Machine gun "Vikkers" - inverted "Maxim"

33
“Everything will be as we want.
In case of misfortune,
We have a machine gun "Maxim",
They have no Maxim "
(Hilary Belloc "New Traveler")


Two materials published in a row about machine guns of the first and second world wars aroused great interest in the IN audience. Someone even said that it is better, they say, "maxim" no. And is it possible to argue here, when after the battle of Omdurman they calculated the approximate number of killed dervishes, and it turned out that from 20000, at least 15000 were killed by fire from "maxims". Naturally, the British, and after them, the armies of other countries immediately began to take this machine gun into service. And here it is interesting, as it were, as national approaches to this new arms embodied in the metal and as a result of this happened. And, for the time being we will take only Europe, because in America the machine-gun business was somewhat different from the European one.




Machine gun "Vikkers" Mk I, during the First World War. Museum of horse and field artillery. Australia.

Here it should be noted that the only country where the “maxim” was able to really improve and improve its performance characteristics was, again, Great Britain. So in the British armed forces the main heavy machine gun was the Vickers Mk I. The classic machine gun, which can still be found in the most remote corners of the globe. "Vickers", in essence, was the same machine gun "Maxim", produced for the British army earlier. But he had some differences. For example, the engineers of the company Vikkers reduced its weight. Having examined the "Maxim", they found that some of its parts have an unreasonably large weight. In addition, they decided to turn the lever mechanism so that it opens up, not down. Due to this, it was possible to significantly reduce the weight of the shutter. Well, the reloading system remained “maximovskaya” - reliable and durable, it was based on the recoil principle of the trunk. The middle hinge bar, in the straightened state, locked the barrel at the moment of the shot. However, when fired into the muzzle device, part of the gases was retracted, pushing back the barrel, which was engaged with the bolt. She pushed him back and the sleeve, and the joint movement of the barrel and bolt back continued until the rear shoulder of the hinge plate hit the shaped ledge on the box and did not fold up. Then the bolt disengaged with the barrel, and then went the usual cycle: removing and removing the liner, cocking and reloading.

Machine gun "Vikkers" - inverted "Maxim"

"Maxim" of the British army, who participated in Italy under Omdurman.


Marking tripod machine gun "Vikkers" Mk I.

The weight of the Vickers machine gun Mk I reached 18 kg without water. It was usually mounted on a tripod weighing 22 kg. Like on the machine for the Hotchkiss machine gun, the vertical positioning of the machine gun was carried out by a screw mechanism. Aim devices allowed to conduct indirect fire and shoot at night. The 7,7-mm cartridges were fed from a cloth tape on 250 cartridges.


Mk 7 - .303 inch 7.7-mm standard cartridge of the British army during the Second World War. The cartridge has a border - a welt and this is his dignity and disadvantage. Rant chucks are less sensitive to machine calibration, they can also be produced on second-rate equipment. But they require more non-ferrous metal. They also create problems for the shop weapons. Shops for them have to bend so that they do not cling to the edges. But for tape-powered machine guns, this is the perfect ammo.

The machine gun could shoot at a speed of 450 – 500 shots per minute until it was poured into the casing. Continuous fire was often practiced during the first period of the war, although streams of steam that were knocked out of the casing unmasked the position. The casing contained four liters of water, which boiled after three minutes of firing at a speed of 200 rds / min. The problem was solved by using a condenser where the steam was drained, which turned into water there, and the water was returned back to the casing.


Side view of the Vickers machine gun Mk I.


Machine guns were produced with both smooth and ribbed casing. The vapor tube and the condenser tank are clearly visible.

At the beginning of the war, machine guns were distributed in two copies per infantry battalion. However, the need for this weapon was so great that special machine-gun troops were formed to satisfy it.


The emblem of the British machine-gun troops.

These were well-trained units able to quickly eliminate delays in shooting, which were attached to infantry battalions. Another useful skill of machine-gun soldiers was the ability to quickly replace the barrel. After all, even with a constant gravy of water, the barrel had to be changed every 10 000 shots. And since in the battle such a number of shots were sometimes made in an hour, a quick change of the trunk became vital. A trained calculation could replace the barrel in two minutes, almost without water loss.


The back of the Vickers machine gun.


Cocking handle.

The presence of its own troops, trained crews and servants also caused growing tactical requirements for the use of machine guns in a positional war. It is not surprising that the Vickers machine gun was then regarded as a model of light artillery. This view can be illustrated by the role of heavy machine guns in World War I, in an operation carried out by an 100 machine-gun company in the Battle of High Wood during the Somme battle in the summer of 1916. On August 24, it was decided that the infantry attack would be supported by the 10 machine-gun fire of the 100 machine-gun company, covertly housed in the trenches. Two infantry companies gave their ammunition to the machine-gunners. And during the attack, the 100 fighters of the company were shooting continuously for 12 hours! Naturally, the fire was carried out with carefully positioned positions on the adjusted terrain. The trunks changed every hour. The first and second numbers of the calculations were replaced at short intervals, so that the company could conduct continuous hurricane fire to support infantry attacks and prevent German counterattacks. On that day, 12 machine guns of the 10 machine gun company spent about one million rounds for the 100 hours of battle!


The machine gun tape recorder was bronze ...


... as well as many details of his tripod, considered one of the best in its class.

Russia, which fought on the side of the Allies, also had its own modification of the Maxim machine gun, which received the official name “Maxim machine gun of the 1910 type of the year”. It was similar to the 1905 model machine gun of the year, only distinguished by the presence of a steel rather than a bronze casing. Heavy and expensive machine gun Maxim arr. 1910, nevertheless, was an excellent weapon suitable for the Russian requirements for simplicity and reliability. This fact confirms that the Maxim machine gun in Russia was produced before 1943, it is a kind of record for the production of Maxim machine guns. The machine gun weighed 23,8 kg, and it is interesting to compare it with the Vickers 18 kg. The Russian machine gun was mounted on a small wheel machine, which together with the shield weighed 45,2 kg. The caliber of the machine gun was 7,62 mm, the supply of cartridges was also carried out from a cloth tape and also on 250 cartridges. The rate of fire was 520 - 600 shots per minute, that is, higher than the Vickers machine gun. The fact that the lever mechanism in the Russian Maxim machine gun was not changed explains the increased size of the receiver below the level of the barrel.


"Vikkers" with an improved muzzle.

To ensure the efficiency of the automation it was necessary to ensure reliable recoil of the barrel. For this purpose, the British screwed on the muzzle of the cup, which, together with the barrel was inside a spherical muzzle. When firing, the gases coming out of the barrel with force gave into this cup, which increased the recoil of the barrel. The spring of the bolt (in the photo it is removed from the box), as well as on the “maxim”, is on the left. For confident firing, the force of its tension should be regularly measured and, according to a special table, loosen, then, on the contrary, pull it up. For example, if it was planned to shoot at planes, the spring had to be tightened, and if it was necessary to fire from top to bottom, then somewhat loosen. It also depended on the season!


View of the machine gun on the right. On the trunk of a heat-insulating cover that protects the calculation from burns.

The German machine gun model 1908 of the Year (MG08) was also a Maxim machine gun. As in the Russian version, it used the mechanism without any changes, as a result the receiver was high. The machine gun was produced under the standard German caliber 7,92-mm, the supply of cartridges was carried out from the tape on the 250 cartridges. The rate of 300 — 450 per minute shots was lowered, as the Germans believed that it was not the speed of shooting and massive fire that was important, but accuracy and efficiency.


German MG08.

Such an approach made it possible to alleviate problems with ammunition and changing the barrel. The machine gun was known under the name "Spandau" by the name of the plant where it was produced. The weight of the machine gun reached 62 kg with machine-tripod and spare parts. The Germans installed a machine gun on a sled machine to increase mobility. German machine-gunners were selected very carefully, the command, taking into account the events of the end of 1914, believed that the machine gun had become the sovereign of the battlefield. The machine-gunners were distinguished by an excellent level of training and skillful skills, which is confirmed by the losses of the French and the British in the battles of Chem-de-Dame, Lohse, Niu Chapelle and in Champagne.


Details of the standard cup muzzle.


Muzzle on the end of the barrel.

All of these machine guns: Vickers, MG08 and Maxim's machine gun of the 1910 model of the year were created on the basis of a single design. However, the Vickers machine gun had an initial 744 bullet speed m / s with a barrel length of 0,721 m. The German bullet speed was 820 m / s with a barrel length of 0,72 m., But our machine gun had a 720 m / s with a barrel of 0,719 m. Austro The Hungarian Schwarzlose machine gun, which had already been discussed at the VO, worked satisfactorily, but the 0,52 barrel M was too short for the 8-mm cartridge. As a result, the Schwarzlose machine gun was often identified by a powerful flash of a muzzle flame when fired. The power supply was carried out from the tape on 250 cartridges, the initial speed of the bullet was small - 620 m / s. 400 rate of fire per minute.


Vickers, used during the Second World War.


Calculation machine gun "Vikkers" in the Libyan desert.


... And a set of figures for bonding, made from this photo!

As for the "Vikkers", this machine gun is still in service in some countries of the world. For its time, it was a good and reliable weapon, capable of shooting for hours and conducting indirect fire. The French of that time rightfully enjoyed the fame of avid creators of all kinds of modifications. Puto, Sant'Etienne and Benet-Mercier machine guns appeared as varieties of the Hotchkiss machine gun. Only all of them were unsuccessful copies, mainly due to unreasonable changes in the design. Hotchkiss's best machine gun was the “Model 1914”, in which all the improvements of previous models were used to create a really successful machine gun with a relatively small weight.


Machine gun Perino 1901

Now Italy somehow does not seem to us a "great machine-gun power." But at the dawn of their creation it was in Italy that one of the most brilliant examples of all time appeared - the Perino 1901 machine gun of the year. The Italians were very pleased with the new machine gun, but preferred to keep its creation secret for a long time. The purchase of a large batch of Maxim's machine guns, in order to only conceal the fact of having a new weapon, shows what kind of mystery the Italian machine gun was surrounded by. In this machine gun with air or water cooling, an original power supply system was made using 25 holders each, which were fed in turn from the cartridge box installed on the left, and on the right came out packed in the same holder! Since the cartridges in such a power supply system were aligned, there were practically no delays in their supply. Any delay was quickly eliminated by pressing the button that removed the problematic cartridge. The weapon also demonstrated many other remarkable qualities, but the Italians lingered on its production, which forced them to use Maxim's machine guns and Revelli's 6,5-mm machine guns, a mediocre weapon whose work was carried out by recoil of the barrel and a semi-free gate. The shutter, of course, could be called locking, but it would be said loudly.


Device machine gun Perino.


Machine gun Perino, altered under the tape power.

At that time there were other samples of machine guns. But the types of weapons described above dominated the battlefields of the First World War. It was a grand fight, in which, during positional battles, the superiority of this type of weapon was finally proved, which led to the characteristic methods of warfare.


Vickers and Schwarzlose (in the background).
Our news channels

Subscribe and stay up to date with the latest news and the most important events of the day.

33 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. PKK
    +6
    7 September 2016 15: 25
    Good article, you read. The news about 12 hours of continuous shooting, you read like fiction.
    1. +4
      7 September 2016 16: 56
      The news about 12 hours of continuous shooting, read like fiction.

      hmm, I did not find this in the text.

      And during the attack soldiers of the 100 company fired continuously for 12 hours!
      ...
      That day in 12 hours of battle 10 machine gunin the 100-th machine gun company


      Ie this company shot continuously and not all machine guns, which is quite real
      1. Alf
        +1
        7 September 2016 21: 10
        And during the attack, fighters of the 100th company shot continuously for 12 hours!

        What is this getting? What did the company attack 12 hours in a row without a break? And did not suffer losses? And can you find out how many people were in that company? Probably thousands of 50, no less? And at what operational depth did the company attack if its ONLY attack lasted 12 hours?
        1. +1
          7 September 2016 21: 49
          Nothing was written about the losses from Chris Shant. Probably, if it was to be assumed, then the Germans attacked first, and the British shot back. Then vice versa. And it all lasted 12 hours. What is so surprising or unbelievable? Unclear...
        2. +3
          7 September 2016 23: 04
          100 Company defended itself

          My great-grandfather in WWI was a machine gunner, rewarded according to various sources with 3 or 4 Georges. Unfortunately, they were not preserved as well as the information for which he was awarded, long ago all who could tell something specific died ...
          They sometimes remember their great-grandfather, but less often than in Soviet times - the "trend" now is not the same as in the Great Patriotic War.
        3. +1
          7 September 2016 23: 12
          Quote: Alf
          What is this getting? What did the company attack 12 hours in a row without a break? And did not suffer losses? And can you find out how many people were in that company? Probably thousands of 50, no less? And at what operational depth did the company attack if its ONLY attack lasted 12 hours?

          and you didn’t try to read, well, when do letters form words? ...

          On 4 of August it was decided that the infantry attack would be supported by the fire of 10 machine guns of the 100 machine gun company,
          ...
          so that the company can conduct continuous hurricane fire for infantry attack support and preventing German counterattacks
        4. +6
          8 September 2016 09: 18
          You have trouble understanding the text.
          The machine gun company supported the attack of a large
          the number of soldiers (not companies) within 12 hours.
    2. +1
      8 September 2016 16: 42
      Enough to pour from empty to empty !!!
      I offer the editors to exhaust the issue:
      "For 12 hours, the machine gunners of the 100th company supported the attacks of their infantry and repulsed the attacks of the enemy."
  2. cap
    +4
    7 September 2016 16: 11
    Not a biased, objective article. I read it with pleasure. A lot of interesting facts.
    Author ++.
    1. +4
      7 September 2016 19: 48
      And great photos to the text ..., there is something to see.
  3. 0
    7 September 2016 16: 21
    Thank. Interesting stuff.
  4. 0
    7 September 2016 16: 46
    Previously, I did not pay attention that the steam outlet is at the bottom. Somehow "wrong". I had to figure it out.
    1. 0
      7 September 2016 16: 59
      And on top it is inconvenient to screw the outlet pipe!
      1. +2
        7 September 2016 18: 42
        Quote: kalibr
        And on top it is inconvenient to screw the outlet pipe!

        In WWII, with the exception of bunkers and deserts, tubes were hardly used (hard). In some forums it was indicated that a steam jet could unmask a firing point and interfere with aiming.
        Simply, from the point of view of the technician, steam had to squeeze out water from a casing. recourse
        1. +1
          7 September 2016 19: 12
          Quote: igordok
          Simply, from the point of view of the technician, steam had to squeeze out water from a casing.

          Perhaps there were still channels inside the casing that diverted steam from the upper part of the casing to the lower flange, the author was too clever about circulation, it was not clear how to carry it out, or two pipes with check valves were needed. In my engineering opinion, they simply removed the steam from the barrel and the shooter, well, it was possible to stupidly bury an expansion tank with holes in the sand in order not to unmask the point.
          1. +2
            7 September 2016 21: 31
            Quote: Corsair
            Perhaps there were still channels inside the casing that diverted steam from the upper part of the casing to the lower flange, the author was too smart about the circulation, it was not clear how to carry it out, or two pipes with check valves were needed.


            On the tube there is a clutch covering one of the channels, depending on the inclination of the barrel.
  5. +4
    7 September 2016 20: 28
    Machine gunners were distinguished by an excellent level of training and skillful skills ...

    negative
    What are you doing with the Russian language ....
    1. +1
      7 September 2016 20: 36
      So how should it be? Teach ... "Mighty great, Russian language!"
      1. +1
        8 September 2016 04: 59
        So how should it be? Teach ... "Mighty great, Russian language!"
        It should be like T.V. Akhmetova, in her books about "Great and Mighty". Truth can be banned. This is a joke. A serious question now? Vyacheslav Olegovich you will continue the series of articles about the Maxim machine gun. Indeed, on its basis, both in Russia and in other countries, machine guns for various purposes were created: from manual to aviation.
        1. +2
          8 September 2016 10: 05
          What are you! "You will continue ..." I will, but what to do, especially since the chic maxim stands right at my university in the museum of the main building. Today I just forgot my camera ...
  6. +2
    8 September 2016 02: 07
    Interesting article! It seems to be about a well-known and well-known weapon, but from the article I learned information that was not known to me before: about the specific differences between the Vickers and the basic maxim; that different "brothers" of the "maxim" had different rate of fire. The information about the Perino machine gun is very interesting: I "heard" about machine-gun systems for feeding cartridges into the chamber (bunker, rifle clips), but there was something wrong with 25-round clips remember!
    1. +2
      8 September 2016 04: 44
      http://army-news.ru/2016/01/sistema-lentochnogo-p
      itaniya-dlya-strelkovogo-oruzhiya / This is a link to a post.
      I "heard" about machine-gun systems for feeding cartridges into the chamber (bunker, rifle clips), but I don’t remember about 25-round clips!

      Hotchkiss power supply system
      1. +2
        8 September 2016 06: 10
        Exactly !!! How could I forget ??? It seems that the first time I saw such a machine gun, famously "absorbing" "hard tapes-cassettes" (a phrase from the "weapon" article ...) in the movie "Golden Bullet" ... I think that in this film it was "demonstrated" " Hotchkiss, "although he might have called names differently in the film.
        1. +1
          8 September 2016 10: 07
          That's right, you were not mistaken!
  7. +6
    8 September 2016 09: 15
    About Max many tales.
    When engineer Hiram Maxim refused the American government
    to buy his invention, he tried to "push" him to Europe.
    At a demonstration to the Austrian emperor, he is on the big shield of one
    knocked out a long line of monogram - imperial initials.
    The emperor was astounded and said that he could not buy a miracle weapon.
    "Why?" "Our factories will never be able to produce that many cartridges."
    1. +2
      8 September 2016 09: 57
      And the gun with his revolver in his homeland could not sell it.
    2. +1
      8 September 2016 10: 11
      About Max many tales.
      When engineer Hiram Maxim refused the American government
      to buy his invention, he tried to "push" him to Europe.

      And the gun with his revolver in his homeland could not sell it.

      I’ll say a banality, but it’s true. "There is no prophet in his own country." This applies not only to weapons, but also to many other inventions, the installation of a steam tube on ships. No matter how much Parsons argued until he showed off his Turbinia during the Royal Parade on Spithead Raid.
  8. 0
    8 September 2016 10: 58
    Great article, read in one breath, like a good story. Thank you so much and look forward to further articles.
  9. 0
    8 September 2016 16: 28
    I have some inconsistencies in my head that I hope someone explains to me.
    The German machine gun of the 1908 model (MG08) was also a Maxim machine gun. As in the Russian version, it used a mechanism without any changes, as a result, the receiver was high. The machine gun was produced under the standard German caliber of 7,92 mm, the supply of cartridges was carried out from a belt of 250 rounds.

    Standard Maxim and Vickers used a flanged rifle cartridge and a two-tier feed system. That is, the cartridge is removed from the tape, and then lowered to the level of the barrel and sent. (the same principle applies to PCs).
    The German main rifle cartridge 7,92 * 57 is, on the contrary, flangeless, which has always been considered a very big advantage for automatic weapons, but not in this case. So why the article says that the Germans did not redo it - they had to fundamentally change the design of the extractor and feeder.
    In theory, if they used a flanged cartridge, they had to simply re-barrel it and remake the "cup" of the bolt to a different diameter - and that's it.
    The Perino machine gun, which is mentioned in the article on the contrary, had to use a system with "direct insertion" of the cartridge into the barrel as in MG34. In theory, this is a completely different system of work.
  10. 0
    8 September 2016 18: 25
    Thanks to the author as well as forever!
    Even if not quite in the subject: much later, somewhere in the 30s, the Britons adopted the Vickers 0,50, and I also remember (read in the monograph by K. Bishop), there was a "dehydrated" "Vickers ", with slots along the top of the casing - that is, in fact, with air cooling (pliz, forgiv mi - I can't find evidence now ... recourse ).
    From SW. hi
  11. +1
    8 September 2016 23: 13
    hmm body 18kg - machine 22kg-total-40kg, 'this is without our armored shield !!! that is, this miracle had to be carried by at least 4 people !! and our expensive and heavy Maxim-2 + 1 ammunition carrier! so ours could pull even 1-2 fighters, the wheels allowed (barbarians, what can you take from them !! wink ) MDA and the German gloomy genius just pinned !!!! wink EUROPE EPT !!!! wassat us before them ,, well tries ,, better WE are on our own !!! wink
  12. 0
    9 September 2016 21: 44
    I read it with pleasure. Thank you for the article!
  13. 0
    12 September 2016 11: 13
    Quote: datur
    hmm body 18kg - machine 22kg-total-40kg, 'this is without our armored shield !!! that is, this miracle had to be carried by at least 4 people !!

    Something is wrong with arithmetic. Or do you seriously think that a soldier cannot lift more than 10 kg? request

    Quote: datur
    and our dear and heavy Maxim-2 + 1 ammunition carrier!

    Our version of Maxim until 1910, incl. used in the RVE, weighed about 250 kg with a machine tool.
    Our version of Maxim from 1910 weighed: the body of a machine gun without water - 23,8 kg, after the modernization of 1930 20 kg.
    Almost 6 kg heavier than Vickers, and even after modernization it is noticeably heavier.
    Sokolov’s machine WITHOUT a machine gun - 45,2 kg, after the modernization of 1930 43kg.
    Plus, water is 4-5 kg, totaling up to 73-74 kg - one and a half times (or more precisely, 1,66 times) is heavier than the Vickers machine gun with a machine tool and water (up to 45 kg).

    Quote: datur
    the wheels allowed

    And the weight of the Vickers kit allowed to do without wheels wink

"Right Sector" (banned in Russia), "Ukrainian Insurgent Army" (UPA) (banned in Russia), ISIS (banned in Russia), "Jabhat Fatah al-Sham" formerly "Jabhat al-Nusra" (banned in Russia) , Taliban (banned in Russia), Al-Qaeda (banned in Russia), Anti-Corruption Foundation (banned in Russia), Navalny Headquarters (banned in Russia), Facebook (banned in Russia), Instagram (banned in Russia), Meta (banned in Russia), Misanthropic Division (banned in Russia), Azov (banned in Russia), Muslim Brotherhood (banned in Russia), Aum Shinrikyo (banned in Russia), AUE (banned in Russia), UNA-UNSO (banned in Russia), Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People (banned in Russia), Legion “Freedom of Russia” (armed formation, recognized as terrorist in the Russian Federation and banned)

“Non-profit organizations, unregistered public associations or individuals performing the functions of a foreign agent,” as well as media outlets performing the functions of a foreign agent: “Medusa”; "Voice of America"; "Realities"; "Present time"; "Radio Freedom"; Ponomarev Lev; Ponomarev Ilya; Savitskaya; Markelov; Kamalyagin; Apakhonchich; Makarevich; Dud; Gordon; Zhdanov; Medvedev; Fedorov; Mikhail Kasyanov; "Owl"; "Alliance of Doctors"; "RKK" "Levada Center"; "Memorial"; "Voice"; "Person and law"; "Rain"; "Mediazone"; "Deutsche Welle"; QMS "Caucasian Knot"; "Insider"; "New Newspaper"