And again about the confrontation of the T-50 PAK FA with Raptor. Missed "National Interest" details
More than six and a half years have passed since the first flight of the prototype of the Russian 5th generation T-50-1 PAK-FA super-maneuverable multi-role fighter of the 29th generation. During this time, the network could meet thousands of discussions among fans of combat aviation and specialists regarding the combat qualities of this magnificent machine in confrontation with the best serial fighter of the 5th generation of the Air Force - F-22A Raptor, three modifications of the most famous and popular in the West promising tactical fighter F-35A / B / C, as well as various fighters transitional generation produced by West European aerospace corporations. It was clearly determined that on all machines of the 4 ++ generation (Rafal, EF-2000 Typhoon, JAS-39NG, Super Hornet, F-15SE, etc.) the T-50 PAK FA will be To have undeniable superiority in ultra-long, long and short-range air battles.
A similar situation will develop with the American F-35 drill and export, even if they are equipped with AIM-120D long-range air-to-air guided missiles (URVV). However, due to the significantly lower radar visibility of Lightning, this will occur at a much shorter (by 1,5 - 2 times) distance than with transitional machines. Lightning with EPR 0,15 - 0,2 m2 be found onboard radar N036-01-1 to 175 distance - 200 km, where it can launch an attack with the use of PBB-DB missiles ( "the product 610M"), as well as more adapted to this highly maneuverable missile with propulsive a jet engine, known as the “180-PD product”. The AN / APG-81 radar, installed on the F-35A, will be able to detect a PAK FA with an ESR less than 0,3 m 2 at a distance from 120 to 140 km, so long-range AMRAAMs will have to be used, not according to the information of the radiation warning system, which emphasizes the lag behind the Russian promising aviation complex.
But still hot debates continue over the likely battles of T-50 with F-22A. On the Raptor and the radar is several times more powerful than the F-35A, and its noise immunity will be higher. As for the radar visibility (EPR), it does not exceed 0,05 - 0,07. Similar to the T-50, the Raptor is equipped with a twin-engined powerplant with an OBE and is a super maneuverable fighter. This is an excellent ground for the continuation of the simulation of air confrontation between the two best fighters in the world.
OPINION OF SOME WESTERN MEDIA BECOMES MORE OBJECTIVE
So, September 16 2016, the next short comparison of two 5 generation aviation complexes, has published an online edition of the famous magazine The National Interest. Here, an absolutely weighted position was reported, where the T-50 was presented as a next-generation fighter equal to the Raptor. In its article TNI, the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China were noted as the current world leaders in the development and production of the best fighter aircraft in the world. Despite the brevity of the analytical review, the Nixon Center (often called “The National Interest”) very competently approached the comparison of the two best 5 generation fighters, indicating their main advantages and disadvantages expressed by design differences.
So, according to the most important criterion for 5 generation fighters - effective scattering surface (EPR), the reviewer gave greater preference to the American F-22A, pointing out that when creating the Raptor, great attention was paid to the full-scale reduction of its radar signature, while “ The Sukhoi Design Bureau focused on reducing the radar visibility of the front hemisphere (projection) of our fighter. Such a conclusion is completely untrue. In both fighters, all the elements of the construction of the airframe of the front projection are inclined planes without right angles with a radar absorbing coating. The nose of the fuselage has a multifaceted cross-section with both two sharp side ribs and rounding in its lower part for the maximum possible removal of the electromagnetic radiation from the enemy's radar. Radar blades with active headlamps Н036-01-1 (Ш-121) and AN / APG-77 have some inclination towards the upper hemisphere (for AN / APG-77 around 15 degrees) for an additional reduction of the EPR, but with some loss of its own energy and long-range capabilities when working on targets with humiliation relative to the carrier. True, this slope is capable of well reducing the EPR only against those ground-based or air-based radar systems, which are located relative to the carrier with a decrease of several kilometers, as well as at a short distance of three to five dozen kilometers. Against high potential radars located closer to the radio horizon (250-300 km away), 15 web tilt degrees (4-6% reduction in EPR) will not play a big role.
The F-22A cockpit lantern has a slightly better stealth rating than the T-50 flashlight, which is framed by a single “stripe”. Nevertheless, despite the large area of the machine’s plan, our fighter’s mid-sectional area is only 2,3% higher than the Raptor (9,47 vs. 9,25 м2), which indicates that the fuselage is sufficiently compact with a minimum number of internal volumes. Naturally, the T-50 PAK FA radar signature remains at a decent level, slightly exceeding the Raptor. The only details that can have a bad effect on the effective reflective surface are: a single-cover lamp, as well as a turret of an optical-electronic sighting system OLS-50M.
These questions are also completely solvable: during the execution of a combat operation for target designation in full radio silence mode, the OLPK turret can be turned towards the pilot's cockpit canopy, and its rear part will be made of radio absorbing materials, the cover from the lantern design can also be safely removed. But if everything is extremely clear with the radar visibility of the front projection, the rear hemisphere of the aircraft raises many questions, all of which are unlikely to be resolved.
As mentioned earlier, the aerodynamically ideal glider T-50 has the smallest possible midsection section, which is explained by the traditional fuselage design for all Dryers, where between two air intakes and nacelles is a space around 1,5 m, the inner part of this gap forms a bearing surface a few square meters, thanks to which the lift of the family’s machines increases. Improved flight capabilities with high angles of attack, as well as the angular velocity of the turn. Also, compared with other twin-engine fighters (F / A-18E / F, F-22A "Raptor"), the survivability of the T-50 increases in case of damage to one of the engines. But it has such a construction and disadvantage.
It is associated with the practically "open" architecture of the power plant. The F-22A "Pratt & Whitney F119-PW-100" engines are known to be hidden deep in the aft fuselage structure. The T-50's engines are spaced apart in separate nacelles, each of which stands out against the background of the fighter's tail section like a huge "candle". Judging by the photographs, the nacelles are not covered with layers of radio-absorbing materials, and the inner spaces between the nacelles and turbines of the AL-41F engines do not have heat-absorbing materials and air channels of the cooling system to reduce the fighter's infrared signature. The T-50 PAK FA nacelles, in terms of the total area unprotected from radars and infrared optical-electronic means of the enemy, are approximately 3-5 times larger than the angular contours of the Raptor compact nacelles with flat nozzles. We have the result: the open design of the T-50 power plant brings the RCS to 0,5 - 0,8 m2 when the enemy radar is irradiated from the rear hemisphere. In addition, the rapidly heating T-50 PAK FA engine nacelles, especially in afterburner modes, allow the optical-electronic complexes of enemy fighters to detect our vehicle at a distance of about 100 km (when viewed in profile or into the rear hemisphere), into the front IR hemisphere - sensors will detect our T-50 no further than 40-50 km. For the Raptor, these figures will be several times less.
And what can I say, the T-50 PAK FA was created to defeat the enemy located in the PPS during long-range air combat, as well as for super-maneuverable melee air combat, where reduced radar and infrared signatures will not play a big role. The entire emphasis was placed on preserving the unique flight-technical characteristics of all products of the Sukhoy OKB, reducing the front projection EPR for covert rapprochement with enemy aircraft, as well as equipping the new and promising aviation complex with radio equipment superior to the enemy. It is on this issue that the authors of The National Interest showed their incompetence.
THE MOST TOTAL TECHNOLOGICAL PERFECTION OF THE T-50 BEFORE THE "RAPTOR" IS OBVIOUS THAT IN THE WEST ATTEMPT TO VERY HAVE COVERED
In their article, they claim that the onboard radio-electronic equipment T-50 and F-22A has similar parameters. Any knowledgeable person can simply “distort” from such statements. First, YF-25, developed over 22 years ago, passed the modernization path from F-22A Block 20 Increment 2 to Block 35 Increment 3.2B (Milestone-C), although it received the latest versions of software to control various modes of the BRLS AN / APG-77, as well as the integration of the latest types of high-precision weapons, still continues to yield qualitatively in this respect T-50 PAK FA.
The fact is that the element base and the energy capabilities of the onboard radar W-121 are much newer than the electronic database of American AN / APG-77. The detection range of a cruise missile target (EPR 0,1 m2) for our station is 165 - 170 km, for the US - about 115 km. American-promoted LPI mode (with “low interception capability”), in which AN / APG-77 emits a broadband noise-like scanning signal with a pseudo-random frequency tuning, could not be calculated using the outdated radiation warning system SPO-15LM “Birch”, where informing the pilot answered a simple indicator unit with the possibility of tracking the entire 1 of the detected radar complex and 6 classification of radar types. A simple algorithm for the operation of the Birch receiving and computing device could not determine the radiation type of LPI. A more sophisticated STR-type L-150-35, installed on the Su-35, as well as its more advanced analogue, which is part of the T-50 avionics, instead of lamp indicator panels, is used to display all the information of the LCD MFI on the pilots dashboard, thanks to which the pilot may be aware of not only the class of the irradiating radar, but has the ability to identify it. The number of radar types loaded into the digital savings bank is 1024 units (instead of 6 from Birch).
The upgraded L-150 type radiation warning systems have targeting capabilities for radar detectors and MRLS anti-aircraft missile systems for anti-radar missiles, as well as for radio-emitting air targets for missiles RVV-SD / BD. Due to this, L-150 systems are called stations of direct radio intelligence (SNRTR). The American SPO AN / ALR-94 installed on the F-22A also has similar characteristics. The US model has more than 30 passive antenna sensors installed in various parts of the Raptor glider; they work in the L, VHF, UHF, S, G, X, Ka and Ku bands. Agree, the system is advanced, and provides a full-range direction finding of radio-emitting targets with the possibility of targeting missiles AIM-120D and high-precision arms air-to-ground / ship class from a distance of 200 km. At the PAK FA there are not so many passive sensors of open source sensors, but there is a trump concept of the 21st century.
It is represented by additional 4 radar complex Н036 (Ш-121). The first X-band radar 2 (H036B and H036B-01) X-band located directly behind the main antenna array in the nose of the fuselage. They fully provide support for targets located in the side hemispheres of T-50, and allow the pilot to fire missiles with RVV-MD targets using the “over the shoulder” principle even without the OLS-50М and our target targeting system. The range of these radars on typical targets can reach 50 — 70 km. The second 2 radar (H036L and H036L-01) operate in decimeter L-band. They are installed in the toes of the wing and are intended for the detection, maintenance and state recognition of air objects. In addition, the L-band radar has excellent opportunities for mapping the terrain with the detection of even small radio-contrast ground objects. Radar H036L / L-01, theoretically, can be an excellent means for flying in the mode of following the terrain with simultaneous tracking of the sea / land surface and near airspace. The main radar H036-01-1 may not be used at the same time, which will keep the enemy’s aerial reconnaissance equipment in error about the type of aircraft until the very last moment. These radars are irreplaceable when flying at low altitudes in adverse weather conditions, when airborne and container optical-electronic complexes have low efficiency. In F-22A, there is no such means on board, and the AN / APG-77 radar cannot “look into” the side hemispheres: the azimuth viewing sector is of the order of 120 degrees.
It is good to remind about the rear radio transparent container T-50, in which, in an image similar to the Su-34, the 6-i can already be installed in-flight radar for work in the rear hemisphere. Judging by the size of the radiotransparent "spot" on the tail container, a small-sized decimeter radar with AFYAR Spear-DL is installed here. It is used as a station to detect attacking enemy missiles in the tail section. Large missiles can be detected at a distance of 6 km, AIM-120C missiles - from 5 km, anti-aircraft guided missiles of the FIM-92 type ("Stinger") - from 4 km. Fighters are detected from 7-16 km depending on the type and ESR.
"Spear-DL" realizes in one fighter simply enormous opportunities for conducting close air combat and defense against approaching enemy missiles. If the BVB P-73RMD-2 or RVV-MD super-maneuverable missiles are on the suspensions, the T-50 can destroy any potential air assault weapon behind the aircraft: the whole process will be realized only with the help of "Lance". According to unofficial information, the interceptor gas-dynamic control of the P-73RMD-2 and RVV-MD missiles makes it possible to maneuver with overloads up to 65 units, and therefore even anti-aircraft missiles can be intercepted, making maneuvers with overload up to 20G.
If we speak in a more precise language, the radio engineering look of the Russian T-50 PAK FA several times exceeds the officially known qualities of the radar equipment of the American F-22A, the information on which was completely neglected in TNI.
I forgot to mention the absence of the American 5 fighter's generation of an optical-location sighting system (OLPK), which is necessary for covertly conducting mid-range and short-range air battles without external target designation, when enemy fighter radars and REP complexes are also disabled. “Raptor” in a similar situation will find itself in a simply disastrous situation, from which pilots of ordinary MiG-29CMT or Su-27, equipped with optical-electronic sighting and navigation complexes of the first generations, could easily get out. On the future aviation complex T-50, there will be a much more advanced OLS-50M that will easily find the F-22A "Raptor" at a distance of 35 km to the forward hemisphere, but if an American turns out to be relative to the T-50 side, as well as the lower and upper projections, - the range of direction finding will increase from 35 to 60 - 80 km: “Raptor” will be “in full view”, even without the possibility of response detection and tracking of our T-50. This is a basic fact that demonstrates the qualitative superiority of our advanced fighter over the American.
The only positive moment for the F-22A pilot is the presence of the AN / AAR-56 missile launch warning station. The station has a distributed optoelectronic aperture of 7 infrared sensors, symmetrically placed on the upper surface of the air intakes (2 e.), The lower part of the forward fuselage (4 units), and in front of the cockpit lantern (1 units). Miniature thermal imaging cameras are a simplified analogue of a more advanced DAS system installed on the F-35A, and are able to detect and track the launching missiles by the torch of a rocket engine until the fuel burns out. It is unlikely that AN / AAR-56 is suitable for detecting the thermal radiation of jet engines of enemy aircraft on the formless modes AN / AAR-35 (the luminosity of the lenses and the sensitivity of the matrices are not the same). But this station is quite capable of detecting short-range launches of missiles and air defense missiles. By appointment, there is a decent resemblance to the Attacking Missile Detection Station (SOAP) installed on our MiG-XNUMX.
In the middle of their publication, the authors of The National Interest recalled the high capabilities of the Russian military-industrial complex in the development of electronic countermeasure systems, indicating their use on the T-50 PAK FA. And absolutely no mistake. According to these parameters, the American F-22A is repeatedly inferior to the Russian fighter.
The American machine uses the Sanders / General Electric AN / ALR-944 electronic warfare station. As its main radiating antenna, transmit-receive modules (MRP) of the AN / APG-77 radar are used. Due to this, “Raptor” can carry out the sighting of frequency and angular coordinates of interference with an accuracy close to the main modes of operation of the AN / APG-77 radar. AN / ALR-944 can work on target designation of external funds, but the main source of data are the 30 sensors of the radiation warning system and electronic intelligence AN / ALR-94. The Raptor fighter’s REB system is not without flaws: high accuracy of targeting jamming is carried out exclusively within the 120-degree sector of the on-board radar, i.e. only in the front hemisphere. In the rear hemisphere, apparently, the setting of barrier noise interference is carried out by a weakly directed method using small emitters tail elements of the airframe. For setting all-sight sightings "Raptor" will need an EW suspension container, which will definitely increase the fighter's radar visibility, and therefore this option is excluded. This role will be performed by EW F / A-18G aircraft.
The Russian T-50 PAK FA is equipped with the much more advanced Himalaya electronic warfare station. It also uses the energy and physical resources of the H036 airborne radar system (W-121). This suggests that aiming interference can be radiated not only by the main nasal radar, but also by the above-described side-view stations H036B / B-01; in this case, the high accuracy of the interference with the enemy’s radar weapons can also be carried out in the side hemispheres (up to 120-140 degrees relative to the exchange rate direction), which is more than X-NUMX times more than the "Raptor" EW station. The L-band wing radars can be programmed to pinpoint ground-based satellite navigation aids operating in the frequency range from 2 to 1176,45 MHz. "Raptor" obviously does not possess such abilities.
At the end of the comparison article T-50 PAK FA and F-22A, the author recalled the high maneuverability of T-50, achieved due to the deflected thrust vector of the AL-41F1 turbojet engines. It really is. For example, the deviation rate of the thrust vector of this engine is 60 degrees / s, and the deviation angles of the relative longitudinal axis of the engine are 20 degrees. The OVT of our engines is all-round, due to which both Su-35С and T-50 PAK FA, when performing super-maneuverable figures, can perform very vigorous turns in the yaw plane. The American F-22A flat rotary nozzles of the F119-PW-100 engines also deviate by 20 degrees, but only in the vertical plane, and the speed of deflection is only 20 degrees / s, which is why the Raptor maneuvers look more “viscous” "And implemented exclusively in the plane of pitch, which you can observe yourself by watching some of the performances of these machines at Western air shows.
Having listed a number of technological advantages of our next-generation fighter, you should not forget about the existing drawback, which should be eliminated by the time of adopting the first serial T-50 of the VKS units. The turbojet engines AL-41F1 installed on the machines of the first pilot stage give out total thrust in 30000 kgf, the normal take-off weight (with full internal fuel tanks and several long-range air combat guided missiles) at the same time reaches 30610 kg, due to thrust-to-weight ratio does not reach 1 kgf / kg and remains at the level of 0,98. The "Raptor" in a similar situation, thrust-to-weight ratio reaches 1,08 kgf / kg. This means that the American car today can sometimes dominate on the verticals, and also has a slower rate of deceleration during the transition to vertical flight. According to the reports of the head of United Aircraft Building Corporation PJSC, Yury Slyusar, the situation with this characteristic will soon change dramatically from the second stage machines. Fighters will begin to equip the upgraded power plant "Product 30" (modernization of the AL-41F1) with increased to 18000 kgf load, as well as an improved indicator of service life and fuel efficiency. This suggests the preservation of the flight range and a sharp increase in the thrust ratio of the T-50. First time in stories combat aviation of the XXI century, the 5 th generation fighter will reach 0,97 thrust at a maximum take-off mass of 37 tons. With a normal take-off mass in 30610 kg, this parameter will be 1,18 kgf / kg. F-22A will remain far behind.
Tactical moments when comparing two cars also have very great importance in a possible confrontation in the theater of the 21st century. T-50 with 12900 kg of fuel in the internal tanks has a combat range, subject to the application of the regime of cruising supersonic on a certain segment of the trajectory, about 1050 km. If the cruising supersonic regime was not used, the combat radius can reach 1900 — 2000 km, one refueling during the flight will increase it to 2700 km. Without refueling by the PAK FA, having risen from one of the air bases in the Moscow region, it can arrive in the airspace of Denmark, destroy a couple of F-16A and a couple of F-35A there, and then return to the airfield of dislocation. What can "Raptor"?
The F-22A fuel tanks contain 8200 kg of fuel, which is barely enough to carry out a shock operation within 760 km, taking into account the use of supersonic sound. If we take into account the air combat with the enemy, which requires time, maneuvers and fuel consumption, the radius can be reduced to 600 - 650 km with the inevitable use of supersonic cruising speed with a decrease in the troposphere. If the standard flight mode is used at a speed of about 950 km / h, the range without refueling can reach all 1250 km, which is barely enough to reach the western borders of Russia, as well as the Gulf of Finland. Considering that during the period of possible conflict with NATO, the C-400 Triumph divisions and systems will be deployed in the Kaliningrad region and Belarus, NATO refueling aircraft will not be able to support the tactical aviation of the coalition in the Baltic airspace, and military operations will completely fall on the shoulders of the subtle Fighter type F-22A and F-35A. The pilots of the Raptors, with their range, cannot even dream of conducting long air battles near our air borders. In the same turn, the T-50 PAK FA has much more technological and tactical bells and whistles, thanks to which the car can be considered a true "strategist among tacticians."
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