1 September 1939, Germany attacked Poland. 3 September England and France declared war on the Third Reich. In Europe, the Second World War began. Although, for example, for China, a big war began in the 1937 year, when Japan attacked the Middle Kingdom.
The Second World War involved in its orbit 1,7 billion people, fighting was conducted in the territories of Asia, Europe, Africa, in the vast Atlantic, Arctic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The war lasted a total of 6 years. The 61 state was drawn into it. More than 110 million people were called into the ranks of the armed forces of various countries, even more people served the rear, and in one way or another were involved in the war. In the armed struggle involved huge masses of modern technology and weapons - hundreds of thousands of aircraft, tanks, ships, guns and mortars. The war claimed tens of millions of lives and destroyed vast masses of cultural and material values. World War II became the most destructive of all the wars that it knows story.
The Munich Agreement, which, in fact, destroyed the sovereignty of Czechoslovakia, according to the plans of London and Paris, was to direct the Reich aggression to the East, against the USSR. Chamberlain believed that he would be able to incite Hitler, who was a famous anti-Soviet, against the USSR. In this way, the policy of the great Western powers was aimed at unleashing a big war, and the main contradictions of the capitalist world were planned to be resolved by plundering the territory of the Soviet (Russian) civilization, as well as peripheral countriesand the new redistribution of Asia.
Poland in these plans was to become either an ally of Hitler in the "crusade" to the East (it was hoped for in Warsaw) or fall and strengthen the military-economic and demographic potential of the "Eternal Reich" - the "European Union" led by Hitler Germany.
The Polish "elite" hoped to take part in the war with the USSR in alliance with Germany (all its main military plans were based on the conflict with the USSR-Russia). "Polish hyena" took part in the section of Czechoslovakia, after living at its expense. In the East, mining should have been much larger. The Polish elite still raved about plans for “Greater Poland from sea to sea (from the Baltic to the Black Sea). After the collapse of the Russian Empire, Western Russian lands (Western Ukraine and Western Belorussia) were few to the Poles. Warsaw was ruined by greed. The Polish elite did not want to make some concessions to Berlin, such as a transport corridor to East Prussia (after World War I, the territory of Germany was divided by Polish territory). The Poles did not want to become a "junior partner" of the Reich. They were ruined by arrogance and pride. Moreover, when the inevitability of war with Germany had already become apparent, they proudly refused the military assistance offered by the Union. For example, on April 18, 1939, a counselor at the Polish embassy in London, told T. Kordt, Chargé d’affaires of Germany in England, that Poland, along with Romania, “constantly refuse to accept any offer of Soviet Russia for assistance. Germany can be confident that Poland will never allow any soldier of Soviet Russia to enter its territory, whether they are soldiers of the ground forces or air forces. ” In Warsaw, they believed in the strength of their large army and did not admit that their strong army, with which they were preparing to oppose the USSR on an equal footing, would be defeated as soon as possible. In addition, in Warsaw, they believed in the help of "partners".
Already in the autumn of 1938, Berlin caused the Danzig crisis. In order to put pressure on Poland, an unbridled anti-Polish information campaign was launched under the slogan "Danzig must be German." 24 November 1938, the German military and political leadership developed a plan to capture Danzig. In March, 1939, Berlin again demanded that Warsaw pass Danzig to Germany. In the same month, Republican Spain fell, German troops occupied the whole of Czechoslovakia and captured Klaipeda (Memel).
It became obvious that Hitler was not behaving as he had expected in Paris and London. He turned out to be a more rational figure than they had thought and at first, before going to the East, he decided to put Europe under control. 31 March London declared that it "guarantees" the independence of Poland and then extended this commitment to Greece, Romania and Turkey. A similar statement was made by Paris. True, as history has shown, the real owners of France and Britain were not going to fight for Poland. On the one hand, the British and French assured Poland and other states in Europe that they would be of assistance in the event of German aggression, on the other hand they conducted secret negotiations with Berlin to conclude agreements that were anti-Soviet and violated the independence of third countries.
It is not surprising that Hitler, who was strategically far-sighted than his generals, who were terribly afraid of conflicting with the leading countries of the West, knowing the weakness of the Reich military machine and writing plans for eliminating the Führer one after another, considered the "guarantees" of England and France as a political bluff, an empty threat. So it happened. The masters of the West eventually surrendered not only Czechoslovakia and Poland to Hitler, but even France!
Therefore, Hitler ordered to speed up military preparations for the attack on Poland. On April 3, 1939, the chief of staff of the Supreme Command of the Wehrmacht (OKW), Keitel, was sent by the commander of the ground forces, air force and naval fleet A preliminary version of the plan of war with Poland, code-named "Weiss" ("White Plan"). They were ordered to study it and submit on May 1, 1939 their views on the use of the armed forces in the war with Poland. The deadline for the attack on Poland was also indicated - September 1, 1939. On April 28, Berlin terminated the Polish-German non-aggression pact and the Anglo-German maritime agreement.
Under these conditions, Moscow proposed that Britain and France create an anti-German alliance and expose powerful forces to curb German aggression. The Red Army troops should have had the opportunity to pass through the territories of Poland and Romania in order to render them real assistance, since the USSR did not have a direct border with Germany. However, Poland opposed this, still hoping that Germany was attacking the USSR bypassing Polish territory and Warsaw under these conditions would be able to get certain benefits from its position. Warsaw openly declared that it would not accept military assistance from the USSR. Thus, the Polish "elite" itself doomed the country to a military-political catastrophe.
It is clear that in the prevailing military-political conditions, when Britain and France did not want to join forces with the USSR to stop the aggressor, and clearly wanted to set Hitler against the Union, and Poland refused to accept Soviet aid, Moscow decided to gain time to prepare for war, improve its military-strategic position on the western frontiers and went to the pact with Berlin. Hitler, so as not to be between the two fires, gladly concluded this agreement.
By 11 on April, 1939 of the OKV was developed and approved by Hitler's “Directive on the uniform training of the Armed Forces for the war on 1939-1940.” The main part of the directive is the plan of war with Poland. The White Plan was based on the idea of a “blitzkrieg”. The implementation of this plan was supposed to be carried out by sudden coordinated strikes of all branches of the armed forces. The ground forces were supposed to surround and destroy the main forces of the Polish army with rapid, deep strikes. The decisive role in achieving this goal was assigned to armored forces and the Air Force. A concentric strike from the south and south-west - from Moravia, Silesia and north-west and north - from Pomerania, East Prussia was supposed to defeat the main forces of the Polish army west of the Vistula and Narev rivers. The German fleet from the sea supported the army’s operations by blocking bases and destroying the Polish Navy.
As early as April 1939, the Supreme Command of the Wehrmacht, the headquarters of the ground, air force and naval forces began to develop operational plans. Were created "working staffs" - the future headquarters of the army groups "South" and "North". In Berlin, they understood that the defeat of Poland was only a step in the struggle for world domination, and not the decisive goal of Germany. 23 May 1939 at a military meeting, Hitler said: “Danzig is not the object for which everything is being done. For us it is about expanding the living space in the East and providing food, as well as solving the Baltic problem. ” The captured Polish territory was to become the main strategic base for striking the Soviet Union, the conquest of which was crucial for the creation of the Eternal Reich. The goal was to destroy the Soviet state and the Soviet project, to vastly expand at the expense of the Russian land of the German “living space” and create a base for the creation of the world German empire, as the dominant force on the planet.
The Polish people were planning to enslave the country's economic resources to put in the service of the Third Reich. Also, the war with Poland was a preparatory stage in the struggle for leadership in Europe with France and England. France, as the "historical opponent" of the German people, was subject to defeat and enslavement. With the Anglo-Saxon elite, after the victory in Europe, Berlin hoped to “come to terms”.
On the threshold of the war with Poland, Germany improved its strategic military positions. The capture of Czechoslovakia and the Memel region by the Germans sharply worsened the strategic position of Poland. Its territory was clamped in ticks from the north and south. In addition, the seizure of Czechoslovakia greatly strengthened the military and economic potential of Germany. The Wehrmacht captured more Czech equipment and weapons. Germany has at its disposal the developed industry of Czechoslovakia, including the military-industrial complex. Poland’s southern border was threatened.
The main calculation of Hitler was in the passivity of England and France. And he was justified. Therefore, to cover the western border of Germany, they allocated only a minimum of forces and means. On the western border of the Reich, the entire 32 division, which was part of Army Group C, was deployed. Of these, only 12 divisions were fully equipped, and the rest were much inferior to them in combat capabilities. Armored formations on the western border of Germany were not, Army Group "C" supported 800 aircraft. Siegfried line was just built. That is, Germany did not have a strong defensive position in the West.
As a result, the German grouping in the West could be kept only in a positional war, and when there was no active combat activity. France, which had the strongest army in Western Europe, and England could easily defeat these troops and put Berlin on the brink of a military-political catastrophe and dictate any terms of a truce. Only France had 78 divisions on the eastern border, about 2 thousands of tanks and 3 thousands of aircraft, and in the first days of the war could seriously strengthen its grouping on the border with Germany. However, London and Paris preferred to give Poland to be torn apart by Hitler.
Thus, Poland, due to the erroneous policies, stupidity and arrogance of its “elite”, as well as the strategic course of the West’s masters, on the persecution of Germany and Russia was doomed to disgraceful military defeat, liquidation of statehood and years of occupation, genocide and plunder of Polish resources.