I didn’t have Neanderthal with the Cro-Magnon man and this carlon from the Pacific island (forgot to remember laziness), they don’t fit
  8. PKK
    PKK 23 September 2016 10: 53
    0
    Quote: V.ic

    Shovel at least one "bayonet" on the assigned to you with

    Do not "shovel", but dig up, well, what are you clinging to, honest word.
    1. 2-0
      2-0 23 September 2016 12: 03
      0
      Uh, citizen V.ic! You impressed me so much with your profound remarks, and so everyone was on the topic that send me your address in a personal message. I'll send you sweets as a prize, "Roshen" by the way. For such an intelligent person like you, no feces are spared.
      1. V.ic
        V.ic 23 September 2016 13: 05
        +2
        "For such an intelligent person like you, no feces are spared."

        Mutually, according to Sir Newton's third law. Name the expeditions in which you participated: / era = Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, bronze / / leaders of the expeditions /// years / by their direct labor. So we'll figure out where the chiki-bunches are, and where the bunches-chiki are, you are our lover of antiquities ... Just not for the information space. Better "in a personal" Mr 2-0. "Roshen" shove Mr. Piglet and yourself "in a known place." As for the "personal", then, of course, understand the functions of the "icons". "Heroic lard!" Just do not drop, to avoid ... belay / salmonella / fool
        1. 2-0
          2-0 23 September 2016 13: 36
          0
          Oooooo, flooded, seethed. A little something - just about "fat", etc., etc. If the Ukrainian flag, then it started when there is nothing to say.

          About the expeditions ... And on? in fact ... 95% of the scientists who dug up the phallus mountain of monographs and articles on history, etc., etc., are not that they were not at the excavations - they didn’t leave the offices, and what?
          Ask the author of the article, was he in Japan a lot? However, he published several, well, quite interesting works on samurai and other eastern mutoteni (Vyacheslav is no offense to you).
          If you had expeditions and you worked there, I think as ancillary workers, then you can continue to put on the ceiling with happiness, if the prostate allows you to keep the pressure.

          And you, citizen V.ic, don’t eat fat at all? w-d-d (not a Jew, w-d), or a Muslim, or a vegetarian? I’m here ... alone .... already wrote that the use of emoticons indicates a low level of intelligence, and a small supply of words in speech.
          1. kalibr
            23 September 2016 14: 05
            0
            But although I was not in Japan myself, my students were there. Moreover, everyone studied Japanese, knew how to speak it and lived there for six months. And I even co-authored a book with one of the students - "Modern Japanese Advertising" and published it not only in Russia, but also in Germany. So today "was-not" is not an indicator. Well, I was at the excavations in Cyprus, but I didn't dig it myself. I was at the excavations of Hermonassa, Gorgippia, Tanais, Zolotarevka, but I did not dig myself either ... But ... I watched for a long time how they were digging, ha ha.
          2. V.ic
            V.ic 23 September 2016 14: 48
            0
            user / 2-0 / "And you, citizen V.ic, do not eat lard at all? f-e-d (not a Jew, f-e-d), are you a Muslim, or a vegetarian?"

            You will probably be surprised, but in all my life I have never lost a PIECE. Honest pioneer! You can write with pure boiling water to me, but nevertheless: not a bit in your entire life. M. b. they will take forty houris to the Muslim paradise ... repeat
            I’m here ... alone .... already wrote that the use of emoticons, speaks of a low level of intelligence, and a small supply of words in speech

            The Gospel of Matthew (Ch. 7, v. 1-2) says: "Do not judge, lest you be judged, for with what judgment you judge, you will be judged; and with what measure you mete, it will be measured to you." so you go ... you know where / the language will lead to Kueva /. yes
            1. 2-0
              2-0 23 September 2016 21: 04
              0
              Do not eat or eat, it is your business. In the army, they didn’t serve, you pick and choose in food. You can continue ... to the ceiling ... prostate.

              If you hit one cheek, then with a bias, give an uppercut, and a deuce to the case, it will be more true ...
              1. 2-0
                2-0 23 September 2016 21: 21
                0
                Oh, by the way, citizen V.ic! Please the people with at least one of their scientific work, when-where did they come out, or are you more and more with a shovel at the excavation site, but at the forum with clave? And somehow it’s not clear, they tried to run into me, but they were silent ... Surprise the community with the academic publication of 30 volumes.
  9. timyr
    timyr 23 September 2016 12: 45
    0
    During the seizure of Cyprus by the peoples of the sea, a completely anecdotal situation occurred. In Cyprus, one of the kings was the son of King Ugarit. He asked for help from his father, the father replied, my son, we are sending you our 120 ships, but return them as soon as possible since the ships of the shardan were seen near the city. Moreover, another 80 ships chased the shardan. Only the ships sailed, then the shardan sailed and Ugarit fell. And in Cyprus, too, did not have time to help.
    1. 2-0
      2-0 23 September 2016 12: 52
      +1
      Where are cuneiform letters, or hieroglyphs?
  10. timyr
    timyr 23 September 2016 13: 34
    0
    Quote: 2-0
    Where are cuneiform letters, or hieroglyphs?

    Cuneiform writing seems to be. During the excavation of the royal palace in Ugarit, an archive and a letter from there were found. The city in Syria on the coast, near Latakia, will be burned.
    1. 2-0
      2-0 23 September 2016 13: 59
      0
      Thank. Although the decryption text itself ... It's like Mark Twain's, human inscriptions deciphered.
  11. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 23 September 2016 17: 35
    +1
    The center of metallurgy among archaeologists is considered the Caucasus.
    From there, smelting of copper, bronze, iron spread,
    gold. Local residents (Armenians believe that they were their ancestors)
    came up with high-temperature furnaces and threw all the metals there,
    experimenting with separation, alloying, cooling, etc.
    That is, they laid the foundations of metallurgy.
    1. kalibr
      23 September 2016 19: 32
      0
      It is interesting...
    2. 2-0
      2-0 23 September 2016 21: 16
      +1
      Names, titles, any thread of work in support of?
  12. Operator
    Operator 23 September 2016 20: 24
    0
    It is interesting who the first metallurgists of Cyprus were - residents of South Asia J2 or Caucasians G (it is believed that the latter invented metallurgy).
    1. Operator
      Operator 23 September 2016 23: 40
      +1
      Correction - the first metallurgists were residents of the Anatolian Peninsula (haplogroup J2), who mastered the smelting and processing of copper 6000 years BC.

      From there, smelting and processing of copper spread
      to the west: Balkans (4500 BC) -> Eastern Europe (4300) -> Italy (3600) -> Scandinavia (3600) -> Spain (3300) -> Britain (2400)
      to the east: Mesopotamia (4300 years BC)
      North: Caucasus (3500 BC)

      The invention of bronze (an alloy of copper with tin) occurred already in many centers of metallurgy (3000 years BC and later).

      The smelting of iron from ore was also first mastered by the inhabitants of Anatolia - the Hittites of 1800 BC.
  13. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 23 September 2016 20: 40
    +1
    This butting touches me, on any site, for any reason, with any initial settings about ukrov and russians ... Well, let's arrange a battle on the subject of the nationality of the find of the four Lika in Olduwei, who was she ?, mesocrum or protomedomed? Zadolbali, go to Donetsk and deal personally, each with each and everyone at once! And then you will soon become a foreign agent intelligence Mossad
    1. 2-0
      2-0 23 September 2016 21: 15
      0
      hohlosrach called .... Now it’s smaller, see and see what happened. Some just boils more.
      My cousin’s wife (she’s from Krasniy Lyman and she knows all this lousy since childhood), back in the middle of the 14th she said how it would end.
      Then we finish the topic.
  14. Jääkorppi
    Jääkorppi 4 October 2016 16: 57
    0
    Great! Sheep bronze bullions? Then maybe gold bars of the same shape were delivered from Colchis and hence the myth of the Golden Fleece! But in fact, now as a result of archaeological excavations it is clear that the ancient world did not consist of fragments of civilizations, but always, as now is modern, was one! And people somehow interacted from the Baltic to Africa, and from Spain to China.