On the centenary of the plant named after Degtyaryov: from machine gun Madsen to Korda. Part of 1

27 August 2016, the plant named after V.A. Degtyarev turned 100 years. It was on this day that the construction of the first buildings of the Kovrov machine-gun factory began. This date is considered to be the day of his birth, and the plant has been bearing the name of designer Vasily Alekseevich Degtyarev since 1949. Today, three times the order-bearing OAO “Plant named after V. A. Degtyarev” is a modern diversified enterprise, the largest in the Vladimir region and one of the leading machine-building enterprises in Russia (one of the 200 largest companies in the country), the plant employs more than 10 thousands of employees.

History the legendary enterprise began in the years of the First World War, when the army of the Russian Empire felt the acute shortage of small automatic weapons. In 1916, a joint-stock company of gun and machine gun factories was formed in Petrograd, the purpose of which was to implement the proposal of the Danish company Dansk Rekilriffel Syndikat to build a new machine gun factory in Russia. Already on August 12, 1917, the representatives of the GAU were handed over the first machine guns of the Danish officer Madsen's system. A century has passed since then, and today the Kovrov plant produces not only machine guns (hand and machine guns), but also various other products: machine guns, machine guns, sniper rifles, grenade launchers, aviation guns, anti-tank and anti-aircraft missile weapons, traumatic weapons, as well as civilian products: motorcycles and scooters, equipment for the food industry and tillage equipment (motor blocks, cultivators, etc.).

The range of products manufactured by the plant is very extensive and the story of all the samples of Kovrov products would be worthy of a whole encyclopedia. We will consider only the evolution of machine-gun armament from the first Danish machine gun Madsen, thanks to which ZiD appeared in Kovrov, to the most modern types of small arms - the single Pecheneg 7,62-mm machine gun and the KND heavy-caliber 12,7 machine gun.

Manual machine gun (shotgun) Madsen

Madsen's light machine-gun is the development of the same-name Danish designer 1890, the machine gun was produced from 1900 by Dansk Rekylriffel Syndikat in Copenhagen. The Madsen light machine gun became the world's first light machine gun that went into mass production. The release of a machine gun in various versions continued until the beginning of the 1950-s, while the machine gun was in service with the armies of about 30 countries of the world.

The Russian-Japanese war, which began in January 1904, quickly raised the question of supplying the Russian army with machine guns in one of the first places. In service at that time were mainly Maxim machine guns, mainly on heavy wheeled installations. More maneuverable machine guns mounted on tripod machines and transported in packs or on gigs were very few, and it was not possible to prepare them quickly. The army urgently needed a fairly light machine gun for cavalry units that operated against Japan. By 1904, the Danish machine gun Madsen was practically the only model of the light machine gun on the world market. In our country, this type of weapon received the designation "gun-machine gun", translated from French fusil-mitrailleur.

15 September 1904 of the year (old style) with the Danish manufacturer Dansk Rekylriffel Syndikat was awarded the first contract for the supply of 50 machine guns, adapted to the Russian 7,62-mm rifle cartridge, with a sight notched to 2400 steps (1704 meters). In accordance with the position of the Military Council of February 5 1905, a second contract was concluded, this time for the supply of another 200 machine-guns. All of them were purchased together with pack saddles, twin saddle bags, holsters and cartridge packs. To carry out factory tests of purchased machine guns, Russian three-line rifle cartridges were specially sent to the capital of Denmark from the warehouses of the district artillery department of the Petersburg Military District. It is noteworthy that “public opinion” in the Russian Empire preferred to explain the choice of the Danish machine gun not by its qualities, but by the influence of the widowed empress Maria Feodorovna - the former Danish princess Dagmara.

On the centenary of the plant named after Degtyaryov: from machine gun Madsen to Korda. Part of 1

Of the 250 machine guns delivered to Russia by October 1905, 210 managed to be distributed among the 35 horse-rifle teams that were trained in the Officer Rifle School, 40 left in the rifle school, including 12 machine guns in two pecher-machinegun teams. 23 June 1905, specifically for the Border Guard of the Zaamursky District, was additionally ordered another 30 machine gun from Madsen, which were transferred to protect the CER objects. 9 July 1905 was signed another contract - for the supply to the military ministry of 1000 machine guns Madsen and 125 "equipment".

The design of the machine gun Madsen

Automation Madsen machine gun worked on the recoil scheme with a short barrel stroke (barrel stroke less than the shutter stroke). The movable system was installed inside the box with the barrel cover, the bottom and back of the box was closed with a butt pad. The cooling of the barrel was airy. The barrel was provided with transverse ribbing along its entire length; in the receiver it was fastened with a screw joint.

The most original part of the machine gun design was the locking assembly. The lock of the barrel of the Madsen light machine gun was carried out by a bolt of complex shape swinging in a vertical plane, the axis of which was fastened in the receiver - in a certain sense, the swinging bolt Martini was automated in a machine gun. During the course of the moving system inside the fixed box, the bolt protrusion slid along the shaped slot of the box guide. When you roll back under the effect of recoil shot protrusion bolt, falling into an inclined section of the groove, lifted it, unlocking the bore. At the same time, the ejector, located in the lower tide of the barrel of the machine gun, ran into the backboard insert, turned, and then removed the cartridge case from the chamber and threw it out of the box. After that, the shutter, reaching the inclined branch of the groove, with the help of the force of the leaf spring located on the inside of the box cover, was lowered into the lower position. At the same time, he opened the receiver, where the next cartridge dropped from the store. The mobile system returned to the forward position by a return spring, which worked on it through a special lever.

When the moving system moved in the opposite direction, the cartridge was sent to the chamber through a special rammer, after which the bolt of the machine gun lifted and locked the barrel. The locking unit of the Madsen swinging machine gun provided fairly reliable locking and allowed the box to be shortened - the bolt does not move longitudinally from the barrel of the machine gun, the rollback length of the moving system is only about 50 mm, that is, less than the length of the used cartridge. However, all this required the designers to introduce a special ejector and rammer, which in general was the cause of the complexity of the whole structure.

The Madsen rifle was completed with sector-shaped box-shaped magazines that contained 25 cartridges. The magazine was mounted on the top of the machine gun with an offset to the left and was fixed with the help of a latch and plastic spring. The upper location of the magazine, which is convenient for a quick change of the shooter to the position and prevents clinging to the ground and obstacles, will continue to be used in the construction of light machine guns in many countries.

In the Madsen machine gun was implemented trigger mechanism (USM) of the hammer type, with a helical combat spring. The drummer was installed in the through channel of the bolt, the trigger with the combat spring and its guide rod was located in the back plate, the trigger mechanism was on the safety bracket. USM gun-machine gun allowed the conduct of single and automatic fire. The translator of firing modes was located in the rear part of the trigger guard and, when turning forward (fire with single cartridges), limited the turn of the trigger.

On the casing of the barrel of a machine gun with an offset to the right side, a front sight and a sector sight were mounted. There was a recess under the bipod clip. Bipod legs - straight, with folding supports and flat tips. The butt of a light machine gun is wooden, with a folding metal shoulder strap and a pistol protrusion of the neck. Whole design of the Madsen light machine gun included 98 of various parts.

Performance characteristics:
The cartridge - 7,62x54 mm.
Machine gun length - 1140 mm.
Barrel length - 591 mm.
Weight - about 9 kg.
Shop - 25 ammo.
Rate of Fire - 450 shots / min.
Aim range - 1700 meters.

The appearance of the machine-gun factory in Kovrov

On 1 in January, 1911 in 137 cavalry, equestrian and Cossack regiments, as well as 4's Cossack divisions remained in service with 874 Madsen machine guns, 156 guns were stored in warehouses, and 29 were in training schools. In addition, there were 143 training and 48 “useless and requiring correction” machine guns. At the same time, in the autumn of 1911, machine guns of the Madsen system began to be removed from cavalry units, and automatic weapons were handed over to the armaments of the fortresses.

By the beginning of the First World War, the situation with the Russian-Japanese war was repeated; the existing machine guns in the Russian army were clearly not enough. In the very first months of the war, the infantry of the warring parties realized that machine guns were its important and indispensable weapons, and they were also its main adversary. 22 August 1915, General Belyaev, who held the post of Chief of General Staff, wrote: “The number of machine guns in the infantry is not enough, and in cavalry - insignificant. Meanwhile, the cavalry very often entrusted tasks that it, in the absence of sufficient rifle equipment, is not able to perform. " In the same year, in order to reduce the general shortage of machine guns, the GAU assembled in the Russian fortresses in the existing army and sent usable Madsen light machine guns to the front through the Petrograd warehouse, some of which were repaired and modified for a pointed bullet before being sent to the front line. Tula and Sestroretsky weapons factories.

World War I acutely exacerbated the need for light machine guns for infantry and cavalry units, the first combat airplanes and river combat flotillas. Russia tried to order light machine guns from its allies in the Entente, but they themselves felt an acute need for such automatic weapons. October 18 1915, the Danes turned to the Russian military attache in Rome with a proposal to supply machine guns Madsen chambered for Mauser. Such an appeal was caused by a reluctance to jeopardize the neutrality of Denmark in the First World War. 31 December of the same year, one machine gun was handed over to the military ministry as a model.

The machine gun was familiar to the Russian military and interested them. However, in 1916 it was more difficult to circumvent Danish law than during the Russo-Japanese War. As a result, it was decided to build in Russia the production of Danish machine guns under the Russian cartridge with a design capacity of 600-800 machine guns per month. As a result, in August 1916, the construction of the First Russian Joint-Stock Company of Gun and Machine Gun Plant began in Kovrov, the Danes became the owners, and equipment and machine tools for the plant were sent directly from Copenhagen. Initially, Russian personnel were hired only for secondary posts, for the work of the "lowest ranks." In January 1917, the company received a license for the exclusive right to manufacture the "Madsen" three-line submachine gun with all accessories for the supply of the Russian army and the fleetboth during the war and in peacetime.

It was assumed that by February 1 1917, 3 of the main production buildings would be built in Kovrov, but these plans were unrealistic. Anticipating that the construction process of the main (large) building “A” would be delayed, in 1916, the decision was made to build a temporary (small) wooden building “B”. This building was built in the 2,5 month, and in November, 1916 began to place equipment in it, in total, more than 200 machines, workbenches and assembly sections. Two diesel generators of Swedish production were installed to drive the machines. A part of the equipment needed for the plant was purchased in the USA through the Russian Committee. The construction of building A was completed only in 1918.

The technical director of the company in Kovrov was the Dane lieutenant of 1 rank S. Brandt-Möller, the commercial director was Captain I. Jürgensen, positions of senior craftsmen, senior machinists, senior mechanics, etc. also occupied by the representatives of Denmark. By January, 1917, the Danish plant design bureau experts had completed their equipment deployment plans. It was an active set of workers. For example, in April 1917, the well-known gunsmith S. G. Simonov came to the curved workshop. The telegraph address of the new joint-stock company sounded then as “Mitramadsen”, that is, “Madrasen mitralesa”.

28 January 1917 of the Year GAU signed a contract with the First Russian Joint-Stock Company of the Gun and Machine Gun Plants to issue 15 thousands of Madsen P.1916 light machine guns with the start of the supply of weapons in 1918 and the end of February 1919. The price of one machine gun with a set of spare parts and necessary accessories, as well as with capping was 1733 ruble 30 kopecks, and part of the plant equipment cost (in the amount of 220 rubles 80 kopecks) was included in the cost of the entire batch of machine guns 25 999 500 rubles. The company was paid an advance in the amount of 10 399 800 rubles (40% of the total order value), paid in installments. The representative of the State Agrarian University to the new plant under construction was appointed Captain G. A. Aparin, senior technician of the Tula Arms Plant. It was assumed that, having completed an order for 15 of thousands of light machine guns, the Kovrov plant would have to be transferred to the military department free of charge.

The Madsen P.1916 rifle had a number of differences compared with the model of the 1902 model of the year: the machine gun was made chambered for the 1908 model of the year with a pointed bullet; at the muzzle of the barrel increased strength of parts, inside the casing is a guide sleeve; a machine gun sector sight was notched from 200 to 3 200 steps (2 272 meter) with a step 200 steps; the perforation of the casing was changed, and in the butt thickening there was a back support in the form of a pin with a screw regulating coupling.

In May, the 1917 of the year at the plant in Kovrov brought to mind the machine guns of the pilot batch. In July, the assembly of the pilot batch was completed, the 12 of August 1917 of the year began the transfer to the military of the first 4's machine-guns, equipped with spare barrels. Although the acceptance tests of the Madsen Kovrov machine guns were unsuccessful, a start was made. At the same time, at that time, the production itself bore all the features of artisanal. For example, the tool shop at the plant in Kovrov was not created, since they counted on the supply of tools and patterns from Denmark. Finally, by December 1917 had completed the preparation of the drawings here and started to inject two serial batches - in the 50 and 300 new machine guns. The order for Madsen light machine guns was important, but at that time was no longer the main thing. At the same time, the Russian Defense Ministry was initially interested not so much in the 15 000 Madsen assembly (also with the delivery in 1918-1919 years), as in the opportunity to get a new Russian well-equipped weapons factory.

At the same time, the revolution and the civil war that began after it put the plant on the brink of disaster. The plant management actually collapsed, financial and economic activities were launched, all plans for the production of thousands of Madsen machine guns could be forgotten. As a result, the present establishment of the enterprise is connected with the activities of an outstanding Russian scientist and designer, inventor of the first automatic machine in the world, V. G. Fedorov (1874-1966, worked in Kovrov from 1918 to 1931 year) and his closest pupil and assistant, an outstanding designer gunsmith V.A. Degtyarev (1880-1949, worked in Kovrov from 1918 to 1949 a year). Both were sent to Kovrov by the Main Artillery Directorate at the beginning of 1918, at the most critical moment when it was about shutting down production and closing the plant, and the Danish administration of the company was engaged in outright sabotage. Fedorov and Degtyarev managed to save the enterprise and set up production of domestic small arms at the plant. In 1919, the plant was nationalized, and already in 1921, Fedorov organized here the first in the USSR design bureau for the development of automatic small arms.

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  1. +5
    6 September 2016 09: 23
    Fedorov and Degtyarev managed to save the enterprise

    In fact, it was Fedorov who saved the plant, he was the head there at first. It was then that Voroshilov began to supervise Degtyarev and bring him to the forefront, and Fedorov had to be hidden in his dacha in the Moscow region so that "well-wishers" would not roll denunciations on him and the entire design team would go there to consult him.
  2. +3
    6 September 2016 09: 39
    A good start to the cycle. We look forward to continuing.
    1. avt
      6 September 2016 09: 51
      A good start to the cycle. We look forward to continuing.
      Yes . good A good excursion to the anniversary, timely.
  3. 0
    6 September 2016 09: 55
    Who knows, Cord is supplied to the troops? I don’t look - some Kazakh NSV stick out, even on promising equipment.
    1. +4
      6 September 2016 19: 22
      The NSV in the USSR was adopted in 1971 and was produced until 1991. In 20 years, a fair number of machine guns were issued to both the troops and the mob. reserve, i.e. to the warehouses, so why dispose of a good new weapon? it’s not housekeeping, cords will replace the NSW as the latter are consumed. By the way, he is not Kazakh, but Tula, the authors are Nikitin, falcons, wolves.
      1. 0
        23 September 2016 03: 24
        The NSW was made in Kazakhstan and all the technical documentation remained there. Because of this and also due to serious design flaws, it was decided to develop another machine gun which later was called KORD. There is no one who is going to sell it, for example, to Egypt.
  4. 0
    6 September 2016 10: 05
    Great article, thanks to the author. It’s always good to know how it all began
    1. +1
      6 September 2016 13: 32
      Fedorov was an outstanding person.
      Now these are not appreciated. They appreciate it for such garbage that you can’t say it, but I’m silent.

      And to understand what V.G. did Fedorov - should anyone who is interested in the history of domestic weapons.
      1. 0
        6 September 2016 17: 44
        Quote: alex71
        Fedorov was an outstanding person.

        I would like to penetrate and understand what was the "outstanding" Fedorov? Do not enlighten?
        Quote: alex71
        And to understand what V.G. did Fedorov - should anyone who is interested in the history of domestic weapons.

        Exactly. I would like to understand. And how much I was not interested in this topic, I did not understand. Those. I heard a lot about "cool Fedorov" in Runet. And I did not understand the reasons for the steepness. What secret Vanderwafle could you have made, which is still widely unknown to anyone?
        And his "ideological projects", as far as I know, finally went bankrupt before WW2. Those. the king was in fact naked. Or not naked?
        1. Cat
          6 September 2016 21: 33
          One example.
          Cartridge with a shortened sleeve of caliber 6.5 mm. for automatic weapons. Year of creation - 1913. Only after 60 years, the USA and the USSR are adopting cartridges with a reduced impulse of 5.56 and 5.45 mm.
          1. 0
            6 September 2016 22: 29
            Quote: Kotischa
            One example.
            Cartridge with a shortened sleeve of caliber 6.5 mm. for automatic weapons. Year of creation - 1913. Only after 60 years, the USA and the USSR are adopting cartridges with a reduced impulse of 5.56 and 5.45 mm.

            They are simple. You need to learn. Long, hard and persistent.
            Low-impulse cartridges in 5,45 and 5,56 mm calibers DO NOT HAVE ANYTHING IN COMMON with Fedorov's crafts. His products, they are the generation of the Japanese cartridge 6,5x51SR Arisaka and the Italian cartridge 6,5x52 Carcano. These were the last "adherents" of this caliber on a national scale. Both of these cartridges were declared unpromising even before WW2, and the weapons on them were discontinued. In Japan. In Italy, before WW2, they did not have time to rearm, so the weapon was discontinued in 1943, with the surrender of Italy.
            Fedorov also tried to push his UG on the cartridge of Arisak into production in the USSR. But even the Bolsheviks gave him a knee in the ass.
  5. 0
    6 September 2016 17: 39
    Quote: Yuferev Sergey
    associated with the activities of an outstanding domestic scientist and designer, inventor of the world's first automaton, V. G. Fedorov

    Is it possible to clarify what this "outstanding scientist" studied and what this "outstanding designer" constructed?
    "The world's first Fedorov assault rifle"? Are you sure that he was the first in the world?
    And then, a submachine gun, it's like an army weapon. And nothing that "the world's first Fedorov assault rifle" did not fit the army categorically? And even the illiterate Bolsheviks sent him to hell.
    And this I have not touched upon the story of the purchase of the incompetent Arisak from his submission.
    Quote: Yuferev Sergey
    Both were sent to Kovrov by the Main Artillery Directorate in early 1918

    Which in 1918. could there be GAU? At the beginning of January 1918 a Bolshevik revolution took place in Russia. And no GAU after that could already be. Even theoretically. Although some funny little men in strange suits could call themselves that.
    Quote: Yuferev Sergey
    and the Danish administration of the company was engaged in outright sabotage

    Didn't follow the instructions of the putschists called "Bolsheviks"? Ay-ay-ay, how bad they are. Was she supposed to do it?
    Quote: Yuferev Sergey
    Fedorov and Degtyarev managed to save the enterprise

    I imagine that "salvation" process.
    Quote: Yuferev Sergey
    In 1919, the plant was nationalized.

    Those. was stolen by the Bolsheviks. Nothing Bolsheviks get used to. They then took everything from everyone in the country. And whoever resisted was not lucky most of all.
    1. +2
      6 September 2016 21: 21
      And why were the cons canceled? After all, it’s a classic case - it seems that the rules have not been violated, the moderator has nothing to complain about, and it’s impossible to appreciate the work of the editorial staff;
      1. 0
        6 September 2016 21: 24
        Quote: MooH
        And why were the cons canceled?

        Can you at least somehow answer the questions posed? Or go dirty here?

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