Blocking the path of the enemy. Mine spreaders and barriers. Part three
After the Second World War, NATO also began work on the development of mine-barriers in NATO armies. Currently, NATO mainly uses minelayers to set up anti-tank mines. They are of two types - trailed and self-propelled. The first make up the majority, although recently there has been a reverse trend, but for remote mining systems.
The main work of minelayers is the installation of mines on the ground surface and in the ground itself (snow) with a change in the mining step, which allows you to set a predetermined barrier density. Mainly anti-tank and anti-tracked mines are used in mining.
One of the first NATO countries to adopt a plow-type trailer barriers was United Kingdom. In 1969, in the army, there is a barrier, designed to install PTM L9А1.
The haul is towed by an armored troop-carrier or a vehicle carrying ammunition - 144 mines on an armored troop-carrier or 500 mines on an 5-titon vehicle. From the tractor, mines are fed to the minelayer by two crew members. The working body of the plow type tears off a narrow (12 cm) furrow. Mines are fed to him from the body by a belt conveyor. The furrow is masked by a double disc leveling device.
The number of crew 3 person. Projecter productivity - 600 – 700 min per hour.
The second country to adopt this type of barrier was steel USA. In 1972, the American engineering forces receive a minelayer M57, which is towed by an 5-ton truck. In the back of the truck is the ammunition of 380 anti-tank mines МХNUMX, packed in special cassettes. Calculation of the 15 – 3 barrier
In 1977 was French engineers get a hawker F.1. The haul fence is intended for high-speed installation into the ground or on its surface of anti-tank anti-tank mines such as HPD. It is also possible to install mines in shallow water, at depths up to 1,2 m. The working body of the minelayer is adapted to a fragment on the ground of individual holes, where pre-loaded mines are automatically delivered. In this case, the top layer of the turf is not damaged, the mine is placed under the sod, which is then rolled with a roller.
The mines on board the vehicle are contained in cassettes of 112 pcs. - total ammunition 476 min. For holes, the machine makes short stops, all elements of the cycle (braking, stopping, acceleration) are carried out automatically, in accordance with the specified mining step.
In the middle of 1980's. there is a modification of it for the mining of advanced mines HPD mod.F.2 and anti-tracked ASRM. This modification was also purchased by the Belgian military.
The crew of the minelayer - 2 people., Productivity - 400 min / h, working speed - 3,6 km / h.
Also in the 1980's. New armature EMP F2 is coming into service. The all-wheel drive two-axle all-terrain vehicle Matenin 4x4. Is used as the base vehicle, on which the equipment of mine spreader is mounted. The machine carries the 4 store for 112 mines in each - the total 448 min. Performance - 250 - 350 min / h to a depth of 35, see Mining step from 2 to 10.
All operations in the mining mode are carried out automatically. The machine itself stops at the right place, tears the hole, turns on the mechanism for bringing the mine into a firing position, drops the mine into the hole, falls asleep with soil and moves on. Calculation of minelayer 3 people. (calculation commander, driver-operator and sapper). The latter deals with installation control and additional masking of min.
Italian military engineers in 1979 receive the SY-TT spreader. It is intended for high-speed installation of mines on the surface of the earth. It is designed for towing tracked armored personnel carrier М113 or a high-performance truck. Refueling mines is contained in small cassettes carried by one person. Such a cassette can contain five SB 81 anti-tracked mines or anti-personnel anti-personnel SB 78 anti-track mines. General ammunition PTM SB 33 - 81 pcs., And PPM SB 340 - 33 pcs. The ratio between the installed mines of both types can be adjusted. The width of the strip mined in a single pass is 2652. Calculation of the layer 6 people.
At the end of 1970-ies. Swedes began work on their minelayer, which ended with the adoption of the landlord FFV in 1981. The minelayer is designed to place mines in the ground or on its surface. In the working position, the minelayer is towed by a three-axle cargo vehicle of a high-traffic VM 860 vehicle Volvo. In the course of mining, a calculation consisting of two or three people places mines on the receiving tray of the minelayer. From there, mines with a specified interval are issued to the plow working body, and then to the ground. The total mass of the minelayer is 1,2 tons, the calculation is 2 – 4 people, the working speed is 7 km / h, the mining step is 3,5 – 13 m, the types of mines are anti-tank type 6.
In 1989, this barrier was purchased by the armies of Germany and the Netherlands.
In 1985 Bundeswehr The MiV85 landlord arrives.
The MiV85 mini spreader is towed by a truck. The mining step is 5,0, 7,5 or 15 meters. Performance - up to 500 min to the ground or to 1000 min to the ground in 1 hours.
By design and capabilities, the German minelayer is very similar to the Soviet minelayer PMZ-4 and uses the traditional DM31 anti-tank anti-tank mines. Calculation trailer mine layer - 2 people.
Austrian The army in 2006 adopted a trailed minelayer AID 2000. It is intended for statement of mines by the mechanized hidden or open laying in PTM soil like PzMi75 (88). It is a single-axle trailer towed by an off-road vehicle, on which a control cabin, electronic detonator cocking systems and the mechanism for their placement into the ground are mounted. For security reasons, the time to transfer mines to combat status is set with a 12 minute delay.
The calculation of the minelayer is three people: the commander - enters the main parameters and controls the process of setting mines, the loader - gives mines from the car body to the conveyor and the driver.
Performance - 250 min / h (with an interval of 2), mining step - 1,5 – 12 m, laying depth min - from 5 to 30, see.
Similar to PMZ - 3 (4) hook-on shippers "SHIVA" were developed in India, Calcutta. However, there are no exact characteristics about them, except general information that they lay anti-tank mines on the ground and in the ground, are transported behind the tractor, designed on a two-wheeled trailer, the weight of the 1850 kg design.
In the former countries of the socialist camp similar machines developed in Poland and Czechoslovakia.
In 1980's Polish the military, together with the East Germans, began work on the minelayer, which in the early 90-ies. last century was adopted under the name "SUM". The chassis with the index SPG-1М was developed and produced in Poland, and the mine unit in the GDR. After the unification of the GDR and the Federal Republic of Germany, the Germans handed over the complete documentation to Poland, the OBRUM company in Gliwice, where 1989 produced the first machine and began testing. The barrier is similar to our GMZ – 3 and is intended for the installation of standard anti-tank mines in the ground and on its surface. It has a special track base with six track rollers on each side. In the aft part there is a plow tool body, which in the working position is supported on a pair of wheels with pneumatic tires. To load cassettes with mines, the minelayer is equipped with crane equipment with a load capacity of 2800 kg. Mines can also be loaded manually from containers that are on the truck.
The control compartment is located in the front part of the left in the direction of travel, where there are two crew members. There is also a television system, which allows you to monitor the progress of the installation of mines performed in automatic mode.
The laying of mines is carried out from the rear of the vehicle; mines are automatically fed into the system from two stores held in an armored superstructure; Each store can hold up to 125 anti-tank mines such as TM-62М or TM-62М Wierzba.
The mass of the minelayer is 32 t, the crew is 2 people, the installation speed of mines in the ground with masking is 6 – 10 km / h, without masking to 20 km / h, to water to a depth of 90 cm, to 6 km / h, the mining step is 4 – 12 m (with an interval through 2 m), min types - TM - 62М and TM - 62П.
В Czech Republic and Slovakia There were joint work on the mine explorer MV-90. It is made on the standard chassis in the armies of the Czech Republic and Slovakia BMP BVP-1 with the tower removed. In the office for the landing racks are located for anti-tank mines PT Mi-U and PT Mi-Ba-3. In the filling there is up to 100 min (it is provided for the separate or joint installation of both models). The machine is equipped with a tray, mounted on the threshold of the right door compartment for the landing, which remains open when mining. Mines are manually fed to the tray, in which they sink to the ground. The operating speed of the 3-7 spreader km / h. The crew consists of three people: the commander, driver and miner. The mine spreader in 1995 was tested. But whether he was adopted, is unknown.
In 2006 in Ukraine made an attempt to upgrade GMZ – 3. The work was carried out at the National Defense Academy. There was even a patent for an invention. But how it all ended is unknown. Below is a few paragraphs from the inventory to the patent (in translation).
“The disadvantage of the crawler mine layer device is the impossibility to ensure a uniform distance in the working position relative to the ground when the barber moves across rough terrain due to the rigid attachment of the device to the body in the working position, and the inability to follow the terrain under the conveyor. As a result, the accuracy and reliability of the installation of mines ...
The idea of a mine layer, which has a conveyor attached to the body that can be rotated in a vertical plane, is that it additionally contains a tracking unit for the terrain, a fixation unit and a latch ... (here it is necessary to clarify that when min installation, i.e., when raising the trigger conveyor at an angle 15 degrees above the horizontal axis of the barrier, the delivery of the min.
The essence of this model is illustrated by drawings.
GMZ structurally contains (Fig. 1) 1 self-propelled body, 2 conveyor, 3 locking mechanism, 4 relief tracking unit, 5 fixation unit and 6 locking mechanism.
The 2 conveyor is fixed on the body with the possibility of rotation in the vertical plane. The 5 fixation unit is located on the terrain tracking unit ... The 2 transporter and the 4 relief tracking unit are mounted using the 7 and 8 axes, respectively. The haullayer works as follows ...
To transfer the barrier to the working position ... turn the block tracking the terrain on the axis 8 to position B (Fig. 2). The 2 conveyor is fixed from the 1 body with the help of the 3 detent and allowed to rotate on the 7 axis (position D). In this case, the 2 conveyor is brought into contact with the ground surface using the contact element 11. When moving, the contact element 11 moves in a vertical plane, following the terrain, ... resulting in the distance from the 13 mine to the surface of the soil remains unchanged, which ensures the accuracy and reliability of placing mines on the surface of the soil. "
Such is the upgrade option.
Today, the concept of the wars themselves, and the mine fight in particular, have changed. Therefore, some military experts believe that the time of this machine has already passed, and do not predict long-term world-wide wars in the foreseeable future using a large number of tanks. A number of experts generally question the feasibility of the existence of the tanks themselves, since anti-tank weapons have evolved so that the tank cannot survive on the battlefield.
GMZ were created just to counter the massive tank attacks. Today, according to Western experts, for the usual planned creation of anti-tank minefields, when time is not limited, it is enough to manually set mines. It is not by chance that in Europe and in the USA they do not even try to create anything similar to the GMO.
But the design idea does not stand still, so work is continuing on the creation of new minelayers, in which they are trying to remove the shortcomings of the systems of the GMM type. Most of them are remote mining systems. Below we give one of the patents for such barriers.
The authors of the patent: Korzh Vera Pavlovna, Eremeev Gennady Dmitrievich, Tashkov Andrey Viktorovich, etc.
Minelayer (RU 2339897):
F41H7 / 10 - minefield setting machines
Patent owners: the Russian Federation, on behalf of which the state customer acts - the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation (RU). Federal State Unitary Enterprise Design Bureau of Transport Engineering (FSUE KBTM) (RU).
The invention relates to land mobile systems for remote mining and is intended to set minefields by remote mining. The transport and launch containers are placed on the platform turntables in three longitudinal rows with the possibility of controlled rotation ... Each container is equipped with an actuating hydraulic cylinder installed with the possibility of a stepless change in the angle of inclination of the container body vertically to provide a specified angle of throwing min. The mine control system includes a control unit for the position of transport-launch containers made with the possibility of generating a control signal and transmitting it to the actuators for the exhibition of transport-launch containers along the horizon and throwing angle when a barrier mine field is formed in the coordinates specified from the control panel. The invention provides an increase in the transported mine ammunition, the possibility of forming minefields with an expanded number of lanes, including the stern of the minelayer, as well as increasing the level of protection of the ammunition.
The invention relates to products of defense equipment, in particular, to land mobile systems for remote mining, and is intended for installation of anti-tank, anti-personnel or mixed type of minefields by remote mining.
The “Universal Mine Barrier” is known (see RF Patent No. 2185590, from 28.01.2000, cl. MKI 7 F41H 7 / 10), which contains a tracked base vehicle with a mine compartment, equipped with armor protection, a roof with drop doors and a frame made in the form of a rotor mounted for rotation and kinematically connected with the chassis of the base machine. Base plates with cassette modules fixed on them are placed on the rotor. The mining control system is equipped with mining and fire control panels, master and distribution blocks and rotating contact devices.
The disadvantage of the “Universal mine layer” is that the mining is carried out with a constant throwing angle, and therefore at the same distance. In addition, the throwing is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the haul to the left and to the right in the absence of the possibility of changing the direction of throwing horizontally.
Known German system for installing mines "SKORPION", adopted for the present invention as a prototype for most essential features.
The system is designed for setting minefields and is particularly suitable for quickly closing passages in minefields, covering the flanks and blocking the movement areas of its troops when there is a threat of enemy tanks entering them. The system includes a base machine made on a tracked chassis, a launcher and six rotary platforms mounted in two rows with transport-launch canisters loaded on them with mines. Each turntable with a transport and starting container is equipped with a drive and can occupy three fixed positions on the inclined platform of the chassis.
The SKORPION minelayer can be used to install a single-strip minefield located to the right or left of the minelayer created by the corresponding (right or left) row of transport and launch containers (from the two existing rows) or a two-strip minefield located to the right and left of the minelayer any of the three distances from it (in accordance with the selected fixed position of transport and launch containers).
This layer has disadvantages that reduce the effectiveness of its use, which include a limited number of containers located in two rows, carried ammunition mines, and the inability to form other than the above-described types of minefields.
The present invention is the creation of mine layer with increased efficiency of application.
The task is solved by the fact that the transport-launch containers are placed on the supporting-rotating devices of the platform in three longitudinal rows with the possibility of controlled rotation, with the possibility of a stepless change in the angle of inclination of the container body vertically to provide a given angle of throwing min,
The mine layer platform is equipped with rear and side boards ensuring a high level of protection of transport and launch containers against kinetic weapons.
The mine control system will be empowered to:
- formation of a single-strip barrage minefield, on the right, left or stern of the barber;
- formation of a two-lane barrage minefield with a symmetric or asymmetrical arrangement of the lanes relative to the longitudinal axis of the barrier;
- formation of a two-lane barrage minefield with the location of one lane behind the barber's stern, and the second lane on the right or left relative to the longitudinal axis of the barber;
- the formation of a three-lane barrage minefield with the location of one lane behind the slayer of the barrier and the other two bands with their symmetrical or asymmetrical arrangement of the right and left relative to the longitudinal axis of the grouser.
The analysis of the main distinguishing features showed that:
- the possibility of placing the turntables in three longitudinal rows and, consequently, transport-launch containers provided for the transport of ammunition in an amount exceeding the capabilities of the prototype;
- providing the possibility of controlled rotation of the pivot bearing system associated with a fixed support, symmetrically located relative to the initial position of the travel sensors installed with the ability to interact with the pivot of the rotary support and transmitting a signal to the control unit of the position of the rotary supports allows you to automate the installation of mines for the formation of a minefield with the required parameters;
- implementation of a mine control system using navigation equipment that provides information display on the screen of a personal electronic computer (PC) in real time allows the commander to determine his location and the starting point of mining;
- memorizing a PC and broadcasting information about the coordinates of the minefield, the location of the minelayer and the coordinates of characteristic points of change in the direction of his movement when mining, allows the commanders of military units to navigate the minefield map and make tactical decisions in a combat situation;
- platform equipment with rear and side boards provides additional protection of transport and launch containers against kinetic weapons;
- installation of the transport and launch container on the rotary support with the possibility of lifting with the help of an actuating hydraulic cylinder provides an infinitely variable angle of throwing during mining, and hence the range of throwing mines;
- empowering the mine control system with the ability to form a one-, two-, and three-strip barrage minefield with the location of lanes in various combinations and at different distances from the mine layer significantly complicates the enemy in reconnaissance and mine clearance.
Mine side view
The minelayer (FIG. 1) contains a self-propelled 1 tracked chassis with an 2 case, in which the 3 engine, the 4 transmission and the 5 compartment are located. Behind the habitable compartment there is a 6 cargo platform with 7 transport and launch containers for placing and throwing anti-tank or anti-personnel mines in cassettes. On the 6 cargo platform there are three longitudinal rows of 8 turntables, each of which contains transport and launch containers 7. Each 8 turntable contains a fixed 9 support connected, for example, with 10 bolting to the 6 platform, a 11 swivel support equipped with an 12 swivel actuator with a hydraulic motor (GM), and an 13 platform that serves to secure the transport-starting container, which serves to secure the transport-starting container, which serves to secure the transport-starting container, the 7 rotating platform, which serves to secure the transport-starting container, which serves to fix the transport-starting container.
The 11 pivot bearing is mounted on a fixed 9 support through a bearing unit with controlled rotation, the ability of which is provided by the 15-21 track sensor system installed on the 9 fixed support with the ability to interact with the 22 pivot bearing, the 23 roller, which rotates the support, interacting with the shaft 24 of any of the 15-21 sensors, generates and transmits a signal to the control unit of the rotational supports position of the 7 transport-launch containers of the staging control system 25 min
The minelayer is made with fixed turning angles β of the rotary support horizontally determined by the position of the traveling sensors, while the 15 sensor determines the initial position of the rotary support, and the other sensors are symmetrically located relative to the initial position at the angles β1-β3, respectively equal to ± 22,5 °, ± 45 ° and ± 90 °.
Each transport and launch container 7 is mounted on a rotary support 11 with the possibility of lifting with the help of an executive hydraulic cylinder 26 for a stepless change in the angle α of throwing mines, which provides a different distance Y from the minelayer to the place where the mined mine was dropped.
The minelayer is equipped with a software and hardware complex, which includes three main structural elements, including:
- the equipment of internal communication, switching and control, which includes: a voice communication radio station with a communication unit, a unit that commits for communication between the commander and the gunner;
- external communication and information processing equipment, including navigation equipment, PC with its software and information conversion unit;
- a mine control system, which includes a control panel, a firing control unit, a power unit and a control unit for positioning transport-launch canisters, configured to generate a control signal and transmit it to actuators for the exhibition of transport-launch containers along the horizon and throwing angle when the formation of a protective minefield in the coordinates indicated on the control panel.
Before installing the minefield, the commander turns on the navigation equipment, while on the PC screen displays information about the location of the barrier, then sets the minefield parameters, including the start and end of the field, throwing distance from the barrier, and the strip location relative to the minelayer , their mutual location, the density of mines (mining step) in the strip and the time of self-destruction. The control unit of the system processes the task and issues commands to the actuating mechanisms for turning the transport and launch containers across the horizon and installing them at the corresponding throwing angles using the actuating hydraulic cylinder.
Depending on the turn of transport - launch containers can be installed:
- single-sided barrier field - the car moves forward, launch containers look strictly backwards, or are turned to the right (left);
- two-lane barrier field - launch containers of the respective sides are rotated to the right and left, when installed back and to the right, some of the containers shoot mines back, and some to the right of the grouper. Similarly, the field is set to the left and back;
- a three-lane barrier field - the car moves forward, the containers of the right and left sides turn to the required angle, respectively, to the left and to the right. The containers of the middle row rise back to working position. The shooting of mines from containers is carried out simultaneously.
Thus, the present invention solved the task of creating a mine layer with increased efficiency of application.
As we see, the development of mine layers continues and does not stand still.
In conclusion, a couple of photos with barriers.
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Photo from the personal archive of the author
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